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Full text of "The history of Jasper county, Missouri : including a condensed history of the state, a complete history of Carthage and Joplin, other towns and townships : together with numerous portraits of prominent men : cuts of elegant residences and public buildings : a sectional map of the county : biographical sketches of many enterprising farmers, merchants, mechanics, professional, and business men : the Constitution of the state : an abstract of laws : an elaborate history of Jasper County - its topography, natural history, pioneers, organization, political history, courts and bar, religious, educational, medical, agricultural, mining, and horticultural, its commercial and business interests, etc"

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2011 with funding from 
Brigham Young University 



http://www.archive.org/details/historyofjaspercOOdesm 






THE 



History of Jasper County, 



MISSOURI. 



INCLUDING A CONDENSED HISTORY OP THE STATE, A COMPLETE 



HISTORY OF CARTHAGE AND JOPLIN. 



OTHER TOWNS AND TOWNSHIPS. 



2STJMEE0US PORTEAITS OF PROMINENT MEN; CUTS OF ELEGANT RESIDENCES AND 
PUBLIC BUILDINGS; A SECTIONAL MAP OF THE COUNTY; BIOGRAPHICAL 
SKETCHES OF MANY ENTERPRISING FARMERS, MERCHANTS, MECHAN- 
ICS, PROFESSIONAL, AND BUSINESS MEN; THE CONSTITUTION OF 
THE STATE; AN ABSTRACT OF LAWS; AN ELABORATE HIS- 
TORY OF JASPER COUNTY — ITS TOPOGRAPHY; NATU- 
RAL HISTORY; PIONEERS; ORGANIZATION; POLIT- 
ICAL history; COURTS AND BAR; RELIGIOUS, 
EDUCATIONAL, MEDICAL, AGRICULTURAL, 
MINING AND HORTICULTURAL; ITS 
COMMERCIAL AND BUSINESS 
INTERESTS, ETC. 



IIjXjTJSTia^TEID- 



DES MOINES, IOWA: 

MILLS & COMPANY. 

1883. 




PROVO, UTAH 



nmARY 

IxNlVERSlTY 



PREFACE. 



It is with pleasure, after more than a year from the inception 
of the enterprise, with much labor and expense, we are now 
enabled to present the History of Jasper County to the public. 
Chronicling the most important events in the history of the 
most important county in the state, the third in population and 
wealth, for a period of time embracing a half century, no one ex- 
pects a work of such magnitude could be completed and issued 
without the expenditure of much time, labor, and money. 
The material comprising this volume is in nearly all respects new, 
never before having been collected in any form. No pains or out- 
lay have been spared to make it worthy of so noble a county 
and state, and it will assuredly be a welcome guest in the intelli- 
gent families of Jasper county; and although its value is material 
and immediate, yet posterity will more highly prize this book 
and rely upon it as the basis of all Jasper county's subsequent 
history. 

Jasper county with its exhaustless resources of mineral and 
agricultural wealth; with its beautiful and flourishing cities of 
Carthage and Joplin ; with its thriving towns of Webb City, Carter- 
ville, Sarcoxie, and others; with its delightful climate; its 
sparkling streams of pure spring water; its enchanting land- 
scape scenery and marvelously productive soil; its intelligent 
and enterprising citizens from the better class of the older states; 
and its railroads running in every direction, together with all 
the other advantages and blessings which a smiling Providence 
can bestow, render this pre-eminently the banner county of the 
Southwest. Carthage, the "Queen City," the county seat, " beauti- 
ful for situation," is the pride, not alone of Jasper county, but 
the whole region. Its favored inhabitants enjoy all the advanta- 
ges and luxuries of a metropolitan city, daily newspapers, tele- 
graph and telephone, macadamized streets, water and gas brought 
to every door, railroads, beautifal churches, massive school build- 
ings, elegant residences, palatial hotels, capacious and well stocked 



PREFACE. 



stores, banks, flouring-raills, manufactories, vineyards, orchards, 
nurseries and the inestimable value of educated, refined, and 
hospitable people- Joplin is favored like Carthage in all essentials 
that pertain to the happiness and prosperity of its people. 

The task of the historian has been performed conscientiously 
and well, free from partiality and prejudice, and with a view of 
recording such facts as will be most valuable. If it meets with 
the favor merited, a satisfaction more lasting than pecuniary re- 
ward will be accorded those who carried forward the enterprise. 
To a great extent the history is what the people have been pleased 
to make it. If the people had furnished less information there 
would have been less in the book, and if the information had 
been of a different character, its pages would also have reflected 
that fact. The style of composition has aimed at purity and 
precision, rather than periods and highly wrought figures. In 
some cases the same fact may appear more than once, and if a 
difference in details is observed, it should be remembered as bear- 
ing the authority of the one who furnished it. 

The mechanical work shows skill and finish, comparing 
favorably with the best in this and other states. The elegant 
colored sectional map, electrotype and lithograph views, the litho- 
graph and photo-engraved portraits, together with the general 
arrangement and typography, have each received that artistic 
touch which renders the work highly satisfactory to the publish- 
ers, and no doubt will meet the hearty approval of all patrons 
who are capable of judging. 

In the prospectus it was promised that the book should contain 
800 pages, but it has been found impossible to comprise the material 
in less than 1,065 pages; thus the volume has greatly exceeded the 
limits originally intended. The history of Carthage is complete 
in itself, comprising nine chapters, besides the biosfraphical 
sketches of all patrons who desired a representation within the 
work. It was written with great care and the proof-sheets 
were submitted to prominent and well informed citizens for cor- 
rection. The history of Joplin is also complete in itself and com- 
prises nine chapters besides the introduction and the chapter on 
mining. 

The history of the different townships has been collected and 



PREFACE. 



complied with great care and accuracy by those specially adapted 
to that laborious task, and although it may not be in all cases 
absolutely free from errors, it can be relied upon as substantially 
correct in facts, names, and dates. 

The biographical department is an important feature, and re- 
markably free from errors, when taking into consideration the 
numberless mistakes and incorrect statements often given by 
the subject of the sketch. Until comparatively of recent date only 
persons of national or world-wide renown were thought worthy 
a biographical notice, while the humblest walks furnished not a 
name for the pages of enduring history. These sketches will be 
of value not alone to the family and friends, but also to the 
community at large. 

Many difficulties were encountered in the early part of the 
undertaking. Not the least was the prejudice of the people 
against book and map enterprises of every description; partly 
occasioned by the fault of the people themselves, and partly by 
the swarms of canvassers, seeking to .inveigle the citizens into 
some worthless project, and take away their money without ren- 
dering any adequate equivalent or fulfilling their promises. Thus 
it was some stood aloof, remained inaccessible, not lending their 
aid and encouragement. The cost in time and money has been 
much greater than those accustomed to such work are apt at first 
to realize, but the publishers, perceiving the growing favor with 
which county histories are received all over the country, and being 
invited to come to Jasper county and undertake the work by several 
prominent citizens, among whom were E. W. Harper, E. P. Searle, 
E. O'Keefe, W. H. Kilgore, E. 0. Brown, A. F. Lewis, W. S. Bower, 
H. Hubbart, J. P. Hubbart, J. W. Burch, F. L. Burch, G. P. Cun- 
ningham, G. Blakeney, W. S. Tower, A. H. Caflfee, J. P. Betts, J. 
W. Young, S. B. Grriswold, J. A. Bodenhamer, A. W. St. John, W. 
H. Phelps, J. H. Taylor, H. P. Sloan, J. L. Bottenfield, N. 0. 
Mercer, J. G. Irwin, Thos. Buckbee, Jesse Rhoads, T. Regan and 
others, to whom samples of other county histories were submitted 
for examination, we determined to undertake the work, and it may 
be said without ostentation that every promise has been more than 
fulfilled, and the following pages comprise a work far superior to 
the samples furnished. If any person not a patron, through nar- 



PREFACE. 



row jealously or otherwise should expose his ignorance by volun- 
teering disfavor of this volume, doubtless he expected a promi- 
nent place herein without aiding the publishers in their work or 
even procuring a copy of the book. 

Among the many advocates of progress and enterprise in Jasper 
county the publishers desire to express their grateful acknowl- 
edgements to the following persons, and many others, for their 
numerous favors: A. F. Lewis, editor of the Carthage Banner and 
postmaster at Carthage; J. A. Bodenhamerand A. W. St. John edi- 
tors of the Carthage Press; S. D. Carpenter, editor of the Carthage 
Patriot; A. W. Carson editor of the Joplin Herald; Peter Schnur, 
editor of the Joplin News; H. P. Sloan; W. A. Sloan; Prof. D. Mat- 
thews, superintendent of Carthage Public Schools; E. P. Searle, 
real estate dealer; Edward C. Crow, attorney at law; J. C. Mason, 
attorney at law; F. S. Yager, attorney at law; Dr. L. I. Mathews; 
Thos. M. Garland, city clerk of Carthage; W. H. Kilgore, probate 
judge; J. N. Wilson, clerk of the county; E. O'Keefe, J. L. Moore; 
Chas. Pool; Rev. Ben. Deering; I. F. Garner; Rev. J. B. Hardwicke, 
D. D., pastor of the Baptist Church; Rev. 0. M. Stewart, pastor of 
the M. E. Church; Rev. W. S. Knight, pastor of the Presbyterian 
Church; Rev. E. S. Gould, pastor of the Congregational Church; 
Rev. E. H. Prosser, pastor of the M. E. Church (South); Elder N. 
M. Rogland, pastor of the Christian Church, Carthage; Rev. W. 
P. Clancy, pastor of the Congregational Church; Rev. Wm. 
McCormack, pastor of the Catholic Church; Elder T. E. 
Shepherd, pastor of the Christian Church, Joplin; the custodians 
of the county records, to the editors of the several newspapers 
and to many others, by whose liberal support and material aid 
the work has been carried forward to a successful completion, 
to all and singular much credit is due and many thanks are 
tendered by the publishers. 

F. A. XORTH, 

Editor and Manager. 



CONTENTS. 



HISTORY OF THE STATE OF MISSOURI. 

PAGB. 

Chapter I. Louisiana Purchase 9-13 

Chapter II. Descriptive and Geographical 13-18 

Chapter III. Geology of Missouri 18-23 

('hapter IV. Titles and Early Settlements 23-28 

Chapter V. Territorial Organization. 28-31 

Chapter VI. Admitted to the Onion 31-35 

Chapter VII. Missouri as a State 35-38 

Chapter VIII. Civil War in Missouri 39-46 

Chapter IX. Early Military Record 47-50 

Chapter X. Agricultural and Mineral Wealth 50-54 

Chapter XI. Education .55-61 

Chapter XII. Religous Denominations 62-65 

History op St. Louis 66-76 

Laws op Missouri 77-88 

Constitution of Missouri 89-130 

HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Chapter I. Introduction and Name 131-136 

Chapter II. Natural History 137-150 

Chapter III. Early Settlements and Pioneers 150-164 

Chapter IV. Organization 164-173 

Chapter V. Railroads 173-178 

Chapter VI. The Courts and Bar 178-192 

Chapter VII. The Medical Profession 192-196 

Chapter VIII. Political History 196-210 

Chapter IX. Religious History 210-221 

Chapter X. Early History of Carthage 221-237 

Chapter XL Annals of Carthage 237-253 

Chapter XII. Carthage City Government 253-258 

Chapter XIII. Churches of Carthage 258-282 

Chapter XIV. Educational 283-291 

Chapter XV. Carthage Public Enterprises 292-301 

Chapter XVI. Commercial and Business Interests 301-308 

Chapter XVIL Social Development 309-314 

Chapter XVIII. Carthage Business Directory 315-319 

Biographical Sketches 320-386 

Chapter XIX. Introduction to Joplin History 386-391 

Chapter XX. Early History op Joplin 391-398 

Chapter XXI. Joplin prom 1873 to 1883 399-409 

Chapter XXII. Joplin City Government 410-415 

Chapter XXIII. Joplin Churches 415-430 






8 INDEX. 

PAGE. 

Chapter XXIV. Joplin Educational Interests — 431-451 

Chapter XXV. Joplin Public Enterprises 452-462 

Chapter XXVI. Joplin Business Enterprises 462-485 

Chapter XXVII. Mining 485-492 

Chapter XXVIII. Social Development 493-499 

Chapter XXIX. Joplin Business Directory 499-503 

Biographical Sketches 503-604 

Chapter XXX, Joplin Township, Webb City, and Carterville 605-657 

Chapter XXXI. Sarcoxie Township 657-718 

Chapter XXXII. Union Township 718-755 

Chapter XXXIII. Jackson Township 756-777 

Chapter XXXIV. Marion Township and Carthage 778-795 

Chapter XXXV. Twin Grove Township 796-831 

Chapter XXXVI. Mineral Township 832-860 

Chapter XXXVII. Madison Township 861-895 

Chapter XXXVIII. McDonald Township 895-923 

Chapter XXXIX. Lincoln Township 923-954 

Chapter XL. Sheridan Township 955-982 

Chapter XLI. Preston Township 983-1017 

Chapter XLII. Duval Township .1018-1030 

Chapter XLIII. Jasper Township 1030-1051 

Chapter XLIV. Galena Township 1051-1065 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Capitol and Governor's Residence Front Natatorium of the Southwest Medical 

Map of Jasper county Front Institute 461 

State University, Columbia, Mo 17 Lone Elm M. & S. Co's Works 467 

An Indian Camp 25 Joplin Flouring Mills 477 

The Agricultural College 41 Portrait of Wm. Byers, Joplin 513 

State School of Mines 57 S. C. Henderson's Wholesale Grocery 

Portrait of D. C. McConey, Joplin 81 House 543 

Governor's residence in 1820 88 Business House of L. Riseling 577 

Portrait cf Wm. Reed 145 Potrait of Galen Spencer, Joplin 593 

Portrait of Dr. T. W. Horton, Avilla ... 193 Portrait of S. C. Price, Joplin 641 

Portrait of T. J. Stemmons, Avilla 225 Primitive Log Cabin in Sarcoxie Town- 
Carthage Public School Building 285 ship 661 

Carthage Cemetery 299 Residence of Wm. Reed 705 

Eagle Mills 305 Old Freedom Baptist Church 721 

Carthage Foundry and Machine Shop. . . 306 Primitive Harvesting 759 

Home Lumber Yard 307 Portrait of Dr. J. C. PeTit, Joplin 785 

Harrington Hotel 316 Farm Residence of 0. L. Walker 831 

Portrait of C. E. Elliott, Oronogo 337 Portrait of J. I. Hall, Lincoln Township 865 

Birds-eye View of Joplin 387 Baking Johnny Cake 897 

Portrait of Patrick Murphy, Joplin 401 Stock Barn of T. J. Stemmons 921 

Portrait of Geo. W. Howard, Carl Junction 433 Portrait of T. H. B. Bell, Lincoln Town- 

Joplin College of Physicians and Sur- ship 945 

geons 447 



mi 'if ,m^M 11111% iisiBM. 




10 fl. 



History of Missouri. 



CHAPTER I. 
LOUISIANA PURCHASB. 

BRIEF HISTORICAL SKETCH. 



The purchase of the vast territory, west of the Mississippi River, by the 
United States, extending through Oregon to the Pacific coast and south to the 
Dominions of Mexico, constitutes the most important event that ever occurred in 
the history of the nation. 

It gave to our Repubhc, additional room for that expansion and stupendous 
growth, to which it has since at'ained, in all that makes it strong and enduring, 
and forms the seat of an empire, from wh'^.h will radiate an influence for good 
unequaled in the annals of time. In 1763, one hundred and eighteen years ago, 
the immense region of country, known at that time as Louisiana, was ceded to 
Spain by France. By a secret article, in the treaty of St. Ildefonso, concluded in 
1800, Spain ceded it back to France. Napoleon, at that time, coveted the island 
of St. Domingo, not only because of the value of its products, but more especially 
because its location in the Gulf of Mexico would, in a military point of view, 
afford him a fine field, whence he could the more effectively guard his newly acquired 
possessions. Hence he desired this cession by Spain should be kept a profound 
secret until he succeeded in reducing St. Domingo to submission. In this under- 
taking, however, his hopes were blasted, and so great was his disappointment, that 
he apparently became indifferent to the advantages to be derived to France from 
his purchase of Louisiana. 

In 1803 he out Laussat as prefect of the colony, who gave the people of 

Louisiana the nai inclination that they had had, that they had once more become 
the subjects or France. Thiy was the occasion of great rejoicing among the inhabi- 
tants, who were Frenchmen in their origin, habits, manners and customs. 

Mr. Jefferson, then President of the United States, on being informed of the 
retrocession, immediately dispatched insti actions to Robert Livingston, tlie 
American Minister at Paris, to make known to Napoleon that tb :cupancy of 
New Orleans, by his government, would not only endanger the .idly relations 
existing between the two nations, but, perhaps, oblige the U^ 'States to make 
common cause with England, his bitterest and most r* enemy ; as the 

possession of the city by France, would give her commana of the Mississippi, 
which was the only outlet for the produce of the Western States, and give her also 



10 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

control of the Gulf of Mexico, so necessary to the protection of American 
commerce. Mr. Jefferson was so fully impressed with the idea that the occupancy 
of New Orleans, by France, would bring about a conflict of interests between the 
two nations, which would finally culminate in an open rupture, that he urged Mr. 
Livingston, to not only insist upon the free navigation of the Mississippi, but to 
negotiate for the purchase of the city and the surrounding country. 

The question of this negotiation was of so grave a character to the United 
States that the President appointed Mr. Monroe, with full power, to act in con- 
junction with Mr. Livingston. Ever equal to all emergencies, and prompt in the 
Cabinet, as well as in the field. Napoleon came to the conclusion that, as he 
could not well defend his occupancy of New Orleans, he would dispose of it, on 
the best terms possible. Before, however, taking final action in the matter, he 
summoned two of his Ministers, and addressed them as follows : 

** I am fully sensible of the value of Louisiana, and it was my wish to repair 
the error of the French diplomatists who abandoned it in 1 763. I have scarcely 
recovered it before I run the risk of losing it ; but if I am obliged to give it up, it 
shall hereafter cost more to those who force me to part with it, than to those to 
whom I shall yield it. The English have despoiled France of all her northern 
possessions in America, and now they covet those of the South. I am determined 
that they shall not have the Mississippi. Although Louisiana is but a trifle com- 
pared to their vast possessions in other parts of the globe, yet, judging from the 
vexation they have manifested on seeing it return to the power of France, I am 
certain that their first object wi be to gain possession of it. They will probably 
commence the war in that quarter. They have twenty vessels in the Gulf of 
Mexico, and our affairs in St. Domingo are daily getting worse since the death of 
LeClerc. The conquest of Louisiana might be easily made, and I have not a 
moment to lose in getting it out of their reach. I am not sure but that they 
have already begun an attack upon it. Such a measure would be in accordance 
with their habits; and in their place I should not wait. I am inclined, in order 
to deprive them of all prospect of ever possessing it, to cede it to the United States. 
Indeed, I can hardly say that I cede it, for I do not yet possess it ; and if I wait 
but a short time my enemies may leave me nothing but an empty title to grant to 
the Repubhc I wish to conciliate. I consider the whole colony as lost, and I 
believe that in the hands of this rising power it will be more useful to the political 
and even commercial interests of France than if I should attempt to retain it. 
Let me have both your opinions on the subject." 

One of his Ministers approved of the contemplated cession, but the other 
opposed it. The matter was long and earnestly discussed by them, before the 
conference was ended. The next day. Napoleon sent for the Minister, who had 
agreed with him, and said to him: "The season for deliberation is over. I 
have determined to renounce Louisiana. I shall give up not only New Orleans, 
but the whole colony, without reservation. That I do not undervalue Louisiana, 
I have sufficiently proved, as the object of my first treaty with Spain was to 
recover it. But though I regret parting with it, I am convinced it would be folly 
to persist in trying to keep it. I commission you, therefore, to negotiate this affair 
with the envoys of the United States. Do not wait the arrival of Mr. Monroe, but 
go this very day and confer with Mr. Livingston. Remember, however, that I 
need "ample funds for carrying on the war, and I do not wish to commence it by 
levying new taxes. For the last century France and Spain have incurred great 
expense in the improvement of Louisiana, for which her trade has never indemnified 
them. Large sums have been advanced to different companies, which have never 
been returned to the treasury. It is fair that I should require repayment for these. 
Were I to regulate my demands by the importance of this territory to the United 
States, they would be unbounded; but, being obliged to part with it, I shall be 
moderate in my terms. Still, remember, I must have fifty millions of francs, and 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 11 

I will not consent to take less. I would rather make some desperate effort to 
preserve this fine country." 

That day the negotiations commenced. Mr. Monroe reached Paris on the 
i2th of April, and the two representatives of the United States, after holding a 
private interview, announced that they were ready to treat for the entire territory. 
On the 30th of April, 1803, eighteen days afterward, the treaty was signed, and on the 
2ist of October, of the same year, congress ratified the treaty. The United States 
were to pay $11,250,000, and her citizens to be compensated for some illegal cap- 
tures, to the amount of $3,750,000, making in the aggregate the sum of $15,000,- 
000, while it was agreed that the vessels and merchandise of France and Spain 
should be admitted into all the ports of Louisiana free of duty for twelve years. 
Bonaparte stipulated in favor of Louisiana, that it should be, as soon as possible, 
incorporated into the Union, and that its inhabitants should enjoy the same rights, 
privileges and immunities as other citizens of the United States, and the clause 
giving to them these benefits, was drawn up by Bonaparte, who presented it to the 
plenipotentiaries with these words: "Make it known to the people of Louisiana, 
that we regret to part with them ; that we have stipulated for all the advantages 
they could desire; and that France, in giving them up, has insured to them the 
greatest of all. They could never have prospered under any European govern- 
ment as they will when they become independent. But while they enjoy the priv- 
ileges of liberty let them remember that they are French, and preserve for their 
mother country that affection which a common origin inspires." 

Complete satisfaction was given to both parties in the terms of the treaty. 
Mr. Livingston said : "I consider that from this day the United States takes rank 
with the first powers of Europe, and now she has entirely escaped from the power 
of England," and Bonaparte expressed a similar sentiment when he said: " By 
this cession of territory I have secured the power of the United States, and given 
to England a maritime rival, who, at some future time, will humble her pride." 
These were prophetic words, for within a few years afterward the British met with 
a signal defeat, on the plains of the very territory of which the great Corsican 
had been speaking. 

From 1800, the date of the cession made by Spain, to 1803, when it was pur- 
chased by the United States, no change had been made by the French authorities 
in the jurisprudence of the Upper and Lower Louisiana, and during this period 
the Spanish laws remained in full force, as the laws of the entire provmce; a fact 
which is of interest to those who would understand the legal history and some of 
the present laws of Missouri. 

On December 20th, 1803, Gens. Wilkinson and Claiborne, who were jointly 
commissioned to take possession of the territory for the United States, arrived in 
the city of New Orleans at the head of the American forces. Laussat, who had 
taken possession but twenty days previously as the prefect of the colony, gave up 
his command, and the star-spangled banner supplanted the tri-colored flag of 
France. The agent of France, to take possession of Upper Louisiana from the 
Spanish authorities, was Amos Stoddard, captain of artillery in the United States 
service. He was placed in possession of St. Louis on the 9th of March, 1804, by 
Charles Dehault Delassus, the Spanish commandant, and on the following day he 
transferred it to the United States. The authority of the United States in Mis- 
souri dates from this day. 

From that moment the interests of the people of the Mississippi Valley be- 
came identified. They were troubled no more with the uncertainties of free navi- 
gation. The great river, along whose banks they had planted their towns and vil- 
lages, now afforded them a safe and easy outlet to the markets of the world. Un- 
der the protecting aegis of a government. Republican in form, and having free 
access to an almost boundless domain, embracing in its broad area the diversified 
climates of the globe, and possessing a soil unsurpassed for fertility, beauty of 



12 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

scenery and wealth of minerals, they had every incentive to push on their enter- 
prises and build up the land wherein their lot had been cast. 

In the purchase of Louisiana, it was known that a great empire had been se- 
cured as a heritage to the people of our country, for all time to come, but of its 
grandeur, its possibilities, its inexhaustible resources and the important relations it 
would sustain to the nation and the world were never dreamed of by even Mr. 
Jefferson and his adroit and accomplished diplomatists. 

The most ardent imagination never conceived of the progress, which 
would mark the history of the "Great West." The adventurous pioneer, who 
fifty years ago pitched his tent upon its broad prairies, or threaded the dark laby- 
rinths of its lonely forests, little thought, that a mighty tide of physical and in- 
tellectual strength, would so rapidly flow on in his footsteps, to populate, build 
up and enrich the domain which he had conquered. 

Year after year, civilization has advanced further and further, until at length 
the mountains, the plains, the hills and the valleys, and even the rocks and the 
caverns, resound with the noise and din of busy millions. 

*' I beheld the westward marches 
Of the unknown crowded Nations. 
All the land was full of people. 
Restless, struggling, toiling, striving, 
Speaking many tongues, yet feeling 
But one heart-beat in their bosoms. 
In the woodlands rang their axes, 
Smoked their towns in all the valleys; 
Over all the lakes and rivers 
Rushed their great canoes of thunder." 

In 1804, Congress, by an act, passed in April of the same year, divided 
Louisiana into two parts, the "Territory of Orleans," and the "District ol 
Louisiana," known as "Upper Louisiana." This district, included all that por- 
tion of the old province, north of " Hope Encampment," on the Lower Missis- 
sippi, and embraced the present State of Missouri, and all the western region of 
country to the Pacific Ocean, and all below the forty-ninth degree of north lati- 
tude not claimed by Spain. 

As a matter of convenience, on March 26th, 1804, Missouri was placed 
within the jurisdiction of the government of the Territory of Indiana, and its 
government put in motion, by Gen. William H. Harrison, then governor of 
Indiana. In this, he was assisted by Judges Grififin, Vanderberg and Davis, 
who established in St. Louis, what were called. Courts of Common Pleas. The 
District of Louisiana, was regularly organized into the Territory of Louisiana by 
Congress, March 3d, 1805, and President Jefferson, appointed Gen. James 
Wilkinson, Governor, and Frederick Bates, Secretary. The Legislature of the 
Territory, was formed by Governor Wilkinson and Judges R. J. Meigs, and John 
B. C. Lucas. In 1807, Governor Wilkinson was succeeded by Captain Meri- 
wether Lewis, who had become famous by reason of his having made the expe- 
dition with Clark. Governor Lewis committed suicide in 1809, and President 
Madison, appointed Gen. Benjamin Howard, of Lexington, Kentucky, to fill his 
place. Gen. Howard resigned October 25, 1810, to enter the war of 1812, 
and died in St. Louis, in 1814. Captain William Clark, of Lewis and Clark's 
expedition, was appointed Governor in 18 10, to succeed Gen. Howard, and 
remained in office, until the admission of the State into the Union. 

The portions of Missouri, which were settled, for the purposes of local 
government were divided into four districts. Cape Girardeau was the first, and 
embraced the territory, between Tywappity Bottom and Apple Creek. Ste. 
Genevieve, the second, embraced the territory from Apple Creek to the Meramec 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 13 

River. St. Louis, the third, embraced the territory between the Meramec and 
Missouri Rivers. St. Charles, the fourth, included the settled territory, between 
the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The total population of these districts at 
that time, was 8,670, including slaves. The population of the district of Louis- 
iana, when ceded to the United States was 10,120. 



CHAPTER IT. 

DESCRIPTIVE AND GEOGRAPHICAL. 

Name — Extent — Surface — Rivers — Timber — Climate — Prairies — Soils — Population by Counties, 

NAME. 

The name Missouri, is derived from the Indian tongue and signifies muddy. 

EXTENT. 

Missouri is bounded on the north by Iowa (from which it is separated for 
about thirty miles on the northeast, by the Des Moines River), and on the east 
by the Mississippi River, which divides it from Illinois, Kentucky and Tennessee, 
and on the west by the Indian Territory, and by the states of Kansas and Nebraska. 
The state lies (with the exception of a small projection between the St. Francis 
and the Mississippi Rivers, which extends to 36*), between 36° 30' and 40° 36' 
north latitude, and between 12° 2' and 18° 51' west longitude from Washington. 

The extreme width of the state east and west, is about 348 miles ; its width 
on its northern boundary, measured from its northeast corner along the Iowa 
line, to its intersection with the Des Moines River, is about 210 miles ; its width 
on its southern boundary is about 288 miles. Its average width is about 235 miles. 

The length of the state north and south, not including the narrow strip 
between the St. Francis and Mississippi Rivers, is about 282 miles. It is about 
450 miles from its extreme northwest corner to its southeast corner, and from the 
northeast corner to the southwest corner, it is about 230 miles. These limits 
embrace an area of 65,350 square miles, or 41,824,000 acres, being nearly as 
large as England, and the states of Vermont and New Hampshire. 

SURFACE. 

North of the Missouri, the state is level or undulating, while the portion 
south of that river (the larger portion of the state) exhibits a greater variety of 
surface. In the southeastern part is an extensive marsh, reaching beyond the 
state into Arkansas. The remainder of this portion between the Mississippi and 
Osage Rivers is rolling, and gradually rising into a hilly and mountainous district, 
forming the outskirts of the Ozark Mountains. 

Beyond the Osage River, at some distance, commences a vast expanse of 
prairie land which stretches away toward the Rocky Mountains. The ridges 
forming the Ozark chain extend in a northeast and southwest direction, separat- 
ing the waters that flow northeast into the Missouri from those that flow southeast 
into the Mississippi River. 

RIVERS. 

No state in the Union enjoys better facilities, for navigation than Missouri. 
By means of the Mississippi River, which stretches along her entire eastern 
boundary, she can hold commercial intercourse with the most northern territory 



14 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

and state in the Union ; with the whole valley of the Ohio ; with many of the 
Atlantic States, and with the Gulf of Mexico. 

"Ay, gather Europe's royal rivers all — 

The snow-swelled Neva, with an Empire's weight 

On her broad breast, she yet may overwhelm ; 

Dark Danube, hurrying, as by foe pursued. 

Through shaggy forests and by palace walls, 

To hide its terrors in a sea of gloom ; 

The castled Rhine, whose vine-crowned waters flow, 

The fount of fable and the source of song ; 

The rushing Rhone, in whose cerulean depths 

The loving sky seems wedded with the wave ; 

The yellow Tiber, chok'd with Roman spoils, 

A dying miser shrinking 'neath his gold ; 

The Seine, where fashion glasses the fairest forms ; 

And Thames that bears the riches of the world j 

Gather their waters in one ocean mass, ' • 

Our Mississippi rolling proudly on, 

Would sweep them from its path, or swallow up, 

Like Aaron's rod, these streams of fame and song." 

By the Missouri River she can extend her commerce to the Rocky Mountains, 
and receive in return the products which will come in the course of time, by its 
multitude of tributaries. 

The Missouri River coasts the northwest line of the State for about 250 miles, 
following its windings, and then flows through the State, a little south of east, to 
its junction with the Mississippi. The Missouri River receives a number of trib- 
utaries within the limits of the State, the principal of which are the Nodaway, 
Platte, Loutre and Chariton from the north, and the Blue, Sniabar, Grand, Osage 
and Gasconade from the south. The principal tributaries of the Mississippi within 
the State, are the Salt River, north, and the Maramec River south, of the Missouri. 

The St. Francis and White Rivers, with their branches, drain the southeastern 
part of the State, and pass into Arkansas. The Osage is navigable for steamboats 
for more than 275 miles. There are a vast number of smaller streams, such as 
creeks, branches and rivers, which water the State in all directions. 

Timber. — Not more towering in their sublimity were the cedars of ancient 
Lebanon, nor more precious in their utihty were the almung-trees of Ophir, than 
the native forests of Missouri. The river bottoms are covered with a luxuriant 
growth of oak, ash, elm, hickory, cottonwood, linn, white and black walnut, and 
in fact, all the varieties found in the Atlantic and Eastern States. In the more 
barren districts may be seen the white and pin oak, and in many places a dense 
growth of pine. The crab apple, papaw and persimmon are abundant, as also 
the hazel and pecan. 

Climate. — The climate of Missouri is, in general, pleasant and salubrious. 
Like that of North America, it is changeable, and subject to sudden and sometimes 
extreme changes of heat and cold; but it is decidedly milder, taking the whole 
year through, than that of the same latitudes east of the mountains. While the 
summers are not more oppressive than they are in the corresponding latitudes on 
and near the Atlantic coast, the winters are shorter, and very much milder, except 
during the month of February, which has many days of pleasant sunshine. 

Prairies. — Missouri is a prairie State, especially that portion of it north and 
northwest of the Missouri River. These prairies, along the water courses, abound 
with the thickest and most luxurious belts of timber, while the "rolling" prairies 
occupy the higher portions of the country, the descent generally to the forests or 
bottom lands being over only declivities. Many of these prairies, however, ex- 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 16 

hibit a gracefully waving surface, swelling and sinking with an easy slope, and a 
full, rounded outline, equally avoiding the unmeaning horizontal surface and the 
interruption of abrupt or angular elevations. 

These prairies often embrace extensive tracts of land, and in one or two in- 
stances they cover an area of fifty thousand acres. During the spring and summer 
they are carpeted with a velvet of green, and gaily bedecked with flowers of 
various forms and hues, making a most fascinating panorama of ever changing 
color and loveliness. To fully appreciate their great beauty and magnitude, they 
must be seen. 

Soil. — The soil of Missouri is good, and of great agricultural capabilities, but 
the most fertile portions of the State are the river bottoms, which are a rich allu- 
vium, mixed in many cases with sand, the producing quahties of which are not 
excelled by the prohfic valley of the famous Nile. 

South of the Missouri River there is a greater variety of soil, but much of it 
is fertile, and even in the mountains and mineral districts there are rich valleys, 
and about the sources of the White, Eleven Points, Current and Big Black Rivers, 
the soil, though unproductive, furnishes a valuable growth of yellow pine. 

The marshy lands in the southeastern part of the State will, by a system of 
drainage, be one of the most fertile districts in the State. 

POPULATION BY COUNTIES IN 1870, 1876, 1880. 

1870. 1876. 1880. 

Adair 11, 449 i3>774 15^190 

Andrew 15,137 i4,992 16,318 

Atchison 8,440 10,925 14,565 

Audrain . 12,307 15, ^57 i9,739 

Barry 10,373 11,146 14,424 

Barton 5,087 6,900 10,332 

Bates 15,960 17,484 25,382 

Benton 11,322 11,027 12,398 

Bollinger 8,162 8,884 11,132 

Boone 20,765 31,923 25,424 

Buchanan 35, 109 38,165 49,824 

Butler 4,298 4,363 6,011 

Caldwell 11,390 12,200 13.654 

Callaway 19,202 25,257 23,670 

Camden 6,108 7,027 7,269 

Cape Girardeau 17,558 17,891 20,998 

Carroll i7,440 21,498 23,300 

Carter 1,440 i,549 2,168 

Cass. 19,299 18,069 22,431 

Cedar 9,471 9,897 10,747 

Chariton 19,136 23,294 25,224 

Christian 6,707 7,936 9,632 

Clark 13,667 14,549 15,631 

Clay 15,564 15,320 15,579 

Clinton 14,063 13,698 16,073 

Cole 10,292 14,122 i5j5i9 

Cooper 20,692 21,356 21,622 

Crawford 7,982 9,39^ 10,763 

Dade 8,683 11,089 12,557 

lU'las 8,383 8,073 9,272 

I>aviess 14,410 16,557 19, ^74 

DeKalb 9,858 ii,i59 ^3,343 

Dent 6,357 7,401 10,647 



16 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



Douglas 3,915 

Dunklin 5,982 

Franklin 30,098 

Gasconade 10,093 

Gentry 11,607 

Greene 21,549 

Grundy 10,567 

Harrison 14.635 

Henry 17,401 

Hickory 6,452 

Holt 11,652 

Howard 17,233 

Howell 4,218 

Iron 6,278 

Jackson 55, 041 

Jasper . 14,928 

Jefferson 15,380 

Johnson 24,648 

Knox 10,974 

Laclede 9,380 

Lafayette 22,624 

Lawrence 13,067 

Lewis 15,114 

Lincoln 15,960 

Linn 15,906 

Livingston 16,730 

McDonald 5,226 

Macon 23,230 

Madison 5,849 

Maries '5,9 '6 

Marion 23,780 

Mercer ii,557 

Miller 6,616 

Mississippi 4,982 

Moniteau i3,375 

Monroe 17,149 

Montgomery 10,405 

Morgan 8,434 

New Madrid 6,357 

Newton 12,821 

Nodaway I4,75i 

Oregon 3,287 

Osage 10,793 

Ozark 3,363 

Pemiscot 2,059 

Perry. ^ 9,877 

Pettis 18,706 

Phelps 10,506 

Pike 23,076 

Platte 17,352 

Polk ._ 14,445 

Pulaski 4,714 

Putnam 11,217 

Ralls 10,510 

Randolph 15,908 



6,461 


7, 


753 


6,255 


9 


604 


26,924 


26, 


536 


11,160 


II, 


153 


12,673 


17, 


188 


24,693 


28, 


817 


13,071 


15 


201 


18,530 


20, 


318 


18,465 


23, 


914 


5,870 


7 


38S 


13,245 


15 


51" 


17,815 


18 


428 


6,756 


8, 


814 


6,623 


8 


123 


54,045 


82, 


328 


29,384 


32 


021 


16,186 


18 


736 


23,646 


28 


177 


12,678 


13 


047 


9,845 


II 


524 


22,204 


25 


761 


13,054 


17 


585 


16,360 


15 


925 


16,858 


17 


443 


18,110 


20 


,016 


18,074 


20 


205 


6,072 


7 


816 


25,028 


26 


223 


8,750 


8 


,866 


6,481 


7 


,304 


22,794 


24 


,837 


13,393 


14 


,674 


8,529 


9 


,807 


7=498 


9 


,270 


13,084 


14 


,349 


17,751 


19 


,075 


14,418 


16 


,250 


9,529 


10 


,134 


6,673 


7 


,694 


16,875 


18 


,948 


23,196 


29 


560 


4,469 


5 


791 


11,200 


II 


824 


4,579 


S 


618 


2,573 


4 


,299 


11,189 


II 


895 


23,167 


27 


285 


9,919 


12 


565 


22,828 


26 


716 


15,948 


17 


372 


13-467 


15 


745 


6,157 


7 


,250 


12,641 


13 


,556 


9.997 


II 


,838 


19,173 


22 


751 



18 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Ray 18,700 18,394 20,196 

Reynolds 3^756 4,716 5,722 

Ripley 3.i75 3,9i3 5,377 

St. Charles 21,304 21,821 23,060 

St. Clair 6,742 11,242 14,126 

St. Francois 9,742 11,621 13,822 

Ste. Genevieve " 8,384 9,409 10,309 

£t. Louis* 351,189 . . . 31,888 

Saline 21,672 27,087 29,912 

Schuyler 8,820 9,881 10,470 

Scotland 10,670 12,03c 12,507 

Scott 7,317 7,312 8,587 

Shannon 2,339 3,236 3,441 

Shelby 10,119 13,243 14,024 

Stoddard 8,535 10,888 13,432 

Stone 3,253 3,544 4,405 

Sullivan ii:9o7 14,039 16,569 

Taney 4,407 6,124 5,605 

Texas 9,618 10,287 12,207 

Vernon.* 11,247 14,413 i9,37o 

Warren 9,673 10,321 10,806 

Washington • 11,719 13,1°° 12,895 

Wayne 6,068 7,006 9,097 

Webster 10,434 10,684 12,175 

Worth 5,004 7,164 8,208 

Wright 5,684 6,124 9,733 

City of St. Louis ... 350,522 

1,721,295 1,547,030 2,168,804 

Males 1,127,424 

Females 1,041,380 

Native 1,957,564 

Foreign 211,240 

White . , 2,023,568 

Coloredf 145.236 



CHAPTER III. 
GEOLOGY OF MISSOURI. 

Classification of Hocks — Qiiatenary Formation — Tertiary — Cretaceous — Carboniferous — Devonian 
— Silurian — Azoic — Economic Geology — Coal — I/^on — Lead — Copper — Zinc — Building Stone 
— Marble — Gypsum — Lime — Clays — Paints — Springs — Water Power, 

The stratified rocks of Missouri, as classified and treated of by Prof. G, C. 
Swallow, belong to the following divisions: I. Quatenary; II. Tertiary; III. 
Cretaceous ; IV. Carboniferous ; V. Devonian ; VI. Silurian , VII. Azoic. 

"The Quatenary formations, are the most recent, and the most valuable to 
man : valuable, because they can be more readily utilized. 

* St. Louis city and county separated in 1S77. Population for 1876 not i^ven. 
t Including 92 Chinese, 2 half Chinese, and 96 Indians and half-breeds. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 19 

The Quatenary formation in Missouri, embraces the Alhivium, 30 feet 
thick; Bottom Prairie, 30 feet thick; Bluff, 200 feet thick; and Drift, 155 feet 
thick. The latest deposits are those which constitute the Alluvium, and includes 
the soils, pebbles and sand, clays, vegetable mold, bog, iron ore, marls, etc. 

The Alluvium deposits, cover an area, within the limits of Missouri, of more 
than four millions acres of land, which are not surpassed for fertility by any 
region of country on the globe. 

The Bluff Prairie formation is confined to the low lands, which are washed 
by the two great rivers which cjurse our eastern and western boundaries, and 
while it is only about half as extensive as the Alluvial, it is equally as rich and 
productive." 

" The Bluff formation," says Prof. Swallow, "rests upon the ridges and river 
bluffs, and descends along their slopes to the lowest valleys, the formation cap- 
ping all the Bluffs of the Missouri from Fort Union to its mouth, and those of the 
Mississippi from Dubuque to the mouth of the Ohio. It forms the upper stratum 
beneath the soil of all the high lands, both timber and prairies, of all the counties 
north of the Osage and Missouri, and also St. Louis, and the Mississippi counties 
on the south. 

Its greatest development is in the counties on the Missouri River from the 
Iowa line to BoonviUe. In some localities it is 200 feet thick. At St. Joseph it 
is 140 ; at BoonviUe 100 ; and at St. Louis, in St. George's quarry, and the Big 
Mourd, it is about 50 feet; while its greatest observed thickness in Marion 
county was only 30 feet." 

The Drift formation is that which lies beneath the Bluff formation, having, as 
Prof. Swallow informs us, three distinct deposits, to-wit : "Altered Drift, which 
are strata of sand and pebbles, seen in the banks of the Missouri, in the north- 
western portion of the state. 

The Boulder formation is a heterogeneous stratum of sand, gravel and 
boulder, and water-worn fragments of the older rocks. 

Boulder Clay is a bed of bluish or brown sandy clay, through which pebbles 
are scattered in greater or less abundance. In some localities in northern 
Missouri, this formation assumes a pure white, pipe-clay color." 

The Tertiary formation is made up of clays, shales, iron ores, sandstone, and 
sands, scattered along the bluffs, and edges of the bottoms, reaching from Com- 
merce, Scott county, to Stoddard, and south to the Chalk Bluffs in Arkansas. 

The Cretaceous formation lies beneath the Tertiary, and is composed of 
variegated sandstone, bluish-brown sandy slate, whitish-brown impure sandstone, 
fine white clay mingled with spotted flint, purple, red and blue clays, all being 
in the aggregate, 158 feet in thickness. There are no fossils in these rocks, and 
nothing by which their age may be told. 

The Carboniferous system includes the Upper Carboniferous or coal- 
measures, and the Lower Carboniferous or Mountain limestone. The coal- 
measures are made up of numerous strata of sandstones, limestones, shales, clays, 
marls, spathic iron ores, and coals. 

The Carboniferous formation, including coal-measures and the beds of iron, 
embrace an area in Missouri of 27,000 square miles. The varieties of coal found 
in the State are the common bituminous and cannal coals, and they exist in 
quantities inexhaustible. The fact that these coal measures are full of fossils, 
which are always confined to the coal measures, enables the geologist to point 
them out, and the coal beds contained in them. 

The rocks of the Lower Carboniferous formation are varied in color, and are 
quarried in many different parts of the State, being extensively utilized for build- 
ing and other purposes. 

Among the Lower Carboniferous rocks is found the- Upper Archimedes 
Limestone, 200 feet ; Ferruginous Sandstone, 195 feet ; Middle Archimedes, 50 



20 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

feet; St. Louis Limtsione, 250 feet; Oolitic Limestone, 25 feet; Lower Archi- 
medes Limestone, 350 feet ; and Encrinital Limestone, 500 feet. These lime- 
stones generally contain fossils. 

The Ferruginous limestone is soft when quarried, but becomes hard and du- 
rable after exposure. Itcontains large quantities of iron, and is found skirting the 
eastern coal measures from the mouth of the Des Moines to McDonald county. 

The St. Louis limestone is of various hues and tints, and very hard. It is 
found in Clark, Lewis and St. Louis counties. 

The Lower Archimedes limestone includes partly the lead bearing rocks of 
Southwestern Missouri. 

The Encrinital limestone is the most extensive of the divisions of Carbonifer- 
ous limestone, and is made up of brown, buff, gray and white. In these strata are 
found the remains of corals and moUusks. This formation extends from Marion 
county to Greene county. The Devonian system contains: Chemung Group, 
Hamilton Group, Onondaga limestone and Oriskany sandstone. The rocks of the 
Devonian system are found in Marion, Ralls, Pike, Callaway, Saline and St. Gene- 
vieve counties. 

The Chemung Group has three formations, Chouteau limestone, 85 feet; Ver- 
micular sandstone and shales, 75 feet; Lithographic limestone, 125 feet. 

The Chouteau limestone is in two divisions, when fully developed, and when 
first quarried is soft. It is not only good for building purposes but makes an ex- 
cellent cement. 

The Vermicular sandstone and shales are usually buff or yellowish brown, and 
perforated with pores. 

The Lithographic limestone is a pure, fine, compact, evenly-textured lime- 
stone. Its color varies from light drab to buff and blue. It is called "pot met- 
al," because under the hammer it gives a sharp, ringing sound. It has but few 
fossils. 

The Hamilton Group is made up of some 40 feet of blue shales, and 170 feet 
of crystalline limestone. 

Onondaga limestone is usually a coarse, gray or buff crystalline, thick -bedded 
and cherty limestone. No formation in Missouri presents such variable and wide- 
ly different lithological characters as the Onondaga. 

The Oriskany sandstone is a light, gray limestone. 

Of the Upper Silurian series there are the following formations : Lower Hel- 
derburg, 350 feet ; Niagara Group, 200 feet ; Cape Girardeau limestone, 60 feet. 

The Lower Helderberg is made up of buff, gray and reddish cherty and ar- 
gillaceous limestone. 

Niagara Group. The upper part of this group consists of red, yellow and ash- 
colored shales, with compact limestones, variegated with bands and nodules of 
chert. 

The Cape Girardeau limestone, on the Mississippi River near Cape Girardeau, 
is a compact, bluish-gray, brittle limestone, with smooth fractures in layers from 
two to six inches in thickness, with argillaceous partings. These strata contain a 
great many fossils. 

The Lower Silurian has the following ten formations, to-wit : Hudson River 
Group, 220 feet; Trenton limestone, 360 feet; Black River and Bird's Eye lime- 
stone, 175 feet; first Magnesian limestone, 200 feet; Saccharoidal sandstone, 125 
feet; second Magnesian limestone, 250 feet; second sandstone, 115 feet; third 
Magnesian limestone, 350 feet ; third sandstone, 60 feet ; fourth Magnesian lime- 
stone, 350 feet. 

Hudson River Group: — There are three formations which Prof. Swallow re- 
fers to in this group. These formations are found in the bluff above and below 
Louisiana; on the Grassy a few miles northwest of Louisiana, and in Ralls, Pike, 
Cape Girardeau and Ste. Genevieve Counties. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 21 

Trenton limestone : — The upper part of this formation is made up of thick 
beds of hard, compact, bluish gray and drab limestone, variegated with irregular 
cavities, filled with greenish materials. 

The beds are exposed between Hannibal and New London, north of Salt 
River, and near Glencoe, St. Louis county, and are 75 feet thick. 

Black River and Bird's Eye limestone the same color as the Trenton lime- 
stone. 

The first Magnesian limestone cap the picturesque bluffs of the Osage in Ben- 
ton and neighboring counties. 

The Saccharoidal sandstone has a wide range in the state. In a bluff about 
two miles from Warsaw, is a very striking change of thickness of this formation. 

Second Magnesian limestone, in lithological character, is like the first. 

The second sandstone, usually of yellowish-brown, sometimes becomes a pure 
white, fine-grained, soft, sandstone as on Cedar Creek, in Washington and Frank- 
lin counties. 

The third Magnesian limestone is exposed in the high and picturesque bluffs 
of the Niangua, in the neighborhood of Bryces' Spring. 

The third sandstone is white and has a formation in moving water. 

The fourth Magnesian limestone is seen on the Niangua and Osage Rivers. 

The Azoic rocks lie below the Silurian and form a series of silicious and other 
slates which contain no remains of organic life. 

ECONOMIC GEOLOGY. 

Coal. — Missouri is particularly rich in minerals. Indeed, no State in the 
Union, surpasses her in this respect. In some unknown age of the past — long 
before the existence of man, nature, by a wise process, made a bountiful provis- 
ion, for the time, when in the order of things, it should be necessary for civilized 
man — to take possession of these broad, rich prairies. As an equivalent for lack 
of forests, she quietly stored away beneath the soil, those wonderful carboniferous 
treasures for the use of man. 

Geological surveys, have developed the fact, that the coal deposits in the 
State, are almost unnumbered, embracing all varieties of the best bituminous coal. 
The southeast boundary of the State, has been ascertained, to be one continuous 
coal field, stretching from the mouth of the Des Moines River, through Clark, 
Lewis, Scotland, Adair, Macon, Shelby, Monroe, Audrain, Callaway, Boone, 
Cooper, Pettis, Benton, Henry, St. Clair, Bates, Vernon, Cedar, Dade, Barton, 
and Jasper, into the Indian Territory, and the counties on the northwest of this 
line contain more or less coal. Coal rocks exist in Ralls, Montgomery, Warren, 
St. Charles, Moniteau, Cole, Morgan, Crawford, and Lincoln, and during the 
past few years, all along the lines of all the railroads in north Missouri, and along 
the western end of the Missouri Pacific, and on the Missouri River, between 
Kansas City and Sioux City, has systematic mining, opened up hundreds of 
mines in different localities. The area of our coal beds, on the line of the south- 
western boundary of the State alone, embrace more than 26,000 square miles, oi 
regular coal measures. This will give of workable coal, if the average be one 
foot, 26,800,000,000 tons. The estimates from the developments already made, 
in the different portions of the State, will give 134,000,000,000 tons. 

The economical value of this coal, to the State ; its influence in_ domestic 
life ; in navigation, commerce and manufactures, is beyond the imagination Oi 
man to conceive. Suffice it to say, that in the possession of her developed, and 
undeveloped coal mines, Missouri has a motive power, which in its influences 
for good, in the civilization of man, is more potent than the gold of California. 

Iron. — Prominent among the minerals, which increase the power and pros- 
perity of a Nation, is iron. Of this ore, Missouri has an inexhaustible quantity, 
and like her coal fields, it has been developed in many portions of the State, 



22 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

and of the best and purest quality. It is found in great abundance in the coun- 
ties of Cooper, St. Clair, Green, Henry, Franklin, Benton, Dallas, Camden, 
Stone, Madison, Iron, Washington, Perry, St. Francois, Reynolds, Stoddard, 
Scott, Dent and others. The greatest deposit of iron, is found in the Iron 
Mountain, which is two hundred feet high, and covers an area of five hundred 
acres, and produces a metal, which is shown by analysis, to contain from 65 to 
69 per cent of metallic iron. 

The ore of Shepherd Mountain contains from 64 to 67 per cent of metallic 
iron. The ore of Pilot Knob, contains from 53 to 60 per cent. 

Rich beds of iron, are also found at the Big B:)gy Mountain, and at Russell 
Mountain. This ore has in its nude state, a variety of colors, from the red, 
dark red, black, brown, to a light bluish gray. The red ores are found in 21 or 
more counties of the State, and are of great commercial value. The brown 
hematite iron ores, extend over a greater range of country, than all the others 
combined; embracing about 100 counties, and have been ascertained to exist in 
these in large quantities. 

Lead. — Long before any permanent settlements were made in Missouri, by 
the whites, lead was mined within the limits of the state, at two or three points on 
the Mississippi. At this time more than five hundred mines are opened, and 
many of them are being successfully worked. These deposits of lead cover an 
area, so far as developed, of more than 7,000 square miles. Mines have been 
opened in Jefferson, VVashington, St. Francis, Madison, Wayne, Carter, Reynolds, 
Crawford, Ste. Genevieve, Perry, Cole, Cape Girardeau, Camden, Morgan and 
many other counties. 

Copper and Zinc. — Several varieties of copper ore are found in Missouri. The 
copper mines of Shannon, Madison, and Franklin counties have been known for 
years, and some of these have been successfully worked, and are now yielding 
good results. 

Deposits of copper have been discovered in Dent, Crawford, Benton, Maries, 
Green, Lawrence, Dade, Taney, Dallas, Phelps, Reynolds, and Wright counties. 

Zinc is abundant in nearly all the lead mines in the southwestern part of the 
state, and since the completion of the A. & P. R. R. a market has been furnished 
for this ore, which will be converted into valuable merchandise. 

Building Stone and Marble. — There is no scarcity of good building stone in 
Missouri. Limestone, sandstone, and granite exist in all shades of buff, blue, red, 
and brown, and are of great beauty as building material. 

There are many marble beds in the state, some of which furnish very beauti- 
ful and excellent marble. It is found in Marion, Cooper, St. Louis, and other 
counties. 

One of the most desirable of the Missouri marbles is in the 3d Magnesian 
limestone, on the Niangua. It is fine-grained, crystalline, silico-magnesian lime- 
stone, light- drab, slightly tinged with peach blossom, and clouded by deep flesh- 
colored shades. In ornamental architecture it is rarely surpassed. 

Gypsum and Lime. — Though no extensive beds of gypsum have been discovered 
in Missouri, there are vast beds of the pure white crystalline variety on the line of 
the Kansas Pacific Railroad, on Kansas River, and on Gypsum Creek. It exists 
Iso in several other localities accessible by both rail and boat. 

All of the limestone formations in the State, from the coal measures to the 
fourth Magnesian, have more or less strata of very nearly pure carbonate of pure 
lime. 

Clays and Paints. — Clays are found in nearly all parts of the State suitable for 
making bricks. Potters' clay, and fire-clay are worked in many locaUties. 

There are several beds of purple shades in the coal measures which possess the 
properties requisite for paints used in outside work. Yellow and red ochres are 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 23 

found in considerable quantities on the Missouri River. Some of these paints have 
been thoroughly tested and found fire-proof and durable. 

SPRINGS AND WATER POWER. 

No State is, perhaps, better supplied with cold springs of pure water than 
Missouri. Out of the bottoms there is scarcely a section of land but has one or 
more perennial springs of good water. Even where there are no springs good 
water can be obtained by digging from twenty to forty feet. Salt springs are 
abundant in the central part of the State, and discharge their brine in Cooper, 
Saline, Howard, and adjoining counties. Considerable salt was made in Cooper 
and Howard counties at an early day. 

Sulphur springs are also numerous throughout the State. The Chouteau 
springs in Cooper, the Monagaw springs in St. Clair, the Elk springs in Pike, and 
the Cheltenham springs in St. Louis county have acquired considerable reputation 
as salubrious waters, and have become popular places of resort. Many other 
counties have good^sulphur springs. 

Among the Chalybeate springs the Sweet springs on the Blackwater, and the 
Chalybeate spring in the University campus are, perhaps, the most popular of the 
kind in the State. There are, however, other springs impregnated with some of 
the salts of iron. 

Petroleum springs are found in Carroll, Ray, Randolph, Cass, Lafayette, 
Bates, Vernon, and other counties. The variety called lubricating oil is the more 
common. 

The water power of the State is excellent. Large springs are particularly 
abundant on the waters of the Maramec, Gasconade, Bourbeuse, Osage, Niangua, 
Spring, White, Sugar, and other streams. Besides these, there are hundreds of 
springs sufficiently large to drive mills and factories, and the day is not far distant 
when these crystal fountains will be utilized, and a thousand saws will buzz to 
their dashing music. 



CHAPTER IV. 
TITLE AND EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 

Title to Missouri Lands — Right of Discovery — Title of France and Spain — Cession to the United 
States — Territorial Changes — Treaties with Indians — First Settlement— Ste. Genevieve and 
New Bowbon — St. Louis — When Incorporated — Potosi — St. Charles — Portage des Sioux — 
New Mad'id — St. Francois County — Perry — Mississippi — Loutre Island — '^ Boon's l,ick" — 
Cote Sans Dessein — Howard County — Some First Things — Counties — When Organized. 

The title to the soil of Missouri, was, of course, primarily vested in the 
original occupants who inhabited the country prior to its discovery by the whites. 
But the Indians, being savages, possessed but few rights that civilized nations 
considered themselves bound to respect, so when they found this country in 
the possession of such a people, they clauned it in the name of the K#ng of 
France, by the righi of discovery. It remained under the jurisdiction of France 
until 1763. 

Prior to the year 1763, the entire continent of North America, was divided 
between France, England, Spain, and Russia. France held all that portion that 
now constitutes our national domain west of the Mississippi River, except Texas, 
and the territory which we have obtained from Mexico and Russia. The vast 



24 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

region, while under the jurisdiction of France, was known as the *' Province of 
Louisiana,'-' and embraced the present State of Missouri. At the close of the 
"Old French War," in 1763, France gave up her share of the continent, and 
Spain came into the possession of the territory west of the Mississippi River, 
while Great Britain retained Canada and the regions northward, having obtained 
that territory by conquest, in the war with France. For thirty-seven years the 
^.erritory now embraced within the lirhits of Missouri, remained as a part of the 
possession of Spain, and then went back to France by the treaty of St. Ildefonso, 
October ist, 1800. On the 30th of April, 1803, France ceded it to the United 
States, in consideration of receiving $11,250,000, and the liquidation of certain 
claims, held by citizens of the United States against France, which amounted to 
the further sum of $3,750,000, making a total of $15,000,000. It will thus be 
seen that France has twice, and Spain once, held sovereignty over the territory 
embracing Missouri, but the financial needs of Napoleon afforded our government 
an opportunity to add another empire to its domain. 

On the 31st of October, 1803, an act of Congress was approved, authorizing 
the President to take possession of the newly acquired territory, and provided 
for it, a temporary government, and another act approved March 26th, 1804, 
authorized the division of the "Louisiana Purchase," as it was then called, into 
two separate territories. All that portion south of the 33d parallel of north 
latitude, was called the "Territory of Orleans,'-' and that north of the said 
parallel was known as the " District of Louisiana," and was placed under the 
jurisdiction of' what was then known as " Indiana Territory." 

By virtue of an act of Congress, approved March 3, 1805, the " District of 
Louisiana," was organized as the "Territory of Louisiana," with a territorial 
government of its own, which went into operation July 4th, of the same year, 
and it so remained till 1812. In this year the "Territory of Orleans," became 
the State of Louisiata, and the " Territory of Louisiana," was organized as the 
" Territory of Missouri." 

This change took place under an act of Congress, approved June 4th, 1812. 
In 1819, a portion of this territory was organized as " Arkansaw Territory," and 
in 1821, the State of Missouri was admitted, being a part of the former " Terri- 
tory of Missouri." 

In 1836, the " Platte Purchase," then being a part of the Indian Territory, 
and now composing the counties of Atchison, Andrew, Buchanan, Holt, Noda- 
way, and Platte, was made by treaty with the Indians, and added to the State. 
It will be seen then, that the soil of Missouri belonged : 

ist. — To France with other territory. 

2d. — In 1768, with other territory it was ceded to Spain. 

3d. — October ist, 1800, it was ceded with other territory from Spain, back 
to France. 

4th. — April 30th, 1803, it was ceded with other territory by France, to the 
United States. 

5th. — October 31, 1803, a temporary government was authorized by Con 
gress, for the newly acquired territory. 

6th. — October i, 1804, it was included in the " District of Louisiaaa," and 
placed under the territorial government of Indiana. 

7th. — July 4, 1805, it was included as a part of the "Territory of Louisiana," 
then frganized with a separate territorial government. 

8th. — June 4, 1812, it was embraced in what was then made the " Territory 
of Missouri." 

9th. — August 10, 182 1, it was admitted into the Union as a State. 

loth. — In 1836, the " Platte Purchase" was made, adding more territory to 
the State. 

The cession by France April 30, 1803, vested the title in the United States, 



26 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

subject- to the claims of the Indians, which it was very justly the policy of the 
government to recognize. Before the government of the United States could vest 
clear title to the soil in the grantee it was necessary to extinguish the Indian title 
by purchase. This was done accordingly by treaties made with the Indians, at 
different times. 

EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 

The name of the first white man who set foot on the territory now embraced 
in the State of Missouri, is not known, nor is it known at what precise period the 
first settlements were made. It is, however, generally agreed that they were made 
at Ste. Genevieve and New Bourbon, tradition fixing the date of these settle- 
ments in the autumn of 1735. These towns were settled by the French from 
Kaskaskia and St. Philip in Illinois. 

St. Louis was founded by Pierre Laclede Lignest, on the 15th of February, 
1764. He was a native of France, and was one of the members of the company 
of Laclede Lignest, Antoino Maxant & Co., to whom a royal charter had been 
granted, confirm ng the privilege of an exclusive trade with the Indians of the 
Missouri as far north as St. Peter's River. 

While in search of a trading post he ascended the Mississippi as far as the 
mouth of the Missouri, and finally returned to the present town site of St. Louis. 
After the village had been laid off he named it St. Louis, in honor of Louis XV, 
of France. 

The colony thrived rapidly by accessions from Kaskaskia and other towns on 
the east side of the Mississippi, and its trade was largely increased by many of the 
Indian tribes, who removed a portion of their peltry trade from the same tovvns to 
St. Louis. It was incorporated as a town on the 9th day of November, 1809, by 
the court of Common Pleas of the district of St. Louis; the town trustees being 
Auguste Chouteau, Edward Hempstead, Jean F. Cabanne, Wm. C. Carr andWm. 
Christy, and incorporated as a city December 9, 1822. The selection of the 
town site on which St. Louis stands was highly judicious, the spot not only being 
healthful and having the advantages of water transportation unsurpassed, but sur- 
rounded by a beautiful region of country, rich in soil and mineral resources. St. 
Louis has grown to be the fifth city in population in the Union, and is to-day, the 
great center of internal commerce of the Missouri, the Mississippi and their trib- 
utaries, and, with its railroad facilities, it is destined to be the greatest inland city 
of the American continent. 

The next settlement was made at Potosi, in Washington County, in 1765, by 
Francis Breton, who, while chasing a bear, discovered the mine near the present 
town of Potosi, where he afterward located. 

One of the most prominent pioneers who settled at Potosi was Moses Austin, 
of Virginia, who, in 1873, received by grant from the Spanish government a league 
of land, now known as the "Austin Survey." The grant was made on condition 
that Mr. Austin would establish a lead mine at Potosi and work it. He built a 
palatial residence, for that day, on the brow of the hill in the little village, which 
was, for many years, known as " Durham Hall." At this pomt the first shot- 
tower and sheet-lead manufactory were erected. 

Five years after the founding of St. Louis the first settlement made in North- 
ern Missouri was made at or near St. Charles, in St. Charles county, in 1769. 
The name given to it, and which it retained till 1784, was Les Petites Co/es, signi- 
fying. Little Hills. The town site was located by Blanchette, a Frenchman, sur- 
named LeChasseur, who built the first fort in the town and estabhshed there a 
military post. 

Soon after the establishment of the military post at St. Charles, the old 
French village of Portage des Sioux, was located on the Mississippi, just below 
the mouth of the Illinois river, and at about the same time a Kickapoo village 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 27 

was commenced at Clear Weather Lake. The present town site of New Madrid, 
in New Madrid county, was settled in 1781, by French Canadians, it then being 
occupied by Delaware Indians. The place now known as Big River Mills, St. 
Francois county, was settled in 1796, Andrew Baker, John Alley, Francis 
Starnater, and John Andrews, each locating claims. The following year, a 
settlement was made in the same county, just below the present town of Farm- 
ington, by the Rev. Wm. Murphy, a Baptist minister from East Tennessee. In 
1796, settlements were made in Perry county by emigrants from Kentucky and 
Pennsylvania; the latter locating in the rich bottom lands of Bois Brule, the 
former generally settling in the " Barrens," and along the waters of Saline Creek. 

Bird's Point, in Mississippi county, opposite Cairo, 111., was settled August 
6th, 1800, by John Johnson, by virtue of a land-grant from the commandant 
under the Spanish Government. Norfolk and Charleston, in the same county, 
were settled respectively in 1800 and 1801. Warren county was settled in 1801. 
Loutre Island, below the present town of Herman, in the M ssouri River was 
settled by a few American families in 1807. This little company of pioneers 
suffered greatly from the floods, as well as from the incursions of thieving and 
blood-thirsty Indians, and many incidents of a thrilling character could be 
related of trials and struggles, had we the time and space. 

In 1807, Nathan and Daniel Boone, sons of the great hunter and pioneer, in 
company with three others went from St. Louis to " Boone's Lick," in Howard 
county, where they manufactured salt, and formed the nucleus of a small 
settlement. 

Cote Sans Desseiu, now called Bakersville, on the Missouri River, in 
Callaway county, was settled by the French in 1801. This little town was 
considered at that time, as the "Far West" of the new world. Daring the war 
of 181 2, at this place many hard fought battles occurred between the whites and 
Indians, wherein woman's fortitude and courage greatly assisted in the defense 
of the settlement. 

In 18 10, a colony of Kentuckians numbering one hundred and fifty families 
immigrated to Howard county, and settled in the Missouri River bottom, near the 
present town of Franklin. 

Such, in brief, is the history of some of the early settlements of Missouri, 
covering a period of more than half a century. 

These settlements were made on the water courses ; usually along the banks 
of the two great streams, whose navigation afforded them transportation for their 
marketable commodities, and communication with the civilized portion of the 
country. 

They not only encountered the gloomy forests, settUng as they did by the 
river's brink, but the hostile incursion of savage Indians, by whom they were for 
many years surrounded. 

The expedients of these brave men who first broke ground in the Territory, 
have been succeeded by the permanent and tasteful improvements of their 
descendants. Upon the spots where they toiled, dared, and died, are seen the 
comfortable farm, the beautiful village, and thrifty city. Churches and school 
houses greet the eye on every hand ; railroads diverge in every direction, and, 
indeed, all the appliances of a higher civilization, are profusely strewn over the 
smiling surface of the State. 

Culture's hand 
Has scattered verdure o'er the land ; 
And smiles and fragrance rule serene, 
Where barren wild usurped the scene. 



28 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



SOME FIRST THINGS. 

The first marriage that took place in Missouri was April 20, 1766, in St. Louis. 

The first baptism was performed in May, 1766, in St. Louis. 

The first house of worship, (Catholic), was erected in 1775, at St. Louis. 

The first ferry established in 1805, on the Mississippi River, at St, Louis. 

The first newspaper established in St. Louis, {Missouri Gazette), in 1808. 

The first postoffice was established in 1804, in St. Louis — Rufus Easton, post- 
master. 

The first Protestant church erected at St. Genevieve, in 1806 — Baptist. 

The first bank established, (Bank of St. Louis), in 1814. 

The first market house opened in 181 1, in St. Louis. 

The first steamboat on the Upper Mississippi was the General Pike, Capt. 
Jacob Ried; landed at St. Louis 18 17. 

The first board of trustees for pubHc schools appointed in 1817, St. Louis. 

The first college built, (St. Louis College), in 181 7. 

The first steamboat that came up the Missouri River as high as Franklin was 
the Independence, in 1819; Capt. Nelson, master. 

The first court house erected in 1823, in St. Louis. 

The first cholera appeared in St. Louis in 1832. 

The first railroad convention held in St. Louis, April 20, 1836. 

The first telegraph lines reached East St. Louis, December 20, 1847, 

The first great fire occurred in St. Louis, 1849. 



CHAPTER V. 
TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION. 

Organization 18 12 — Council — House of Representatives — Wm. Clark first Territorial Governor-^ 
Edward Hempstead first Delegate — Spanish Grants — First General Assernbly — Proceedings- 
Second Assembly — Proceedings — Population of Territory — Vote of Territory — Rufus Easton — 
Absent Members — Third Assembly — Proceedings — Application for Admission. 

Congress organized Missouri as a Territory, July 4, 1812, with a Governor 
and General Assembly. The Governor, Legislative Council, and House of Rep- 
resentatives exercised the Legislative power of the Territory, the Governor's 
vetoing power being absolute. 

The Legislative Council was composed of nine members, whose tenure of 
office lasted five years. Eighteen citizens were nominated by the House of Rep- 
resentatives to the President of the United States, from whom he selected, with 
the approval of the Senate, nine Councillors, to compose the Legislative Council. 

The House of Representatives consisted of members chosen every two years 
by the people, the basis of representation being one member for every five 
hundred white males. The first House of Representatives consisted of thirteen 
members, and, by Act of Congress, the whole number of Representatives could 
not exceed twenty-five. 

The judicial power of the Territory, was vested in the Superior and Inferior 
Courts, and in the Justices of the Peace; the Superior Court having three Judges, 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 29 

whose term of office continued four years, having original and appellate jurisdiction 
in civil and criminal cases. 

The Territory could send one delegate to Congress. Governor Clark issued 
a proclamation, October ist, 1812, required by Congress, reorganizing the districts 
of St. Charles, St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, Cape Girardeau, and New Madrid, into 
five counties, and fixed the second Monday in November following, for the 
election of a delegate to Congress, and the members of the Territorial House of 
Representatives. 

William Clark, of the expedition of Lewis and Clark, was the first Territorial 
Governor, appointed by the President, who began his duties 1813. 

Edward Hempstead, Rufus Easton, Samuel Hammond, and Mathew Lyon 
Avere candidates in November for delegates to Congress. 

Edward Hempstead was elected, being the first Territorial Delegate to Con- 
gress from Missouri. He served one term, declining a second, and was instrumental 
in having Congress to pass the act of June 13, 181 2, which he introduced, con- 
firming the title to lands which were claimed by the people by virtue of Spanish 
grants. The same act confirmed to the people **for the support of schools," the 
title to village lots, out-lots or common field lots, which were held and enjoyed by 
them, at the time of the cession in 1803. 

Under the act of June 4, 1812, the first General Assembly held its Session 
in the house of Joseph Robidoux, on the 7th of December, 1812. The names of 
the members of the House were : 

St. Charles. — John Pitman and Robert Spencer. 

St. Louis. — David Music, Bernard G. Farrar, William C. Carr, and Richard 
Clark. 

Ste. Genevieve — George Bullet, Richard S. Thomas, and Isaac McGready. 

Cape Girardeau. — George F. Bollinger, and Spencer Byrd. 

New Madrid. — John Shrader and Samuel Phillips. 

John B. C. Lucas, one of the Territorial Judges, administered the oath of 
office. William C. Carr was elected Speaker, and Andrew Scott, Clerk. 

The House of Representatives proceeded to nominate eighteen persons from 
whom the President of the United States, with the Senate, was to select nine for 
the Council. From this number the President chose the following: 

St. Charles. — James Flaugherty and Benjamin Emmons. 

St. Louis. — Auguste Chouteau, Sr. , and Samuel Hammond. 

Ste. Genevieve. — John Scott and James Maxwell. 

Cape Girardeau. — William Neeley and Joseph Cavenor. 

New Madrid. — Joseph Hunter. 

The Legislative Council, thus chosen by the President and Senate, was 
announced by Fredrick Bates, Secretary, and Acting-Governor of the Territory, 
by proclamation, June 3, 1813, and fixing the first Monday in July following, as 
the time for the meeting of the Legislature. 

In the meantime the duties of the executive office were assumed by William 
Clark. The Legislature accordingly met, as required by the Acting-Governor's 
proclamation, in July, but its proceedings were never officially published. Con- 
sequently but little is known in reference to the workings of the first Territorial 
Legislature of Missouri. 

From the imperfect account, published in the Missouri Gazette, of that day ; 
a paper which had been in existence since 1808, it is found that laws were passed 
regulating and establishing weights and measures; creating the office of Sheriff ; 
providing the manner for taking the census ; permanently fixing the seats oi 
Justices, and an act to compensate its own members. At this Session, laws were 
also passed defining crimes and penalties ; laws in reference to forcible entry and 
detainer; establishing Courts of Common Fleas? incorporating the Bank of St. 



30 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Louis; and organizing a part of Ste. Genevieve county into the county of 
Washington. 

The next session of the Legislature convened in St. Louis, December 6, 1813. 
George Bullet, of Ste. Genevieve county, was speaker elect, and Andrew Scott, 
clerk, and William Sullivan, doorkeeper. Since the adjournment of the former 
Legislature several vacancies had occurred, and new members had been elected to 
fill their places. Among these was Israel McGready, from the county of Wash- 
ington. 

The president of the legislative council was Samuel Hammond. No journal 
of the council was officially published, but the proceedings of the house are found 
in the Gazete. 

At this session of the Legislature many wise and useful laws were passed, hav- 
ing reference to the temporal as well as the moral and spiritual welfare of the peo- 
ple. Laws were enacted for the suppression of vice and immorality on the Sab- 
bath day ; for the improvement of public roads and highways ; creating the offices 
of auditor, treasurer and county surveyor ; regulating the fiscal affairs of the 
Territory and fixing the boundary lines of New Madrid, Cape Girardeau, Wash- 
ington and St. Charles counties. The Legislature adjourned on the 19th of Jan- 
uary, 1 8 14, sif:e die. 

The population of the Territory as shown by the United States census in 1810, 
was 20,845. The census taken by the Legislature in 1814 gave the Territory a 
population of 25,000. This enumeration shows the county of St. Louis contained 
the greatest number of inhabitants, and the new county of Arkansas the least — • 
the latter having 827, and the former 3,149. 

The candidates for delegate to Congress were Rufus Easton, Samuel Ham- 
mond, Alexander McNair and Thomas F. Riddick. Rufus Easton and Samuel 
Hammond had been candidates at the preceding election. Li all the counties, 
excepting Arkansas, the votes aggregated 2,599, of which number Mr. Easton re- 
ceived 965, Mr. Hammond 746, Mr. McNair 853, and Mr. Riddick (who had 
withdrawn previously to the election) 35. Mr. Easton was elected. 

The census of 18 14 showing a large increase in the population of the Terri- 
tory, an apportionment was made increasing the number of Representatives in the 
Territorial Legislature to twenty-two. The General Assembly began its session in 
St. Louis, December 5, 1814. There were present on the first day twenty Repre- 
sentatives. James Caldwell of Ste. Genevieve county was elected speaker, and 
Andrew Scott, who had been clerk of the preceding assembly, was chosen clerk. 
The President of the Council was William Neely, of Cape Girardeau county. 

It appeared that James Maxwell, the absent member of the Council, and Seth 
Emmons, member elect of the House of Representatives, were dead. The county 
of Lawrence was organized at this session, from the western part of New Madrid 
county, and the corporate powers of St. Louis were enlarged. In 1815 the Ter- 
ritorial Legislature again began its session. Only a partial report of its proceed- 
ings are given in the Gazette. The county of Howard was then organized from 
St. Louis and St. Charles counties, and included all that part of the State lying 
north of the Osage and south of the dividing ridge between the Mississippi and 
Missouri Rivers. 

The next session of the Territorial Legislature commenced its session in De- 
cember, 1816. During the sitting of this Legislature many important acts were 
passed. It was then that the "Bank of Missouri" was charted and went into 
operation. In the fall of 181 7 the " Bank of St. Louis " and the " Bank of Mis- 
souri were issuing b lis. An act was passed chartering lottery companies, char- 
tering the academy at Potosi, and incorporating a board of trustees for superin- 
tending the schools in the town of St. Louis. Laws were also passed to encour- 
age the "killing of wolves, panthers and wild-cats." 

The Territorial Legislature met again in December, 1818, and, among other 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 31 

things, organized the counties of Pike, Cooper, Jefferson, Franklin, Wayne, Lin- 
coln, Madison, Montgomery, and three counties in the Southern part of Arkan- 
sas. In 1 819 the Territory of Arkansas was formed into a separate government 
of its own. 

The people of the Territory of Missouri had been, for some time, anxious 
that their Territory should assume the duties and responsibilities of a sovereign 
State. Since 1812, the date of the organization of the Territory, the population 
had rapidly increased, many counties had been established, its commerce had 
grown into importance, its agricultural and mineral resources were being devel- 
oped, and believing that its admission into the Union as a State would give fresh 
impetus to all these interests, and hasten its settlement, the Territorial Legislature 
of 1818-19 accordingly made application to Congress for the passage of an act 
authorizing the people of Missouri to organize a state government. 



CHAPTER VL 



Application of Missouri to be Admitted into the Union — Agitation of the Slavery Question — " Mis- 
souri Compromise" — Constitutional Convention of 1820 — Constitutioti presented to Congress — 
Further Resistance to Admission — Mr. Clay and his Com?nittee make Report — Second Compro- 
mise — Missouri Admitted. 

With the application of the Territorial Legislature of Missouri for her admis- 
sion into the Union, commenced the real agitation of the slavery question in the 
United States. 

Not only was our National Legislature the theater of angry discussions, but 
everywhere throughout the length and breadth of the Republic the *' Missouri 
Question " was the all-absorbing theme. The political skies threatened, 

**In forked flashes, a commanding tempest," 

Which was liable to burst upon the nation at any moment. Through such a cri- 
sis our country seemed destined to pass. The question as to the admission of 
Missouri was to be the beginning of this crisis, which distracted the public coun- 
sels of the nation for more than forty years afterward. 

Missouri asked to be admitted into the great family of States. " Lower Louis- 
iana," her twin sister Territory, had knocked at the door of the Union eight years 
previously, and was admitted as stipulated by Napoleon, to all the rights, privileges 
and immunities of a State, and in accordance with the stipulations of the same 
treaty, Missouri now sought to be clothed with the same rights, privileges and 
immunities. 

As what is known in the history of the United States as the " Missouri Com- 
promise," of 1820, takes rank among the most prominent measures that had up to 
that day engaged the attention of our National Legislature, we shall enter some- 
what into its details, being connected as they are with the annals of the State. 

February i^th 18 ig. — After the House had resolved itself into a Committee 
of the Whole on the bill to authorize the admission of Missouri into the Union, 
and after the question of her admission had been discussed for some time, Mr. 
Tallmadge, of New York, moved to amend the bill, by adding to it the following 
proviso : 

" And Provided, That the further introduction of slavery or involuntary serv- 
itude be prohibited, except for the puishment of crime, whereof the party shall 



32 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

have been duly convicted, and that all children born within the said State, after 
the admission thereof into the Union, shall be free at the age of twenty-five years." 

As might have been expected, this proviso precipitated the angry discussions 
which lasted for nearly three years, finally culminating in the Missouri Compro- 
mise. All phases of the slavery question were presented, not only in its moral 
and social aspects, but as a great constitutional question, affecting Missouri and 
the admission of future States. The proviso, when submitted to a vote, was 
adopted — 79 to 67, and so reported to the House. 

Hon, John Scott, who was at that time a delegate from the Territory of Mis- 
souri, was not permitted to vote, but as such delegate he had the privilege of 
participating in the debates which followed. On the i6th day of February the 
proviso was taken up and discussed. After several speeches had been made, among 
them one by Mr. Scott and one by the author of the proviso, Mr. Tallmadge, the 
amendment, or proviso, was divided into two parts, and voted upon. The first 
part of it, which included all to the word "convicted," was adopted — 87 to 76. 
The remaining part was then voted upon, and also adopted, by 82 to 78. By a 
vote of 97 to 56 the bill was ordered to be engrossed for a third reading. 

The Senate Committee, to whom the bill was referred, reported the same to 
the Senate on the 19th of February, when that body voted first upon a motion to 
strike out of the proviso all after the word " convicted," which was carried by a 
vote of 32 to 7. It then voted to strike out the first entire clause, which prevailed 
— 22 to 16, thereby defeating the proviso. 

The House declined to concur in the action of the Senate, and the bill was 
again returned to that body, which in turn refused to recede from its position. 
The bill was lost, and Congress adjourned. This was most unfortunate for the 
country. The people having already been wrought up to fever heat over the agi- 
tation of the question in the National Councils, now became intensely excited. 
The press added fuel to the flame, and the progress of events seemed rapidly 
tending to the downfall of our nationality. 

A long interval of nine months was to ensue before the meeting of Congress. 
That body indicated by its vote upon the *' Missouri Question," that the two great 
sections of the country were politically divided upon the subject of slavery. The 
restrictive clause, which it was sought to impose upon Missouri as a condition of 
her admission, would in all probability be one of the conditions of the admission 
of the Territory of Arkansas. The public mind was in a state of great doubt and 
uncertainty up to the meeting of Congress, which took place on the 6th of Decem- 
ber, 1819. The memorial of the Legislative Council and House of Representa- 
tives of the Missouri Territory, praying for admission into the Union, was presented 
to the Senate by Mr. Smith, of South CaroHna. It was referred to the Judiciary 
Committee. 

Some three weeks having passed without any action thereon by the Senate, 
the bill was taken up and discussed by the House until the 19th of February, when 
the bill from the Senate for the admission of Maine was considered. The bill for 
the admission of Maine included the ** Missouri Question," by an amendment 
which read as follows : 

" And be it further enacted, That in all that territory ceded by France to the 
United States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies north of thirty six degrees 
and thirty minutes, north latitude (excepting such part thereof as is) included 
within the limits of the State, contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary 
servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have 
been convicted, shall be and is hereby forever prohibited ; Provided, always, That 
any person escaping into the same from whom labor or service is lawfully claimed, 
in any State or Territory of the United States, such fugitive may be lawfully re- 
claimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or services as afore- 
said." 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 33 

The Senate adopted this amendment, which formed the basis of the ** Missouri 
Compromise," modified afterward by striking out the words, ^^ excepting only such 
*>art thereof. " 

The bill passed the Senate by a vote of 24 to 20. On the 2d day of March 
the House took up the bill and amendments for consideration, and by a vote of 
134 to 42 concurred in the Senate amendment, and the bill being passed by the two 
Houses, constituted section 8, of " An Act to authorize the people of the Missouri 
Territory to form a Constitution and State Government, and for the admission of 
such State into the Union on an equal footing with the original States, and to 
prohibit slavery in certain territory." 

This act was approved March 6, 1820. Missouri then contained fifteen organ- 
ized counties. By act of Congress the people of said State were authorized to 
hold an election on the first Monday, and two succeeding days thereafter in May, 
1820, to select representatives to a State convention. This convention met in St. 
Louis on the 12th of June, following the election in May, and concluded its labors 
on the 19th of July, 1820. David Barton was its President,. and Wm. G. Pettis, 
Secretary. There were forty-one members of this convention, men of ability and 
statesmanship, as the admirable constitution which they framed amply testifies. 
Their names and the counties represented by them are as follows : 

Cape Girardeau. — Stephen Byrd, James Evans, Richard S. Thomas, Alexan- 
der Buckner and Joseph McFerron. 

Cooper. —Kohtxi P., Clark, Robert Wallace, Wm. Lillard. 

Franklin. — John G. Heath. 

Howard. — Nicholas S. Burkhart, Duff Green, John Ray, Jonathan S. Find- 
ley, Benj. H. Reeves. 

Jefferson. — Daniel Hammond. 

Lincoln. — Malcolm Henry. 

Montgomery. — Jonathan Ramsey, James Talbott. 

Jifadison. — Nathaniel Cook. 

Neiv Madrid. — Robert S. Dawson, Christopher G. Houts. 

Fike. — Stephen Cleaver. 

St. Charles. — Benjamin Emmons, Nathan Boone, Hiram H. Baber. 

Ste. Genevieve. — John D. Cook, Henry Dodge, John Scott, R. T. Brown. 

St. Louis. — David Barton, Edward Bates, Alexander McNair, Wm. Rector, 
John C. Sullivan, Pierre Chouteau, Jr., Bernard Pratte, Thomas "F. Riddick. 

Washington. — John Rice Jones, Samuel Perry, John Hutchings. 

Wayne. — Elijah Bettis. 

On the 13th of November, 1820, Congress met again, and on the 6th of the 
same month Mr. Scott, the delegate from Missouri, presented to the House the 
Constitution as framed by the convention. The sanie was referred to a select com- 
mittee, who made thereon a favorable report. 

The admission of the State, however, was resisted, because it was claimed 
that its constitution sanctioned slavery, and authorized the Legislature to pass laws 
preventing free negroes and mulattoes from settling in the State. The report of 
the committee to whom was referred the Constitution of Missouri was accompanied 
by a preamble and resolutions, offered by Mr. Lowndes, of South Carolina. The 
preamble and resolutions were stricken out. 

The application of the State for admission shared the same fate in the Senate. 
The question was referred to a select committee, who, on the 29th of November, 
reported in favor of admitting the State. The debate, which followed, continued 
for two weeks, and finally Mr. Eaton, of Tennessee, offered an amendment to the 
resolution as follows : 

" Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to give 
the assent of Congress to any provision in the Constitution of Missouri, if any such 
there be, which contravenes that clause in the Constitution of the United States, 
3 



34 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

which declares that the citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the privileges 
and immunities of citizens in the several States." 

The resolution, as amended, was adopted. The resolution and proviso 
were again taken up and discussed at great length, when the committee agreed to 
report the resolution to the House. 

The question on agreeing to the amendment, as reported from the committee 
of the whole, was lost in the House. A similar resolution afterward passed the 
Senate, but was again rejected in the House. Then it was that that great states- 
man and pure patriot, Henry Clay, of Kentucky, feeling that the hour had come 
when angry discussions should cease 

' ' With grave 
Aspect he rose, and in his rising seem'd 
A pillar of state ; deep on his front engraven 
Deliberation sat and public care; 
And princely counsel in his face yet shone 
"Majestic" ***** 

proposed that the question of Missouri's admission be referred to a committee 
consisting of twenty-three persons, (a number equal to the number of States then 
composing the Union,) be appointed to act in conjunction with a committee of 
the Senate to consider and report whether Missouri should be admitted, etc. 

The motion prevailed ; the committee was appointed and Mr. Clay made its 
chairman. The Senate selected seven of its members to act with the committee 
of twenty-three, and on the 26th of February the following report was made by 
that committee: 

"Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled : That Missouri shall be admitted into 
the Union, on an equal footing with the original States, in all respects whatever, 
upon the fundamental condition that the fourth clause, of the twenty-sixth section 
of the third article of the Constitution submitted on the part of said State to Con- 
gress, shall never be construed to authorize the passage of any law, and that no 
law shall be passed in conformity thereto, by which any citizen of either of the 
States in this Union shall be excluded from the enjoyment of any of the privileges 
and immunities to which such citizen is entitled, under the Constitution of the 
United States ; provided. That the Legislature of said State, by a Solemn Public 
Act, shall declare the assent of the said State, to the said fundamental condition, 
and shall transmit to the President of the United States, on or before the fourth 
Monday in November next, an authentic copy of the said act; upon the receipt 
whereof, the President, by proclamation, shall announce the fact ; whereupon, 
and without any further proceeding on the part of Congress, the admission of the 
said State into the Union shall be considered complete." 

This resolution, after a brief debate, was adopted in the House, and passed 
the Senate on the 28th of February, 1821. 

At a special session of the Legislature held in St. Charles, in June following, 
a Solemn Public Act was adopted, giving its assent to the conditions of admission, 
as expressed in the resolution of Mr. Clay. August loth, 182 1, President 
Monroe announced by proclamation the admission of Missouri into the Union to 
be complete. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI, 36 

CHAPTER VII. 
MISSOURI AS A STATE. 

F'irsf Election for Governor and Other State Officers — Senators and Representatives to General As- 
sembly — Sheriff's and Coroners — U. S. Senators — Representatives in Congress — Supreme Court 
Jttdges — Counties Organized — Capital Moved to St. Charles — Official Record of Territorial and 
State Officers. 

By the Constitution adopted by the Convention on the 19th of July, 1820, 
the General Assembly was required to meet in St. Louis on the third Monday in 
September of that year, and an election was ordered to be held on the 28th of 
August for the Election of a Governor and other State officers, Senators and Rep- 
resentatives to the General Assembly, Sheriffs and Coroners, United States Sena- 
tors and Representatives in Congress. 

It will be seen that Missouri had not as yet been admitted as a State, but in 
anticipation of that event, and according to the provisions of the constitution the 
election was held, and the General Assembly convened. 

William Clark (who had been Governor of the Territory) and Alexander 
McNair were the candidates for Governor. McNair received 6,576 votes, Clark 
2,556, total vote of the State 9,132. There were three candidates for Lieutenant 
Governor, to-wit: William H. Ashley, Nathaniel Cook and Henry Elliot. Ashley 
received 3,907 votes. Cook 3,212, Elliot 931. A Representative was to be elected 
for the residue of the Sixteenth Congress and one for the Seventeenth. John 
Scott, who was at the time Territorial delegate, was elected to both Congresses 
without opposition. 

The General Assembly elected in August met on the 19th of September, 1820, 
and organized by electing James Caldwell, of Ste. Genevieve speaker, and John 
McArthur clerk, William H. Ashley, Lieutenant-Governor, President of the 
Senate ; Silas Bent, President, pro tern. 

Mathias McGirk, John D. Cook and John R. Jones were appointed Supreme 
Judges, each to hold office until sixty-five years of age. 

Joshua Barton was appointed Secretary of State; Peter Didier, State Treas- 
urer; Edward Bates, Attorney-General and William Christie, Auditor of Public 
Accounts. 

David Barton and Thomas H. Benton were elected by the General Assembly 
to the United States Senate. 

At this session of the Legislature the counties of Boone, Callaway, Chariton, 
Cole, Gasconade, Lillard, Percy, Ralls, Ray and Saline were organized. 

We should hke to give in details the meetings and proceedings of the differ- 
ent Legislatures which followed; the elections for Governors and other State of- 
ficers ; the elections for Congressmen and United States Senators, but for want 
of space we can only present in a condensed form the official record of the Ter- 
ritorial and State officers. 

OFFICIAI- RECORD — TERRITORIAL OFFICERS. 

Governors. — Frederick Bates, Secretary and Acting-Governor, 1812-13. 
William Clark, 1 8 1 3- 1 8 2 o. 

OFFICERS OF STATE GOVERNMENT. 

Governors. — Alexander McNair, 1820-24. Frederick Bates, 1824-25. Abra- 
ham J. Williams vice Bates, 1825. John Miller vice Bates, 1826-28. John 
Miller, 1828-32. Daniel Dunklin, 1832-36, resigned; appointed Surveyor 



36 HISTORY OF MISSOtTRI. 

General U. S. Liburn W. Boggs vice Dunklin, 1836. Lilburn W. Boggs, 1836- 
40. Thomas Reynolds, 1840, died 1844. M. M. Marmaduke vice Reynolds — 
John C. Edwards, 1844-48. Austin A. King, 1848-52. Sterling Price, 1852-56. 
Trusten Polk, 1856 57, resigned. Hancock Jackson vice Polk, 1857. Robert 
M. Stewart vice Polk, 1857-60. C. F. Jackson, t86o, office vacated by ordinance. 
Hamilton R. Gamble vice Jackson ; Gov, Gamble died 1864. William P. Hall, 
1864, vice Gamble. Thomas C. Fletcher, 1864-68. Joseph W. McClurg, i868- 
70. B. Gratz Brown, 1870-72.* Charles H. Hardin, 1874-76. John S. Phelps, 
1876-80. Thomas T. Crittenden, 1880, and is now Governor. 

Lieutenant-Governors. — William H. Ashley, 1820-24. Benjamin A. Reeves, 
1824-28. Daniel Dunklin, 1828-32, Lilburn W. Boggs, 1832-36. Franklin 
Cannon, 1836-40. M. M. Marmaduke, 1840-44. James Young, 1844-48. 
Thomas L. Rice, 1848-52. Wilson Brown, 1852-55. Hancock Jackson, 1856- 
60. Thomas C. Reynolds, 1860-61. Williard P. Hall, 1861-64. George Smith, 
1864-68. Edward O. Stanard, 1868-70. Joseph J. Gravely, 1870-72. Charles 
P. Johnson, 1872-74. Norman J. Colman, 1874-76, Henry C, Brockmeyer, 
1876-80. Robert Campbell, 1880, and is the present incumbent. 

Secretaries of State. — Joshua Barton, 1820-21. William G. Pettis, 1821-24, 
Hamilton R. Gamble, 1824-26. Spencer Pettis, 1826 28. P. H. McBride, 1829- 
30, John C. Edwards, 1830, term expired 1835, re-appointed 1837, resigned 
1837. Peter G. Glover, 1837-39. James L. Minor, 1839-45. F. H. Martin, 
1845-49. Ephraim B. Ewing, 1849-52. John M. Richardson, 1852-56. Benja- 
min F. Massey. 1856-60, re-elected i860, for four years. Mordecai Oliver, 1861- 
64. Francis Rodman, 1864-68, re-elected 1868, for two years. Eugene F. 
Weigel, 1870-72, re-elected 1872, for two years. Michael K. McGrath, 1874, 
and is the present incumbent. 

State Treasurers. — Peter Didier, 1820-21. Nathaniel Simonds, 1821-28. 
James Earickson, 1829-33. John Walker, 1833-38. Abraham McClellan, 1838- 
43, Peter G. Glover, 1843-51. A. W. Morrison, 1851-60. George C. Bingham, 
1862-64. William Bishop, 1864-68. William Q. Dallmeyer, 1868-70. Samuel 
Hays, 1872. Harvey W. Salmon, 1872 74. Joseph W. Mercer, 1874-76. Elijah 
Gates, 1876-80. Phillip E. Chappel, 1880, and present incumbent. 

Attorney-Generals. — Edward Bates, 1820-21. Rufus Easton, 1821-26. Robt. 
W. Wells, 1826-36. William B. Napton, 1836-39. S. M. Bay, 1839-45. B. F. 
Stringfellow, 1845-49. William A. Roberts, 1849-51. James B. Gardenhire, 
1851-56. Ephraim W. Ewing, 185^6 59. James P. Knott, 1859-61. Aikman 
Welsh, 1861-64. Thomas T. Crittenden, 1864. Robert F. Wmgate, 1864-68, 
Horace P. Johnson, 1868-70. A, J. Baker, 1870-72. Henry Clay Ewing, 
1872-74. John A. Hockaday, 1874-76. Jackson L. Smith, 1876-80. Mclntire, 
1880, and present incumbent. 

Auditors of Public Accounts. — William Christie, 1820-21. William V. Rector, 
1821-23. Elias Barcroft, 1823-33. Henry Shurlds, 1833-35. Peter G. Glover, 
1835-37- Hiram H. Baber, 1837-45. William Monroe, 1845. J. R. McDer- 
mon, 1845 48. George W. Miller, 1848-49. Wilson Brown, 1849-52. William 
H. Buffington, 1852 60. William S. Moseley, i860 64. Alonzo Thompson, 
186468. Daniel M. Draper, 1868-72. George B. Clark, 1872-74, Thomas 
Holladay, 1874-80. John Walker, 1880, and present incumbent. 

Judges of Supreme Court. — Matthias McKirk, i822-'4i ; John D. Cooke, 
1822-23; Jno. R. Jones, i822-'24; Rufus Pettibone, 1823-25; Geo, Tomp- 
kins, i824-'45; Robt. Wash, i825-'37; Jno. C. Edwards, 1837-39; Wm. Scott, 
appointed 1841 till meeting of General Assembly in place of McKirk resigned, ; 
re appointed 1843; P. H. McBride, 1845 ; Wm. B. Napton, 1849-52 ; Jno. F. Ry- 
land, 1849-51 ; Jno. H. Birch, 1849-51 ; Wm. Scott, Jno. F. Ryland and Ham- 
ilton R. Gamble elected by the people 1851 for six years; Gamble resigned 1854; 
Abiel Leonard elected to fill vacancy of Gamble ; William B. Napton (vacated 
*Silas H. Woodson, 1872.74. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 37 

by failure to file oath), William Scott and John C. Richardson (resigned), elected 
August, 1857, for six years ; E. B, Ewing, 1859, to fill Richardson's resignation; 
Barton Bates appointed 1862; W. V. N. Bay appointed 1862; John D. S. Dry- 
den appointed 1862; Barton Bates, 1863-65; W. V. N. Bay, elected 1863; John 

D. S. Dryden, elected 1863; David Wagner appointed 1865 ; Wallace L. Love- 
lace, appointed 1865; Nathaniel Holmes, appointed 1865; Thomas J. C. Fagg, 
appointed 1866; James Baker, appointed 1868; David Wagner, elected 1868- 
"70; Philemon Bliss, 1868-70; Warren Currier, 1868-71; Washington Adams, 
appointed 187 1 to fill Currier's place who resigned; Ephriam B. Ewing, 
elected 1872; Thomas A. Sherwood, elected 1872 ; W. B. Napton, appointed 
1873 in place of Ewing, deceased ; Edward A. Seins, appointed 1874, in place of 
Adams, resigned; Warwick Hough, elected 1874; William B. Napton, elected 
1874-80; John E. Henry, 1876-86; Robert Ray succeeded William B. Napton, 
in 1880: Elijah H. Norton, appointed in 1876 — elected in 1878. 

United States Senators. — T. H. Benton, 1820-50; D. Barton, 1820-30; Alex. 
Buckner, 1830-33; L. F.Linn, 1833-43; D. R. Atchison, 1843-55; H. S. Geyer, 
1851-57; Jas. M. Green, 1857-61; T. Polk, 1857-63; Waldo P. Johnson, 1861 ; 
Robt. Wilson, 1861; B. Gratz Brown, 1863, for unexpired term of Johnson; J. 
B. Henderson, 1863-69; Chas. D. Drake, 1867-70; Carl Schurz, 1869-75; D. F. 
Jewett, 1870, in place of Drake, resigned; F. P. Blair, 1871-77; L. V. Bogy, 
1873; F. M. Cockrell, 1875-81, re-elected 1881; Geo. G. Vest, 1879. 

Representatives to Congress. — Jno. Scott, 1820-26; Ed. Bates, 1826-28; Spen- 
cer Pettis, 1828-31; Wm. H. Ashley, 1831-36; John Bull, 1832-34; Albert G. 
Harrison, 1834-39; Jno. Miller, 1836-42 ; John Jameson, 1839-44, re-elected 1846 
for two years; Jno. C. Edwards, 1840-42; Jas. M. Hughes, 1842-44; Jas. H. 
Relfe, 1842-46; Jas. B. Bowlin, 1842-50; Gustavus M. Boner, 1842-44; Sterling 
Price, 1844-46; Wm. McDaniel, 1846; Leonard H. Sims, 1844-46; John S. 
Phelps, 1844-60; Jas. S. Green, 1846-50, re-elected 1856, resigned; Williard P. 
Hall, 1846-53; Wm. V. N. Bay, 1848-61; John F. Darby, 1850-53; Gilchrist 
Porter, 1850-57; John G. Miller, 1850-56; Alfred W. Lamb, 1852-54; Thos. 
H. Benton, 1852-54; Mordecia Oliver, 1852-57; Jas. J, Lindley, 1852-56; Samuel 
Caruthers, 1852-58; Thomas P. Akers, 1855, to fill unexpired term of J. G. Mil- 
ler; Francis P Blair, jr., 1856, re-elected i860, resigned ; Thomas L. Anderson, 
1856-60, James Craig, 1856-60; Samuel H. Woodson, 1856-60; John B. Clark, 
sr., 1857-61 ; J. Richard Barrett, i860; John W. Noel, 1858-63; James S. Rol- 
lins, 1860-64; Elijah H. Norton, 1860-63; John W. Reid, 1860-61; William A. 
Hall, 1862-64; Thomas L. Price, 1862, in place of Reid, expelled; Henry T. 
Blow, 1862-66; Sempronius T. Boyd, elected in 1862, and again in 1868, for two 
years; Joseph W. McClurg, 1862-66; Austin A. King, 1862-64; Benjamin F. 
Loan, 1862-69; John G. Scott, 1863, in place of Noel, deceased; John Hogan, 
1864-66; Thomas F. Noel, 1864-67; John R. Kelsoe, 1864-66; Robt. T. Van 
Horn, 1864-71; John F. Benjamin, 1864-71; George W. Anderson, 1864-69; 
WiUiam A. Pile, 1866-68; C. A. Newcomb 1866-68 ; Joseph E. Gravely, 1866- 
68; James R. McCormack, 1866-73 > John H. Stover, 1867, in place of McClurg, 
resigned; Erastus Wells, 1868-82; G. A. Finklinburg, 1868-71; Samuel S. 
Burdett, 1868-71; Joel F. Asper, 1868-70; David P. Dyer, 1868-70; Harrison 

E. Havens, 1870-75; Isaac G. Parker, 1870-75; James G. Blair, 1870-72; An- 
drew King, 1870-72; Edwin O. Stanard, 1872-74; William H. Stone, 1872-78; 
Robert A. Hatcher, elected 1872; Richard P. Bland, 1872; Thomas Crittenden, 
1872-74; Ira B. Hyde, 1872-74; John B. Clark, 1872-78; John M. Glover, 1872; 
Aylett H. Buckner, 1872; Edward C. Kerr, 1874-78; Charles H. Morgan, 1874; 
John F. Phelps, 1874; ^- J- Franklin, 1874; David Rea, 1874; Rezin A. De- 
Boet, 1874; Anthony Ittner, 1876; Nathaniel Cole, 1876; Robert A. Hatcher, 
1876-78; R. P. Bland, 1876-78; A. H. Buckner, 1876-78; J. B.Clark, jr., 1876- 
78; T. T. Crittenden, 1876-78; B. J. Franklin, 1876-78 ; Jno. M. Glover, 1876-78; 



38 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



Robt. A. Hatcher, 1876-78; Chas. H. Morgan, 1876-78; L. S, Metcalfe, 1876-78; 
H. M. Pollard, 1876-78; David Rea, 1876-78; S. L. Sawyer, 1878-80; N. Ford, 
1878-82; G. F. Rothwell, 1878-82; John E. Clark, jr., 187882; W. H. Hatch, 
1878-82; A. H. Buckner, 187882 ; M. L. Clardy, 1878-82; R. G. Frost, 1878-82; 
L. H. Davis, 1878-82; R. P. Bland, 1878-82; J. R. Waddill, 187880; T. Allen, 
1880-82 ; R. Hazeltine, 1880-82 ; T. M. Rice, 1880-82 ; R. T. Van Horn, 1880-82. 

COUNTIES — WHEN ORGANIZED. 



Adair January 29, 

Andrew January 29, 

Atchison January 14, 

Audrain December 17, 

Barry January 5, 

Barton . , December 12, 

Bates . . . . ^ January 29, 

Benton January 3, 

Bollinger March i, 

Boone November 16, 

Buchanan February 10, 

Butler February 27, 

Caldwell December 26, 

Callaway November 25, 

Camden January 29, 

Cape Girardeau October i, 

Carroll January 3, 

Carter March 10, 

Cass September 14, 

Cedar ..... . . February 14, 

Chariton November 16, 

Christian ' . March 8, 

Clark December 15, 

Clay January 2, 

Clinton January 15, 

Cole November 16, 

Cooper December 17, 

Crawford January 23, 

Dade • • . January 29, 

Dallas December 10, 

Daviess ...... . December 29, 

DeKalb .February 25, 

Dent February 10, 

Douglas October 19, 

Dunklin February 14, 

Franklin December 1 1, 

Gasconade November 25, 

Gentry , February 12, 

Greene January 2, 

Grundy January 2, 

Harrison February 14, 

Henry December 13, 

Hickory February 14, 

Holt February 15, 

Howard January 23, 

Howell March 2, 

Iron February 17, 

Jackson . December 15, 

Jasper ......... January 29, 

Jefferson December 8, 

Johnson ... .... December 13, 

Knox February 14, 

Laclede February 24, 

Lafayette November 16, 

Lawrence February 25, 

Lewis January 2, 

Lincoln December 14, 



841 

841 

845 
836 

835 
835 
841 

835 
851 
820 

839 
849 
836 
820 
841 
812 

833 
859 
835 
845 
820 
860 
818 
822 

833 
820 

818 

829 
841 

844 
836 

845 
851 
857 

845 
818 
820 
841 
833 
843 
845 
834 
845 
841 
816 
857 
857 
826 
841 
818 
834 

845 
849 
820 
845 

833 
818 



Linn January 7, 

Livingston January 6, 

McDonald Marcft 3, 

Macon Jamiary 6, 

Madison December 14, 

Maries March 2, 

Marion December 23, 

Mercer February 14, 

Miller February 6, 

Mississippi February 14, 

Moniteau February 14, 

Monroe January 6, 

Montgomery December 14, 

Morgan January 5, 

New Madrid October i, 

Newton December 31, 

Nodaway February 14, 

Oregon February 14 

Osage Jauuary 29, 

Ozark January 29, 

Pemiscot February 19, 

Perry November 16, 

Pettis January 26, 

Phelps November 13, 

Pike December 14, 

Flatte December 31, 

Polk March 13, 

Pulaski December 15, 

Putnam , . February 28, 

Ralls November 16, 

Randolph January 22, 

Ray November 16, 

Reynolds February 25, 

Ripley January 5, 

St. Charles October i, 

St. Clair January 29, 

St. Francois ..... December 19, 

Ste. Genevieve October i, 

St. Louis October i, 

Saline November 25, 

Schuyler February 14, 

Scotland January 29, 

Scott December 28, 

Shannon January 29, 

Shelby January 2, 

Stoddard January 2, 

Stone February 10, 

Sullivan . . February 16, 

Taney January 16, 

Texas February 14, 

Vernon February 17, 

Warren January 5, 

Washington August 21, 

Wayne December 11, 

Webster March 3, 

Worth February 8, 

Wright January 29, 



837 

837 
849 

837 
818 

855 
826 

845 
837 
845 
845 

83 X 

818 

833 

812 

838 
845 

8+5 
8+1 

841 
861 
820 
833 
857 
818 

838 

83s 
818 

845 
820 
829 
820 
845 

833 
812 
841 
821 
812 
812 
820 

84s 
841 
821 
841 
835 
835 
851 
845 
837 

835 
851 

833 
813 
818 

855 
861 
841 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 39 

CHAPTER VIII. 
CIVIL WAR IN MISSOURI. 

i^ort Sumter fired upon — Call for y^,ooo men — Gov. Jackson refuses to furnish a man — U.S. 
Arsenal at Liberty, Mo., seized — Proclamation of Governor JacksoH — General Order No. 
7 — Legislature convenes — Camp Jackson organized— Sterling Price appointed Major- Gen- 
eral — Frost^s letter to Lyon — Lyon^s letter to Frost — Surrender of Camp Jackson — Procla- 
mation of Gen. Harney — Conference between Price and Harney — Harney superseded by 
Lyon — Second Confere^ice — Gov. Jackson burns the bridges behind kim — Proclamation 
of Gov. Jackson — Gen. Blair takes possession of Jefferson City — Proclamation of 
Lyon — Lyon at Springfield — State offices declared vacant — Gen. Fremont assumes com.- 
mand — Proclamation of Lieut. Gov. Keynolds — Proclamation of Jeff. Thornpson and Gov. 
Jackson — Death of Gen. Lyon — Succeeded by Slurgis — Proclamation of McCulloch and 
Gamble — Martial Law declared — 2d Proclamation of Jeff. Thompson — President modifies 
Fretnont's Order — Fremont relieved by Hunter — Proclamation of Price — Hunter's Order 
of Assessment — Hunter declares Martial Law — Order relating to Newspapers — Halleck 
succeeds Hunter — Halleck's Order 81 — Similar order by Halleck — Boone County Standard 
confiscated — Execution of prisoners at Macon and Palmyra — Gen. Etving's Order No. 11 — 
Gen. Rosencrans takes command — Massacre at Centralia — Death of Bill Anderson — Gen, 
Dodge succeeds Gen. Rosencrans — List of Battles, 

** Lastly stood war — 

With visage grim, stern looks, and blackly hued, 

*i* vL* ^1^ ^1* vl^ ^i* 

^Y* #T> *t^ rfT^ ^J^ ^T% 

Ah ! why will kings forget that they are men? 
And men that they are brethren ? Why delight 
In human sacrifice? Why burst the ties 
Of nature, that should knit their souls together 
In one soft bond of amity and love?" 

Fort Sumter was fired upon April 12, 1861. On April 15th, President 
Lincoln issued a proclamation, calling for 75,000 men, from the militia of the 
several States to suppress combinations in the Southern States therein named. 
Simultaneously therewith, the Secretary of War, sent a telegram to all the gov- 
ernors of the States, excepting those mentioned in the proclamation, requesting 
them to detail a certain number of militia to serve for three months, Missouri's 
quota being four regiments. 

In response to this telegram, Gov. Jackson sent the following answer : 

Executive Department of Missouri, 
Jefferson City, April 17, 1861. 
To THE Hon. Simon Cajieron, 

Secretary of War, Washington, D. C. : 
Sir: Your dispatch of the 15th inst., making a call on Missouri for four 
regiments of men for immediate service, has been received. There can be, I 
apprehend, no doubt but these men are intended to form a part of the President's 
army to make war upon the people of the seceded States. Your requisition, in 
my judgment, is illegal, unconstitutional, and cannot be complied with. Not one 
man will the State of Missouri furnish to carry on such an unholy war. 

C. F. Jackson, 

Governor of Missouri. 

April 21, 1861. U. S. Arsenal at Liberty was seized by order of Governor 
Jackson, 



40 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

April 22, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation convening the Legis- 
lature of Missouri, on May following, in extra session, to take into consideration 
the momentous issues, which were presented, and the attitude to be assumed by 
the State in the impending struggle. 

On the 22nd of April, 1861, the Adjutant-General of Missouri issued the 
following military order : 

Headquarters Adjutant-General's Office, Mo., 
, Jefferson City, April 22, 1861. 

{General Orders No. y.) 

i. 'I'o attain a greater degree of efficiency and perfection in organization and 
discipline, the Commanding Officers of the several Military districts in this State, 
having four or more legally organized companies therein, whose armories are 
within fifteen miles of each other, will assemble their respective commands at 
some place to be by them severally designated, on the 3r i day of May, and to go 
into an encampment for a period of six days, as provided by law. Captains of 
companies not organized into battalions, will report the strength of their companies 
immediately to these headquarters, and await further orders. 

II. The Quartermaster-General will procure and issue to Quartermasters of 
Districts, for these commands not now provided for, all necessary tents and camp 
equipage, to enable the commanding officers thereof to carry the foregoing orders 
into effect. 

III. The Light Battery now attached to the Southwest Battalion, and one 
company of mounted riflemen, including all officers and soldiers belonging to the 
First District, will proceed forthwith to St. Louis, and report to Gen. D. M. Frost 
for duty. The remaining companies of said battalion will be disbanded for the 
purpose of assisting in the organization of companies upon that frontier. The 
details in the execution of the foregoing are intrusted to Lieutenant-Colonel John 
S. Bowen, commanding the Battalion. 

IV. The strength, organization, and equipment of the several companies in 
the Districts will be reported at once to these Headquarters, and District Inspec- 
tors will furnish all information which may be serviceable in ascertaining the 
condition of the State forces. 

By order of the Governor. 

WARWICK HOUGH, 

Adjutatit- General of Missouri. 

May 2, 1861. The Legislature convened in extra Session. Many acts were 
passed, among which was one to authorize the Governor to purchase or lease 
David Ballentine's foundry at Boonville, for the manufacture of arms and 
munitions of war ; to authorize the Governor to appoint one Major-General ; to 
authorize the Governor, when, in his opinion, the security and welfare of the 
State required it, to take possession of the railroad and telegraph lines of the State ; 
to provide for the organization, government, and support of the military forces ; 
to borrow one million of dollars to arm and equip the militia of the State to repel 
invasion, and protect the lives and property of the people. An act was also 
passed creating a "Military Fund," to consist of all the money then in the 
treasury or that might thereafter be received from the one-tenth of one per cent. 
on the hundred dollars, levied by act of November, 1857, to complete certain 
railroads; also the proceeds of a tax of fifteen cents on the hundred dollars of the 
assessed value of the taxable property of the several counties in the State, and the 
proceeds of the two mill tax, which had been theretofore appropriated for educa- 
tional purposes. 

May 3, 1 86 1, " Camp Jackson," was organized. 

May 10, i86i. Sterling Price appointed Major-General of State Guard. 




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42 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

May 10, 1861. General Frost commanding "Camp Jackson" addtessed 
General N. Lyon, as follows : 



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Headquarters Camp Jackson, Missouri Militia, may 10, 1861. 
Capt. N..LYON, Commanding U. S. Troops in and about St. Louis Arsetial : 

Sir : — I am constantly in receipt of information that you contemplate an at- 
tack upon my camp, whilst I understand that you are impressed with the idea that 
an attack upon the Arsenal and United States troops is intended on the part of 
the Mihtia of Missouri. I am greatly at a loss to know what could justify you in 
attacking citizens of the United States, who are in lawful performance Of their 
duties, devolving upon them under the Constitution in organizing and instructing 
the militia of the State in obedience to her laws, and, therefore, have been dis- 
posed to doubt the correctness of the information I have received. 

I would be glad to know from you personally whether there is any truth in 
the statements that are constantly pouring into my ears. So far as regards any 
hostility being intended toward the United States, or its property or representa- 
tives by any portion of my command, or, as far as I can learn, (and I think I am 
fully informed,) of any other part of the state forces, I can positively say that 
the idea has never been entertained. On the contrary prior to your taking com- 
mand of the Arsenal, I proffered to Mayor Bell, then in command of the very 
few troops constituting its guard, the services of myself and all my command, 
and, if necessary, the whole power of the State, to protect the United States in the 
full possession of all her property. Upon General Harney taking command of 
this department, I made the same proffer of services to him, and authorized his 
Adjutant-General, Capt. Williams, to communicate the fact that such had been 
done to the War Department. I have had no occasion since to change any of the 
views I entertained at the time, neither of my own volition nor through orders of 
my Constitutional commander. 

I trust that after this explicit statement that we may be able, by fully under- 
standing each other, to keep far from our borders the misfortunes which so unhap- 
pily affect our common coulitry. 

This communication will be handed you by Colonel Bowen, my Chief of 
Staff, who will be able to explain anything not fully set forth in the foregoing. 

I am, sir, very respectfully your obedient servant, 

BRIGADIER-GENERAL D. M. FROST, 

Commanding Camp Jackson, M. V. M. 

May loth, 1861. Gen. Lyon sent the following to Gen. Frost: 

Headquarters United States Troops, 
St. Louis, Mo., May 10, 1861. 

Gen. D. M. Frost, Commanding Camp Jackson : 

Sir: — Your command is regarded as evidently hostile toward the Govern- 
ment of the United States. 

It is, for the most part, made up of those Secessionists who have openly 
avowed their hostility to the General Government, and have been plotting at the 
seizure of its property and the overthrow of its authority. You are openly in 
communication with the so-called Southern Confederacy, which is now at war with 
the United States, and you are receiving at your camp, from the said Confederacy 
and under its flag, large supplies of the material of war, most of which is known 
to be the property of the United States. These extraordinary preparations plain- 
ly indicate none other than the well-known purpose of the Governor of this State, 
under whose orders you are acting, and whose communication to the Legislature 
has just been responded to by that body in the most unparalleled legislation, hav- 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 43 

ing in jJ'frect view hostilities to the General Government and co-operation with its 
enemies. 

In view jof these considerations, and of your faikire to disperse in obedience 
to the proclamation of the President', and of the imminent necessities of State 
polic'y and warf.re, and the obligations imposed upon me by instructions from 
Washington, it is ray duty to demand, and I do hereby demand of you an imme- 
diate surrender of your command, with no other conditions than that all persons 
surrendering under this command shall be humanely and kindly treated. Believ- 
ing myself prepared to enforce this demand, one-half hour's time before doing so 
will be allowed for your compliance therewith. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

N. LYON, 

Capt. 2d Infantry, Commanding Troops. 

May ID, 1861. Camp Jackson surrendered and prisoners all released except- 
ing Capt. Emmet McDonald, who refused to subscribe the parole. 

May 12, i86r. Brigadier-General Wm. S. Harney issued a proclamation to 
the people of Missouii, saying " he would carefully abstain from the exercise of 
any unnecessary powers," and only use " the military force stationed in this dis- 
trict in the last resort to preserve peace." 

May 14, 1861. General Harney issued a second proclamation. 

May 21, 1 86 1. General Harney held a conference with General Sterling 
Price of the Missouri State Guards. 

May 31, 1861. General Harney superseded by General Lyon. 

June II, i86r. A second conference was held between the National *id 
State authorities in St. Louis, which resulted in nothing. 

June II, i<-6r. Gov. Jackson left St. Louis for Jefferson City, burning the 
railroad bridges behind him, and cutting telegraph wires. 

June 12, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation calling into active 
service 50,000 militia, "to repel invasion, protect life, property, etc." 

June 15, 1861. Col. F. P. Blair took possession of the State Capital, Gov. 
Jackson, Gen. Price and other officers having left on the 13th of June for Boon- 
ville. 

June 17, 1861. Battle of Boonville took place between the forces of Gen. 
Lyon and Col. John S. Marmaduke. 

June 18, 1861. General Lyon issued a proclamation to the people of Mis- 
souri. 

July 5, 1861. Battle at Carthage between the forces of Gen. Sigeland Gov. 
Jackson. 

July 6, 1861. Gen. Lyon reached Springfield. 

July 22, 1 86 1. State convention met and declared the offices of Governor, 
Lieutenant-Governor and Secretary of State vacated. 

July 26, 1 86 1. Gen. John C. Fremont assumed command of the Western 
•Department, with headquarters in St. Louis. 

July 31, 1 861. Lieutenant-Governor Thomas C. Reynolds, issued a procla- 
mation at New Madrid. 

August I, 186 1. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation at Bloom- 
field. 

August 2, 1861. Battle of Dug Springs, between Captain Steele's forces and 
General Rains. 

August 5, 1861. Governor Jackson issued a proclamation at New Madrid. 

August 5, 186 1. Battle of Athens. 

August 10, 1 86 1. Bnttle of Wilson's Creek, between the forces under Gen- 
eral Lvon Tnd General McCuUoch. In this engagement General Lyon was killed. 
General Sturgis succeeded General Lyon. 



44 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

August 12, 1864. McCulloch issued a proclamation, and soon left Missouri. 

August 20, 1864. General Price issued a proclamation. 

August 24, 1861. Governor Gamble issued a proclamation calling for 32,000 
men for six months to protect the property and lives of the citizens of the State. 

August 30, 1861. General Fremont declared martial law, and declared that 
the slaves of all persons who should thereafter take an active part with the enemies 
of the Government should be free. 

September 2, 1861. General Jeff. Thompson issued a proclamation in re- 
sponse to Fremont's proclamation. 

September 7, 1861. Battle at Drywood creek. 

September 11, 1861. President Lincoln modified the clause in Gen. Fre- 
mont's declaration of martial law, in reference to the confiscation of property and 
liberation of slaves. 

September 12, 1861. General Price begins the attack at Springfield on Colo- 
nel Mulligan's forces. 

September 20, 1861. Colonel Mulligan with 2,640 men surrendered. 

October 25, 1861. Second battle at Springfield. 

November 2, 1861. General Fremont succeeded by General David Hunter. 

November 7, i86i. General Grant attacked Belmont. 

November 9, 1861. General Hunter succeeded by General Halleck, who took 
command on the 19th of same month, with headquarters in St. Louis. 

November 27, 1861. General Price issued proclamation calling for 50,000 
men, at Neosho, Missouri. 

December 12, 1861. General Hunter issued his order of assessment upon cer- 
taiti wealthy citizens in St. Louis, for feeding and clothing Union refugees. 

December 23-25. Declared martial law in St. Louis and the country adja- 
cent, and covering all the railroad lines. 

March 6, 1862. Battle at Pea Ridge between the forces under Generals Curtis 
and Van Dorn. 

January 8, 1862. Provost Marshal Farrar, of St. Louis, issued the following 
order in reference to newspapers : 

Office of the Provost Marshal, 
General Department of Missouri. 
St. Louis, January 8, 1862 

(General Order No. 10.) 

It is hereby ordered that from and after this date the publishers of newspapers 
in the State of Missouri, (St. Louis City papers excepted), furnish to this office, 
immediately upon publication, one copy of each issue, for inspection. A failure 
to comply with this order will render the newspaper liable to suppression. 

Local Provost Marshals will furnish the proprietors with copies of this order, 
and attend to its immediate enforcement. 

Bernard G. Farrar, 

Provost Marshal General. 

January 26, 1862. General Halleck issued order (No. 18) which forbade, among 
other things, the display of Secession flags in the hands of women or on carriages, 
in the vicinity of the military prison in McDowell's College, the carriages to be 
confiscated and the offending women to be arrested. 

February 4, 1862. General Halleck issued another order similar to Order No. 
18, to railroad companies and to the professors and directors of the State Univer- 
sity at Columbia, forbidding the funds of the institution to be used "to teach 
treason or to instruct traitors." 

February 20, 1862. Special Order No. 120 convened a military commission, 
which sat in Columbia, March following, and tried Edmund J. Ellis, of Columbia, 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 45 

editor and proprietor of ** The Boone County Standard,'" for the publication of 
information for the benefit of the enemy, and encouraging resistance to the United 
States Government. Ellis was found guilty, was banished during the war from 
Missouri, and his printing materials confiscated and sold. 

April, 1862. General Halleck left for Corinth, Mississippi, leaving General 
Schofield in command. 

June, 1862. Battle at Cherry Grove between the forces under Colonel Jos. 
C. Porter and Colonel H. S. Lipscomb. 

June, 1862. Battle at Pierce's Mill between the forces under Major John 
Y. Clopper and Colonel Porter. 

July 22, 1862. Battle at Florida. 

July 28, 1862. Battle at Moore's Mill. 

August 6, 1862. Battle near Kirksville. 

August II, 1862. Battle at Independence. 

August 16, 1862. Battle at Lone Jack. 

September 13, 1862. Battle at Newtonia. 

September 25, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners were executed at Macon by 
order of General Merrill. 

October 18, 1862. Ten Confederate prisoners executed at Palmyra by order 
of General McNeill. 

January 8, 1863. Battle at Springfield between the forces of General Mar- 
maduke and General E. B. Brown. 

April 26, 1863. Battle at Cape Girardeau. 

August — , 1863. General Jeff. Thompson captured at Pocahontas, Arkan- 
sas, with his staff. 

August 25, 1863. General Thomas Ewing issued his celebrated Order No. 
II, at Kansas City, Missouri, which is as follows : 

Headquarters District of the Border, ) 
Kansas City Mo., August 25, 1863. ) 
(General Order No. 11.) 

First. — All persons living in Cass, Jackson and Bates counties, Missouri, and 
in that part of Vernon included in this district, except those living within one 
mile of the limits of Independence, Hickman's Mills, Pleasant Hill and Harrison- 
ville, and except those in that part of Kaw township, Jackson county, north of 
Brush Creek and west of the Big Blue, embracing Kansas City and Westport, are 
hereby ordered to remove from their present places of residence within fifteen days 
from the date hereof. 

Those who, within that time, establish their loyalty to the satisfaction of the 
commanding officer of the military station nearest their present places of residence, 
will receive from him certificates stating the fact of their loyalty, and the names 
of the witnesses by whom it can be shown. All who receive such certificate will 
be permitted to remove to any mihtary station in this district, or to any part of the 
State of Kansas, except the counties on the eastern borders of the State. All others 
shall remove out of this district. Officers commanding companies and detach- 
ments serving in the counties named, will see that this paragraph is promptly 
obeyed. 

Second. — All grain and hay in the field, or under shelter, in the district from 
which the inhabitants are required to remove within reach of mUitary stations, 
after the 9th day of September next, will be taken to such stations and turned 
over to the proper officer there, and report of the amount so turned over made to 
district headquarters, specifying the names of all loyal owners and the amount of 
such produce taken from them. All grain and hay found in such district after 
the 9th day of September next, not convenient to such stations, will be destroyed. 

Third. — The provisions of General Order No. 10, from these headquarters, 



46 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



will at once be vigorously executed by officers commanding in the parts of the 
district, and at the stations not subject to the operations of paragraph First of this 
Order — and especially in the towns of Independence, Westport and Kansas City. 

Fourth — Paragraph 3, General Order No. 10, is revoked as to all who have 
borne arms against the government in the district since August 20, 1863. 
By order of Brigadier-General Ewing. 

H. HANNAHS, Adjutant. 

October 12-13, Battle of Arrow Creek. 

January, 1864, General Rosecrans takes command of the Department. 

September, 1864, Battle at Pilot Knob, Harrison and Little Morceau River, 

October 5, 1864, Battle at Prince's Ford and James Gordon's farm. 

October 8, 1864, Battle at Glasgow. 

October 20, 1864, Battle at Little Blue Creek. 

September 27, 1864, Massacre at Centralia, by Captain Bill Anderson. 

October 27, 1864, Capt. Anderson killed. 

December — , 1864, General Rosecrans relieved, and General Dodge ap 
pointed to succeed him. 

Nothing occurred specially, of a military character, in the State after Decem- 
ber, 1864. We have, in the main, given the facts as they occurred without com- 
ment or entering into details. Many of the minor incidents and skirmishes of 
the war have been omitted because of our limited space. 

It is utterly impossible, at this date, to give the names and dates of all the 
battles fought in Missouri during the civil war. It will be found, however, that 
the list given below, which has been arranged for convenience, contains the 
prominent battles and skirmishes which took place within the State : 



Potosi, May 14, 1861. 
Boonville, June 17, 1861. 
Carthage, July 5, 1861. 
Monroe Station, July 10, 1861. 
Overton's Run, July 17, 1861. 
Dug Spring, August 2, 1861. 
Wilson's Creek, August 9, 1861. 
Athens, August 5, 1861. 
Moreton, August 20, 1861. 
Bennett's Mills, September — , 1861. 
Drywood Creek, September 7, 1861. 
Norfolk, September 10, 1861. 
Lexington, September 12-20, 1861. 
Blue Mills Landing, September 17, 

1861. 
Glasgow Mistake, September 20, 1861. 
Osceola, September 25, 1861. 
Shanghai, Oct. 13, 1861. 
Lebanon, Oct. 13, 1861. 
Linn Creek, Oct. 15, i86r. 
Big River Bridge, Oct. 15, i86i. 
Fredericktown, Oct. 21, 1861. 
Springfield, Oct. 25, 1861. 
Belmont, Nov, 7, 1861. 
Piketon, Nov. 8, 186 1. 
Little Blue, Nov. 10, 1861. 
Clark's Station, Nov. 11, 1861. 
Zion Church, Dec. 28, 187 1. 



Silver Creek, Jan. 15, 1862. 
New Madrid, Feb. 28, 1862. 
Pea Ridge, March 6, 1862. 
Neosho, April 22, 1862. 
Rose Hill, July 10, 1862. 
Chariton River, July 30, 1862. 
Cherry Grove, June — , 1862. 
Pierces Mill, June — , 1862. 
Florida, July 22, 1862. 
Moore's Mill, July 28, 1862. 
Kirksville, Aug. 6, 1862. 
Compton's Ferry, Aug 8, 1862. 
Yellow Creek, Aug. 13, 1862. 
Independence, Aug. 11, 1862. 
Lone Jack, Aug. 16, 1862. 
Newtonia, Sept. 13, 1862. 
Springfield, Jan. 8, 1863. 
Cape Girardeau, April 29, 1863. 
Arrow Rock, Oct 12 and 13, 1863. 
Pilot Knob, Sept. — , 1864. 
Harrison, SeJDt. — , 1864. 
Moreau River, Oct. 7, 1864. 
Prince's Ford, Oct. 5, 1864. 
Glasgow, Oct. 8, 1864. 
Little Blue Creek, Oct. 20, 1864. 
Albany, Oct. 27, 1864. 
Near Rocheport, Sept. 23, 1864. 
Centralia, Sept. 27, 1864. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 47 

CHAPTER IX. 

EARLY MILITARY RECORD. 

Black Hawk War — Mormon Difficulties — Florida War — Mexican War, 

On the 14th day of May, 1832, a bloody engagement took place between the 
regular forces of the United States, and a part of the Sacs, Foxes, and Winneba- 
goe Indians, commanded by Black Hawk and Keokux, near Dixon's Ferry in 
Illinois. 

The Governor (John Miller) of Missouri, fearing these savages would invade 
the soil of his State, ordered Major-General Richard Gentry to raise one thou- 
sand volunteers for the defense of the frontier. Five companies were at once 
raised in Boone county, and in Callaway, Montgomery, St. Charles, Lincoln, 
Pike, Marion, Ralls, Clay and Monroe other companies were raised. 

Two of these companies, commanded respectively by Captain John Jaimison, 
of Callaway, and Captain David M. Hickman, of Boone county, were mustered 
into service in July for thirty days, and put under command of Major Thomas W. 
Conyers. 

This detachment, accompanied by General Gentry, arrived at Fort Pike on the 
15th of July, 1832. Finding that the Indians had not crossed the Mississippi into 
Missouri, General Gentry returned to Columbia, leaving the fort in charge of 
Major Conyers. Thirty days having expired, the command under Major Con- 
yers was relieved by two other companies under Captains Sinclair Kirlley, of Boone, 
and Patrick Ewing, of Callaway. This detachment was marched to Fort Pike by Col. 
Austin A. King, who conducted the two companies under Major Conyers home. 
Major Conyers was left in charge of the fort, where he remained till September 
following, at which time the Indian troubles, so far as Missouri was concerned, 
having all subsided, the frontier forces were mustered out of service. 

Black Hawk continued the war in Iowa and Illinois, and was finally defeated 
and captured in 1833. 

MORMON DIFFICULTIES. 

In 1832, Joseph Smith, the leader of the Mormons, and the chosen prophet 
and apostle, as he claimed, of the Most High, came with many followers to Jack- 
son county, Missouri, where they located and entered several thousand acres of 
land. 

The object of his coming so far West — upon the very outskirts of civilization 
at that time — was to more securely establish his church, and the more effectively 
to instruct his followers in its peculiar tenets and practices. 

Upon the present town site of Independence the Mormons located their 
"Zion," and gave it the name of "The New Jerusalem." They published here 
The Evening Siar, and made themselves generally obnoxious to the Gentiles, who 
were then in a minority, by their denunciatory articles through their paper, their 
clannishness and their polygamous practices. 

Dreading the demoralizing influence of a paper which seemed to be inspired 
only with hatred and malice toward them, the Gentiles threw the press and type 
into the Missouri river, tarred and feathered one of their bishops,' and otherwise 
gave the Mormons and their leaders to understand that they must conduct them- 
selves in an entirely different manner if they wished to be let alone. 

After the destruction of their paper and press, they became furiously incensed, 
and sought many opportunities for retaliation. Matters continued in an uncertain 



48 HISTORY OF MISSOURT. 

condition until the 31st of October, 1833, when a deadly conflict occurred near 
WestpoTt, in which two Gentiles and one Mormon were killed. 

On the 2d of November following the Mormons were overpowered, and com- 
pelled to lay down their arms and agree to leave the county with their families by 
January ist on the condition that the owner would be paid for his printing press. 

Leaving Jackson county, they crossed the Missouri and located in Clay, Car- 
roll, Caldwell and other counties, and selected in Caldwell county a town site, 
which they called " Far West," and where they entered more land for their future 
homes. 

Through the influence of their missionaries, who were exerting themselves ii? 
the East and in different portions of Europe, converts had constantly flocked to 
their standard, and "Far West," and other Mormon settlements, rapidly 
prospered. 

In 1837 they commenced the erection of a magnificent temple but never 
finished it. As their settlements increased in numbers, they became bolder in 
their practices and deeds of lawlessness. 

During the summer of 1838 two of their leaders settled in the town of De- 
Witt, on the Missouri river, having purchased the land from an Illinois merchant. 
DeWitt was in Carroll county, and a good point from which to forward goods and 
immigrants to their town — Far West. 

Upon its being ascertained that these parties were Mormon leaders, the Gen- 
tiles called a public meeting, which was addressed by some of the prominent 
citizens of the county. Nothing, however, was done at this meeting, but at a 
subsequent meeting, which was held a few days afterward, a committee of citi- 
zens was appointed to notify Col. Hinkle (one of the Mormon leaders at DeWitt), 
what they intended to do. 

Col. Hinkle upon being notified by this committee became indignant, and 
threatened extermination to all who should attempt to molest him or the Saints. 

In anticipation of trouble, and believing that the Gentiles would attempt to 
force them from DeWitt, Mormon recruits flocked to the town from every direc- 
tion, and pitched their tents in and around the town in great numbers. 

The Gentiles, nothing daunted, planned an attack upon this encampment, 
to take place on the 21st day of September, 1838, and, accordingly, one hundred 
and fifty men bivouacked near the town on that day. A conflict ensued, but 
nothing serious occurred. 

The Mormons evacuated their works and fled to some log houses, where they 
could tl,e more successfully resist the Gentiles, who had in the meaniime returned 
to their camp to await reinforcements. Troops from Howard, Ray and other 
counties came to their assistance, and increased their number to five hundred 
men. 

Congreve Jackson was chosen Brigadier-General ; Ebenezer Price, Colonel ; 
Singleton Vaughan, Lieutenant-Colonel, and Sarchel Woods, Major. After some 
days of discipline, this brigade prepared for an assault, but before the attack was 
commenced Judge James Earickson and William F. Dunnica, influential citizens 
of Howard county, asked permission of General Jackson to let them try and ad- 
just the difficulties without any bloodshed. 

It was finally agreed that Judge Earickson should propose to the Mormons 
that, if they would pay for all the cattle they had killed belonging to the citizens, 
and load their wagons during the night and be ready to move by ten o'clock next 
morning, and make no further attempt to settle in Howard county, the citizens 
would purchase at first cost their lots in DeWitt and one or two adjoining tracts 
of land. 

Col. Hinkle, the leader of the Mormons, at first refused all attempts to settle 
the difficulties in this way, but finally agreed to the proposition. 

In accordance therewith, the Mormons without further delay, loaded up their 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 49 

wagons for the town of Far West, in Caldwell county. Whether the terms of the 
agreement were ever carried out, on the part of the citizens, is not known. 

The Mormons had doubtless suffered much and in many ways — the result of 
their own acts — but their trials and sufferings were not at an end. 

In 1838 the discord between the citizens and Mormons became so great that 
Governor Bog'gs issued a proclamation ordering Major-General David R. Atchi- 
son to call the militia of his division to enforce the laws. He called out a part of 
the ist brigade of the Missouri State Mihtia, under command of General A. W. 
Doniphan, who proceeded to the seat of war. General John B. Clark, of Howard 
county was placed in command of the militia. 

The Mormon forces numbered about i,ooo men, and were led by G. W. 
Hinkle. The first engagement occurred at Crooked river, where one Mormon 
was killed. The principal fight took place at Haughn's Mills, where eighteen 
Mormons were killed and the balance captured, som.e of them being killed after 
they had surrendered. Only one militiaman was wounded. 

In the month of October, 1838, Joe Smith surrendered the town of Far West 
to General Doniphan, agreeing to his conditions, viz. : That they should deliver 
up their arms, surrender their prominent leaders for trial, and the remainder of the 
Mormons should, with their families, leave the State. Indictments were found 
against a number of these leaders, including Joe Smith, who, while being taken to 
Boone county for trial, made his escape, and was afterward, in 1844, killed at 
Carthage, Illinois, with his brother Hyrum. 

FLORIDA WAR. 

In September, 1837, the Secretary of War issued a requisition on Governor 
Boggs, of Missouri, for six hundred volunteers for service in Florida against the 
Seminole Indians, with whom the Creek nation had made common cause under 
Osceola. 

The first regiment was chiefly raised in Boone county by Colonel Richard 
Gentry, of which he was elected Colonel; John W. Price, of Howard county, 
Lieutenant-Colonel; Harrison H. Hughes, also of Howard, Major, Four com- 
panies of the second regiment were raised and attached to the first. Two of these 
companies were composed of Delaware and Osage Indians. 

October 6, 1837, Col. Gentry's regiment left Columbia for the seat of war, 
stopping on the way at Jefferson barracks, where they were mustered into service. 

Arriving at Jackson barracks, New Orleans, they were from thence trans- 
ported in brigs across the Gulf to Tampa Bay, Florida. General Zachary Taylor, 
who then commanded in Florida, ordered Col. Gentry to march to Okee-cho-bee 
Lake, one hundred and thirty-five miles inland by the route traveled. Having 
reached the Kissemmee river, seventy miles distant, a bloody battle ensued, in 
which Col. Gentry was killed. The Missourians, though losing their gallant 
leader, continued the fight until the Indians were totally routed, leaving many of 
their dead and wounded on the field. There being no further service required 
of the Missourians, they returned to their homes in 1838. 

• MEXICAN WAR. 

Soon after Mexico declared war, against the United States, on the 8th and 
9th of May, 1846, the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma were fought. 
Great excitement prevailed throughout the country. In none of her sister States 
however, did the fires of patriotism burn more intensely than in Missouri. Not 
waiting for the call for volunteers, the " St. Louis Legion " hastened to the field 
of conflict. The "Legion" was commanded by Colonel A. R. Easton. During 
the month of May, 1846, Governor Edwards, of Missouri, called for volunteers 
to join the " Army of the West," an expedition to Santa Fe — under command of 
General Stephen W. Kearney. 



50 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

Fort Leavenworth was the appointed rendezvous for the volunteers By 
the i8th of June, the full complement of companies to compose the first regi- 
ment had arrived from Jackson, Lafayette, Clay, Saline, Franklin, Cole, Howard 
and Callaway counties. Of this regmient A. W. Doniphan was made Colonel ; 
C. F. Ruff, Lieutenant-Colonel, and William Gilpin, Major. The battalion of 
light artillery from St. Louis was commanded by Captains R. A. Weightman and 
A. W. Fischer, with Major M. L. Clark as field officer; battalions of infantry 
from Platte and Cole counties commanded by Captains Murphy and W. Z. 
Augney respectively, and the " Laclede Rangers," from St. Louis, by Captain 
Thomas B. Hudson, aggregating all told, from Missouri, 1,658 men. In the 
summer of 1846 Hon. Sterling Price resigned his seat in Congress and raised one 
mounted regiment, one mounted extra battalion, and one extra battalion of Mor- 
mon infantry to reinforce the " Army of the West. " Mr. Price was made colonel, 
and D. D. Mitchell lieutenant-colonel. 

In August, 1847, Governor Edwards made another requisition for one thou- 
sand men, to consist of infantry. The regiment was raised at once. John 
Dougherty, of Clay county, was chosen colonel, but before the regiment marched 
the President countermanded the order. 

A company of mounted volunteers was raised in Ralls county, commanded 
by Captain Wm, T. Lalfland. Conspicuous among the engagements in which 
the Missouri volunteers participated in Mexico were the battles of Brazito, Sacra- 
mento, Canada, El Embudo, Taos and Santa Cruz de Rosales. The forces from 
Missouri were mustered out in 1848, and will ever be remembered in the history 
of the Mexican war, for 

•* A thousand glorious actions that might claim 
Triumphant laurels, and immortal fame." 



CHAPTER X. 
AGRICULTURE AND MATERIAL WEALTH. 

Missouri as an Agricultural State — Tke Different Crops — Live Stock — Horses — Mules — Milch Cows 
— Oxen and other Cattle — Sheep — Hogs — Comparisons — Missouri Adapted to Live Stock — 
Cotton — Broom-Corn and other Products — Fruits — Berries — Grapes — Railroads — First Neigh 
of the ^^ Lron Horse" in Missouri — Names of Railroads — Manufactures — Great Bridge at St. 
Louis. 

Agriculture is the greatest among all the arts of man, as it is the first in supply- 
ing his necessities. It favors and strengthens population ; it creates and maintains 
manufactures ; gives employment to navigation and furnishes materials to com- 
merce. It animates every species of industry, and opens to nations the safest 
channels of wealth. It is the strongest bond of well regulated society, the surest 
basis of internal peace, and the natural associate of correct morals. Among all 
the occupations and professions of life, there is none more honorable, none more 
independent, and none more conducive to health and happiness. 

** In ancient times the sacred plow employ'd 
The kings, and awful fathers of mankind ; 
And some, with whom compared, your insect tribes 
Are but the beings of a summer's day, 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 61 

Have held the scale of empire, ruled the storm 
Of mighty war with unwearied hand, 
Disdaining little delicacies, seized 
The plow and greatly independent lived." 

As an agricultural region, Missouri is not surpassed by any State in the Union. 
It is indeed the farmer's kingdom, where he always reaps an abundant harvest. 
The soil, in many portions of the State, has an open, flexible structure, quickly 
absorbs the most excessive rains, and retains moisture with great tenacity. This 
being the case, it is not so easily affected by drouth. The prairies are covered 
with sweet, luxuriant grass, equally good for grazing and hay; grass not surpassed 
by the Kentucky blue grass — the best of clover and timothy in growing and fat- 
tening cattle. This grass is now as full of life-giving nutriment as it was when 
cropped by the buffalo, the elk, the antelope and the deer, and costs the herds- 
man nothing. 

No State or Territory has a more complete and rapid system of natural 
drainage, or a more abundant supply of pure, fresh water than Missouri. Both 
man and beast may slake their thirst from a thousand perennial fountains, which 
gush in limpid streams from the hill-sides, and wend their way through verdant 
valleys and along smiling prairies, varying in size, as they onward flow, from the 
diminutive brooklet to the giant river. 

Here, nature has generously bestowed her attractions of climate, soil and 
scenery to please and gratify man while earning his bread in the sweat of his brow. 
Being thus munificently endowed, Missouri offers superior inducements to the 
farmer, and bids him enter her broad domain and avail himself of her varied re- 
sources. 

We present here a table showing the product of each principal crop in 
Missouri for 1878. 

Indian Corn 93,062,000 bushels 

AVheat 20,196,000 " 

Rye 732,000 '* 

Oats 19,584,000 ** 

Buckwheat . 46,400 " 

Pota oes 5,415,000 '* 

Tobacco 23,023,000 pounds 

Hay 1,620,000 tons 

There were 3,552,000 acres in corn; wheat, 1,836,000; rye, 48,800: oats, 
640,000; buckwheat, 2,900; potatoes, 72,200; tobacco, 29,900; hay, 850,000. 
Value of each crop: corn, $24,196,224; wheat, $13,531,320; rye, $300,120; 
oats, $3,325,120; buckwheat, $24, 128; potatoes, $2,057,700; tobacco, $1,151,- 
150; hay, $10,416,600. 

Average cash value of crops per acre, $7.69; average yield of corn per acre, 
26 bushels; wheat, 11 bushels. 

Next in importance to the corn crop in value is live stock. The following 
table shows the number of horses, mules and milch cows in the different States 
for 1879: 

STATES. HORSES. MULES. MILCH COWS. 

Maine , 81,700 ...... 169,100 

New Hampshire . . 57,100 98,100 

Vermont 77,400 217,800 

Massachusetts . , . 131,000 160,700 

Rhode Island . . , 16,-200 22,000 

Connecticut. . , , 53,500 116,500 



62 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

STATES. HORSES. MULES. MILCH COWS. 

New York , 898,900 11,800 . . . ^ , , 1,446,200 

New Jersey . . . . 114,500 14,400 152,200 

Pennsylvania .... 614,500 24,900 828,400 

Delaware 19,900 4,000 23,200 

Maryland 108,600 11,300 100,500 

Virginia 208,700 30,600 236,200 

North Carolina . . , 144,200 74,000 232,300 

South Carolina . . . 59,600 51,500 131,300 

Georgia 119,200 97,200 273,100 

Florida. . . , . , 22,400 11,900 70,000 

Alabama 112,800 111,700 .,..., 215,200 

Mississippi . . , , 97,200 100,000 188,000 

Louisiana 79,300 80,700 110,900 

Texas 618,000 180,200 544,500 

Arkansas . . . . • 180,500 89,300 ...... 187,700 

Tennessee .... 323,700 .... , 99,700 245,700 

West Virginia . . . 122,200 2,400 130,500 

Kentucky 386,900 117,800 257,200 

Ohio ...,,... 772,700 26,700 714,100 

Michigan 333>8oo 4,300 416,900 

Indiana 688,800 ...... 61,200 439,200 

IlHnois 1,100,000 138,000 702,400 

Wisconsin 384,400 8,700 477,300 

Minnesota 247,300 7,000 278,900 

Iowa 770,700 43,400 676,200 

Missouri 627,300 191,900 516,200 

Kansas 275,000 50,000 321,900 

Nebraska 157,200 13,600 127,600 

California 273,000 25,700 459,600 

Oregon 109,700 3, 500 .... . , 112,400 

Nev., Col. and Ter's . 250,000 25*700 423,600 

It will be seen from the above table, that Missouri is the fifth State in the 
number of horses; fifth in number of milch-cows, and the leading State in num- 
ber of mules, having 11,700 more than Texas, which produces the next largest 
number. Of oxen and other cattle, Missouri produced in 1879, 1,632,000, which 
was more than any other State produced excepting Texas, which had 4,800,000. 
In 1879 Missouri raised 2,817,600 hogs, which was more than any other State 
produced, excepting Iowa. The number of sheep, was 1,296,400. The num- 
ber of hogs packed in 1879, by the different States, is as follows: 

STATES. NO. STATES. NO. 

Ohio 932,878 Missouri 965,839 

Indiana 622,321 Wisconsin 472,108 

Illinois 3,214,896 Kentucky , , ,212,412 

Iowa 569>763 

Average weight per head for each State : 

STATES. pounds. STATES. POUNDS. 

Ohio 210.47 Missouri 213.32 

Indiana 193.80 Wisconsin. 220.81 

Illinois 225.71 Kentucky 2io.ii 

Iowa 211.98 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 53 

From the above, it will be seen that Missouri annually packs more hogs 
than any other State excepting Illinois, and that she ranks third in the average 
weight. 

We see no reason why Missouri should not be the foremost stock-raising 
State of the Union. In addition to the enormous yield of corn and oats upon 
which the stock is largely dependent, the climate is well adapted to their growth 
and health. Water is not only inexhaustible, but everywhere convenient. The 
ranges for stock are boundless, affording for nine months of the year, excellent 
pasturage of nutritious wild grasses, which grow in great luxuriance upon the 
thousand prairies. 

Cotton is grown successfully in many counties of the southeastern portions 
of the State, especially in Stoddard, Scott, Pemiscot, Butler, New Madrid, Law- 
rence and Mississippi. 

Sweet potatoes are produced in abundance and are not only sure but profi- 
table. 

Broom corn, sorghum, castor beans, white beans, peas, hops, thrive well, and 
all kinds of garden vegetables, are produced in great abundance and are found 
in the markets during all seasons of the year. Fruits of every variety, including 
the apple, pear, peach, cherries, apricots and nectarines, are cultivated with 
great success, as are also, the strawberry, gooseberry, currant, raspberry and black- 
berry. 

The grape has not been produced, with that success that was at first antici- 
pated, yet the yield of wine for the year 1879, was nearly half a million of gallons. 
Grapes do well in Kansas, and we see no reason why they should not be as sure- 
ly and profitably grown in a similar climate and soil in Missouri, and particularly 
in many of the counties north and east of the Missouri River. 

RAILROADS. 

Twenty-nine years ago, the neigh of the "iron horse" was heard for the first 
lime, within the broad domain of Missouri. His coming presaged the dawn of a 
brighter and grander era in the history of the State. Her fertile prairies, and more 
prolific valleys would soon be of easy access to the oncoming tide of immigration, 
and the ores and minerals of her hills and mountains would be developed, and 
utilized in her manufacturing and industrials enterprises. 

Additional facilities would be opened to the marts of trade and commerce ; 
transportation from the interior of the State would be secured; a fresh impetus 
would be given to the growth of her towns and cities, and new hopes and inspi- 
rations would be imparted to all her people. 

Since 1852, the initial period of railroad building in Missouri, between four 
and five thousand miles of track have been laid; additional roads are now being 
constructed, and many others in contemplation. The State is already well sup- 
plied with railroads which thread her surface in all directions, bringing her 
remotest districts into close connection with St. Louis, that great center of west- 
ern railroads and inland commerce. These roads have a capital stock, aggregat- 
ing more than one hundred millions of dollars, and a funded debt of about the 
same amount. 

The lines of railroads which are operated in the State are the following : 

Missouri Pacific — chartered May loth, 1850; The St. Louis, Iron Mountain 
& Southern Railroad, which is a consolidation of the Arkansas Branch; 
The Cairo, Arkansas & Texas Railroad. The Cairo & Fulton Railroad : The 
St. Louis, Kansas City & Northern Railway; St. Louis & San Francisco Railway; 
The Chicago, Alton & St. Louis Railroad; The Hannibal & St. Joseph Rail- 
road ; The Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad ; The Illinois, Missouri & Texas 
Railroad; The Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs Railroad ; The Keokuk 
& Kansas City Railway Company ; The St. Louis, Salem & Litde Rock Rail- 



54 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 



road Company; The Missouri & Western; The St, Louis, Keokuk & North- 
western Railroad ; The St. Louis, Hannibal & Keokuk Railroad ; The Missouri, 
Iowa & Nebraska Railway; The Quincy, Missouri & Pacific Railroad; The 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway ; The Burlington & Southwestern Rail- 
road. 

' , MANUFACTURES. 

The natural resources of Missouri especially fit her for a great manufacturing 
State. She is rich in soil; rich in all the elements which supply the furnace, the 
machine shop and the planing mill; rich in the multitude and variety of her gi- 
gantic forests; rich in her marble, stone and granite quarries; rich in her mines 
of iron, coal, lead and zinc; rich in strong arms and willing hands to apply the 
force; rich in water power and river navigation; and rich in her numerous and 
well-built railroads, whose numberless engines thunder along their multiplied track- 
ways. 

Missouri contains over fourteen thousand manufacturing establishments, 
1,965 of which are using steam and give employment to 80,000 hands. The cap- 
ital employed is about $100,000,000, the material annually used and worked up, 
amounts to over $150,000,000 and the value of the products put upon the markets 
$250,000,000, while the wages paid, are more than $40,000,000. 

The leading manufacturing counties of the State, are St. Louis, Jackson, Buc- 
hanan, St. Charles, Marion, Franklin, Green, Lafayette, Platte, Cape Giardeau, 
and Boone. Three-fourths, however, of the manufacturing is done in St. Louis, 
which is now about the second manufacturing city of the Union. Flouring mills 
produce annually about $38,194,000; carpentering $18,763,000; meat-packing 
$16,769,000; tobacco $12,496,000; iron and castings $12,000,000; liquors $11,- 
245,000; clothing $10,022,000; lumber $8,652,000; bagging and bags $6,914,- 
000, and many other smaller industries in proportion. 

GREAT BRIDGE AT ST. LOUIS. 

Of the many public improvements which do honor to the State and reflect 
great credit upon the genius of their projectors, we have space only, to mention 
the great bridge at St. Louis. 

This truly wonderful construction is built of tubular steel, total length of 
which, with its approaches, is 6,277 feet, at a cost of nearly $8,000,000. The 
bridge spans the Mississippi from the Illinois to the Missouri shore, and has sep- 
arate railroad tracts, roadways, and foot paths. In durability, architectural beau- 
ty and practical utility, there is, perhaps, no similar piece of workmanship that 
approximates it. 

The structure of Darius upon the Bosphorus ; of Xerxes upon the Hellespont; 
of CjBsar upon the Rhine ; and Trajan upon the Danube, famous in ancient histo- 
ry, were built for military purposes, that over them might pass invading armies 
with their munitions of war, to destroy commerce, to lay in waste the provinces, 
and to slaughter the people. 

But the erection of this was for a higher and nobler purpose. Over it are 
coming the trade and merchandise of the opulent East, and thence are passing 
the untold riches of the West. Over it are crowding legions of men, armed not 
with the weapons of war, but the implements of peace and industry ; men who 
are skilled in all the arts of agriculture, of manufacture and of mining; men who 
will hasten the day when St. Louis shall rank in population and importance, sec- 
ond to no city on the continent, and when Missouri shall proudly fill the measure 
of greatness, to which she is naturally so justly entitled. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 55 

CHAPTER XI. 
EDUCATION. 

Pubtic School System — Public School System of Missouri — Lincoln Institute — Officers of Public 
School System — Certificates of Teachers — University of Missouri — Schools — Colleges — InstitU' 
tions of Learning — Location — Libraries — Newspapers and Periodicals — No. of School Chil- 
dren — Amount Expended — Value of Grounds and Buildings — •' The Press." 

The first constitution of Missouri provided, that "one school or more, shall 
be established in each township, as soon as practicable and necessary, where the 
poor shall be taught gratis." 

It will be seen that even at that early day, (1820), the framers of the con- 
stitution made provision for at least a primary education, for the poorest and the 
humblest, taking it for granted that those who were able would avail themselves 
of educational advantages which were not gratuitous. 

The establishment of the public school system in its essential features, was 
not perfected until 1839, during the administration of Governor Boggs, and since 
that period, the system has slowly grown into favor, not only in Missouri, but 
throughout the United States. The idea of a free or public school for all classes 
was not at first a popular one, especially among those who had the means to pat- 
ronize private institutions of learning. In upholding and maintaining public 
schools, the opponents of the system felt that they were not only compromising 
their own standing among their more wealthy neighbors, but that they were to 
some extent, bringing opprobrium upon their children. Entertaining such preju- 
dices they naturally thought that the training received in public schools, could not 
be otherwise than defective, hence many years of probation passed, before the 
popular mind was prepared to appreciate the benefits and blessings which spring 
from these institutions. 

Every year only adds to their popularity, and commends them the more 
earnestly to the fostering care of our State and National Legislatures, and to the 
esteem and favor of all classes of our people. 

We can hardly conceive of two grander and more potent promoters of civili- 
zation, than the free school and the free press. They would indeed seem to con- 
stitute all that was necessary to the attainment of the happiness and intellectual 
growth of the Republic and all that was necessary to broaden, to liberalize and 
instruct. 

"Tis education forms the common mind; 

*^ *t# vL> •d^ aX* %Lr sL* 

^^ ^* ^y* ^^ ^^ ^> ^^ 

*' For noble youth there is nothing so meet 
As learning is, to know the good from ill; 
To know the tongues, and perfectly indite, 
And of the laws to have a perfect skill. 
Things to reform as right and justice will, 
For honor is ordained for no cause 
But to see right maintained by the laws." 

All the States of the Union, have in practical operation the public school 
system, governed in the main by similar laws, and not differing materially in the 
manner and methods by which they are taught, but none have a wiser, a more 
liberal and comprehensive machinery of instruction than Missouri, Her school 
laws since 1839, have undergone many changes, and always for the better, keep. 



56 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

ing pice with the most enlightened and advanced theories of the most experienc- 
ed ed icators in the land. But not until 1875, when the new constitution was 
adopteJ, did her present admirable system of public instruction go into effect. 

Provisions were made not only for white, but for children of African descent, 
and are a part of the organic law, not subject to the caprices of unfriendly legisla- 
tures, or the whims of political parties. The Lincoln Institute, located at Jeffer- 
son Ci y, for the education of colored teachers, receives an annual appropriation 
from t'.ie General Assembly. 

Fjr the support of the public schools, in addition to the annual income de- 
rived from the public school fund, which is set apart by law, not less than twenty- 
five p.'r cent, of the State revenue, exclusive of the interest and sinking fund, is 
annually applied to this purpose. 

The officers having in charge the public school interests, are the State 
"Board of Education;" the State Superintendent; County Superintendent; 
County Clerk and Treasurer; Board of Directors; City and Town School Board; 
and Teacher. The State Board of Education is composed of the State Superin- 
tendent, the Governor, Secretary of State and the Attorney General, the execu- 
tive officer of this Board, being the State Superintendent, who is chosen by the 
people every four years. His duties are numerous. He renders decisions con- 
cerning the local application of school law ; keeps a record of all the school funds 
and annually distributes the same to the counties ; supervises the work of county 
school officers ; delivers lectures ; visits schools ; distributes educational informa- 
tion; grants certificates of higher qualifications ; and makes an annual report 
to the General Assembly of the condition of the schools. 

The County Superintendents are also elected by the people for two years. 
Their work is to examine teachers, to distribute blanks and make reports. Coun- 
ty clerks receive estimates from the local directors and extend them upon the 
tax-books. In addition to this, they keep the general records of the county and 
township school funds, and return an annual report of the financial condition of 
the schools of their county to the State Superintendent. School taxes are gather- 
ed with other taxes by the county collector. The custodian of the school funds 
belonging to the schools of the counties, is the county treasurer, except in coun- 
ties adopting the township organization, in which case, the township trustee 
discharges these duties. 

Districts organized under the special law for cities and towns are governed 
by a board of six directors, two of whom are selected annually, on the second Sat- 
urday in September, and hold their office for three years. 

One director is elected to serve for three years in each school district, at the 
annual meeting. These directors may levy a tax not exceeding forty per cent, on 
the one hundred dollars valuation, provided such annual rates for school purposes 
may be increased in districts formed of cities and towns, to an amount not to ex- 
ceed one dollar on the hundred dollars valuation ; and in other districts to an amount 
not to exceed sixty five cents on the one hundred dollars valuation, on the condi- 
tion that a majority of the voters who are tax-payers, voting at an election held to 
decide the question, vote for said increase. For the purpose of erecting public 
buildings in school districts, the rates of taxation thus limited, may be increased 
when the rate of such increase and the purpose for which it is intended shall have 
been submitted to a vote of the people, and two-thirds of the qualified voters of 
such school district voting at such election shall vote therefor. 

Local directors may direct the management of the school in respect to the 
choice of teachers and other details, but in the discharge of all important business, 
such as the erection of a school house or the extension of a term of school beyond 
the constitutional period, they simply execute the will of the people. The clerk 
of this board may be a director. He keeps a record of the names of all the chil- 
dren and youth in the district between the ages of five and twenty-one; records 



58 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

all business proceedings of f e district, and reports to the annual meeting, to the 
County Clerk and County Superintendents. 

Teachers must hold a certificate from the State Superintendent or County 
Commissioner of the county where they teach. State certificates are granted upon 
personal written examinations in the common branches, together with the natural 
sciences and higher mathematics. The holder of such certificate may teach in any 
public school of the State without further examination. Certificates granted by 
County Commissioners are of two classes, with two grades in each class. Those 
issued for a longer term than one year, belong to the first class and are suscepti- 
ble of two grades, diifering both as to length of time and attainments. Those 
issued for one year may represent two grades, marked by qualification alone. 
The township school fund arises from a grant oflandby the General Government, 
consisting of section sixteen in each congressional township. The annual income 
of the township fund is appropriated to the various townships, according to their 
respective proprietary claims. The support from the permanent funds is supple- 
mented by direct taxation laid upon the taxable property of each district. The 
greatest limit of taxation for the current expenses is one per cent. ; the tax per- 
mitted for school-house building cannot exceed the same amount. 

Among the institutions of learning and ranking, perhaps, the first in impor- 
tance, is the State University located at Columbia, Boone county. When the 
State was admitted into the Union, Congress granted to it one entire township of 
land (46,080 acres) for the support of " A Seminary of Learning." The lands 
secured for this purpose are among the best and most valuable in the State. 
These lands were put upon the market in 1832 and brought $75,000, which 
amount was invested in the stock of the old bank of the State of Missouri, where 
it remained and increased by accumulation to the sum of ^100,000. In 1839 by 
an act of the General Assembly, five commissioners were appointed to select a site 
for the State University, the site to contain at least fifty acres of land in a com- 
pact form, within two miles of the county seat of Cole, Cooper, Howard, Boone, 
Callaway or Saline. Bids were let among the counties named and the county ol 
Boone having subscribed the sum of$ii7,92i, some$i8,ooo more than any other 
county, the State University was located in that county, and on the 4th of July, 
1840, the corner-stone was laid with imposing ceremonies. 

The present annual income of the University is nearly $65,000. There are 
still unsold about 200,000 acres of land from the grant of 1862. The donations 
to the institutions connected therewith amount to nearly $400,000. This Uni- 
versity with its different departments, is opened to both male and female and 
both sexes enjoy alike its rights and privileges. Among the professional schools, 
which form a part of the University, are the Normal, or College of Instruction in 
Teaching; the Agricultural and Mechanical College; the School of Mines and 
Metallurgy; the College of Law ; the Medical College; and the Department of 
Analytical and Applied Chemistry. Other departments are contemplated and 
will be added as necessity requires. 

The following will show the names and locations of the schools and institu- 
tion of the State as reported by the Commissioner of Education in 1875 • 

UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES. 

Christian University Canton. 

St. Vincent's College *. Cape Girardeau. 

University of Missouri Columbia. 

Central College Fayette. 

Westminster College Fulton. 

Lewis College . ' Glasgow. 

Pritchett School Institute Glasgow. 

Lincoln College Greenwood. 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 59 

Hannibal College Hannibal. 

Woodland College Independence. 

Thayer College Kidder. 

La Grange College • • . . La Grange. 

William Jewell College ♦ Liberty. 

Biptist College Louisiana. 

St. Joseph College St. Joseph. 

College of Christian Brothers St. Louis. 

St. Louis University St. Louis. 

Washington University • ■ .St. Louis. 

Drury College . . Springfield. 

Central Wesleyan College Warrenton. 

FOR SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION OF WOMEN. 

St. Joseph Female Seminary St. Joseph. 

Christian College Columbia. 

Stephens' College Columbia. 

Howard College Fayette. 

Independence Female College Independence. 

Central Female College Lexington. 

Clay Seminary Liberty. 

Ingleside Female College • Palmyra. 

Linden Wood College for Young Ladies St Charles. 

Mary Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 

St. Louis Seminary St. Louis. 

Ursuline Academy St. Louis. 

FOR SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. 

Arcadia College Arcadia. 

St. Vincent's Academy Cape Girardeau. 

Chillicothe Academy Chillicothe. 

Grand River College . Edinburgh. 

Marionville Collegiate Institute Marionville. 

Palmyra Seminary Palmyra. 

St. Paul's College Palmyra. 

Van Rens elaer Academy Rensselaer. 

Shelby High School Shelbyville. 

Stewartville Male and Female Seminary Stewartsville. 

SCHOOLS OF SCIENCE. 

Missouri Agricultural and Mechanical College (University of Missouri) . Columbia. 

Schools of Mines and Metallurgy (University of Missouri) Columbia. 

Polytechnic Institute (Washington University) St. Louis. 

SCHOOLS OF THEOLOGY. 

St. Vincent's College (Theological Department) Cape Girardeau. 

Westminster College (Theological School) Fulton 

Vardeman School of Theology (William Jewell College) Liberty. 

Concordia College St. Louis. 

SCHOOLS OF LAW. 

Law School of the University of Missouri Columbia. 

Law School of the Washington University * • ... St. Louis. 



60 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

SCHOOLS OF MEDICINE. 

Medical College, University of Missouri Columbia. 

College of Physicians and Surgeons St. Joseph. 

Kansas City College of Physicians and Surgeons Kansas City. 

Hospital Medical College St. Joseph. 

Missouri Medical College St. Louis. 

Northwestern Medical College St. Joseph. 

St. Louis Medical College St. Louis. 

Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri St. Louis. 

Missouri School of Midwifery and Diseases of Women and Children . St. Louis. 

Missouri Central College St. Louis. 

St. Louis College of Pharmacy , . St. Louis. 

LARGEST PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 
NAME. LOCATION VOLUMES 

St. Vincent's College Cape Girardeau 5)5oo 

Southeast Missouri State Normal School. . . Cape Girardeau 1^225 

University of Missouri Columbia 10,000 

Athenian Society Columbia 1,200 

Union Literary Society -Columbia • • • 1,200 

Law College Columbia 1,000 

Westminster College Fulton 5, 000 

Lewis College Glasgow 3,000 

Mercantile Library Hannibal 2,219 

Library Association Independence i.ioo 

Fruitland Normal Institute Jackson 1,000 

State Library Jefferson City 13,000 

Fetterman's Circulating Library Kansas City 1,300 

Law Library Kansas City 3,000 

Whittemore's Circulating Library Kansas City 1,000 

North Missouri State Normal School .... Kirksville 1,050 

William Jewell College •. . Liberty 4,000 

St. Paul's College Palmyra 2,000 

Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy . . RoUa 1,478 

St. Charles Catholic Library St. Charles 1,716 

Carl Frielling's Library St. Joseph 6,000 

Law Library St. Joseph 2,000 

Public School Library St. Joseph 2,500 

Walworth & Colt's Circulating Library . . .St. Joseph 1,500 

Academy of Science St. Louis 2,744 

Academy of Visitation St. Louis 4,000 

College of the Christian Brothers St. Louis 22,000 

Deutsche Institute St. Louis 1,000 

German Evang. Lutheran, Concordia College . St. Louis 4,800 

Law Library Association St. Louis 8,000 

Missouri Medical College St. Louis 1,000 

Mrs. Cuthberts Seminary (Young Ladies) . . St. Louis 1,500 

Odd Fellows Library St. Louis 4,000 

Public School Library St. Louis 40,097 

St. Louis Medical College . , St. Louis 1,100 

St. Louis Mercantile Library St. Louis 45,000 

St. Louis Seminary St. Louis 2,000 

St. Louis Turn Verein St. Louis 2,000 

St. Louis University . , St. Louis 17,000 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 61 

NAME. LOCATIONi VOLUMES. 

St. Louis University Society Libraries . . . .St. Louis 8,oco 

Ursuline Academy St. Louis 2,000 

Washington University St. Louis 4,500 

St. Louis Law School St. Louis 3, coo 

Young Men's Sodality . St. Louis 1327 

Library Association Sedalia 1,500 

Public School Library Sedalia 1,015 

Drury College Springfield 2,000 

IN 1880. 
Newspapers and Periodicals • 481 

CHARITIES. 

State Asylum for Deaf and Dumb ....*... Fulton. 

St. Bridget's Institution for Deaf and Dumb St. Louis. 

Institution for the Education of the Bhnd St. Louis. 

State Asylum for Insane Fulton. 

State Asylum for the Insane St. Louis. 

NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

Normal Institute Bolivar. 

Southeast Missouri State Normal School Cape Girardeau. 

Normal School (University of Missouri) Columbia. 

Fruitland Normal Institute Jackson. 

Lincoln Institute (for colored) Jefferson City. 

City Normal School St. Louis. 

Missouri State Normal School Warrensburg. 

IN 1880. 
Number of School Children 

IN 1878. 

, Estimated value of School Property $8,321,399 

Total Receipts for Public Schools 4,207,617 

Total Expenditures 2,406,139 

NUMBER OF TEACHERS. 

Male Teachers 6,239; average monthly pay $36.86. 

Female Teachers 5, 060; average monthly pay 28.09. 

The fact that Missouri supports and maintains four hundred and seventy-one 
newspapers and periodicals, shows that her inhabitants are not only a reading and 
reflecting people, but that they appreciate " The Press," and its wonderful influ- 
ence as an educator. The poet has well said : 

But mightiest of the mighty means, 
On which the arm of progress leans, 
Man's noblest mission to advance. 
His woes assuage, his weal enhance, 
His rights enforce, his wrongs redress — 
Mightiest of mighty is the Press. 



62 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

CHAPTER XII. 
RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. 

Baptist Church — Its History — Congregational — When Founded — lis History — Christian Church 
— Its History — Cumberland Presbyterian Cliurch — Its History — Methodist Ep-scopal Chwcn 
— Its History — Presbyterian Church — Its History — Protestant Episcopal Church — Its History 
— United Presbyterian Church — Its History — Unitarian Church — Its History — Roman Cith 
otic CliurcJi — Its History. 

The first representatives of religious thought and training, who penetrated 
the Missouri and Mississippi Valleys, were Pere Marquette, La Salle and others 
of Catholic persuasion, who performed missionary labor among the Indians. A 
century afterward came the Protestants. At that early period 

"A church in every grove that spread 
Its living roof above their heads." 

constituted for a time, their only house of worship, and yet to them 

"No Temple built with hands could vie 
In glory with its majesty." 

In the course of time, the seeds of Protestantism were scattered along the 
shores of the two great rivers which form the eastern and western boundaries of 
the State, and still a little later they were sown upon her hill-sides and broad 
prairies, where they have since bloomed and blossomed as the rose. 

BAPTIST CHURCH. 

The earliest Anti- Catholic religious denomination, of which there is any 
record, was organized in Cape Girardeau county in 1806, through the efforts of 
Rev. David Green, a Baptist, and a native of Virginia. In 1816, the first associa- 
tion of Missouri Baptists was formed, which was composed of seven churches, all 
of which were located in the southeastern part of the State. In 181 7 a second 
association of churches was formed, called the Missouri Association, the name' 
being afterwards changed to St. Louis Association. In 1834, a general conven- 
tion of all the churches of this denomination, was held in Howard County, for 
the purpose of effecting a central organization, at which time; was commenced 
what is now known, as the "General Association of Missouri Baptists." 

To this body, is committed the State mission work, denominational educa 
tion, foreign missions and the circulation of religious literature. The Baptist 
Church has under its control, a number of schools and colleges, the most import- 
ant of which is William Jewell College, located at Liberty, Clay County. As 
shown by the annual report for 1875, there were in Missiouri, at that date, sixty- 
one associations, one thousand four hundred churches, eight hundred and twenty- 
four ministers and eighty-nine thousand six hundred and fifty church members. 

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, 

The Congregationalists inaugurated their missionary labors in the State in 
1814. Rev. Samuel J- Mills, of Torringford, Connecticut, and Rev. Daniel 
Smith, of Bennington, Vermont, were sent west by the Massachusetts Congrega- 
tion Home Missionary Society during that year, and in November, 1814, they 
preached the first regular Protestant sermons in St. Louis. Rev. Salmon Gid- 
dings, sent out under the auspices of the Connecticut Congregational Missionary 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 63 

Society, organized the first Protestant church in the city, consisting often members, 
constituted Presbyterian. The churches organized by Mr. Giddings were all 
Presbyterian in their order. 

No exclusively Congregational Church was founded until 1852, when the 
** First Trinitarian Congregational Church of St. Louis" was organized. The 
next church of this denomination was organized at Hannibal in 1859. Then 
followed a Welsh church in New Cambria in 1864, and after the close of the war, 
fifteen churches of the same order were formed in different parts of the State. 
In 1866, Pilgrim Church, St. Louis, was organized. The General Conference of 
Churches of Missouri was formed in 1865, which was changed in 1868, to Gener- 
al Association. In 1866, Hannibal, Kidder, and St. Louis District Associations 
were formed, and following these, were the Kansas City and Springfield District 
Associations. This denomination in 1875, had 70 churches, 41 ministers, 3,363 
church members, and had also several schools and colleges and one monthly 
newspaper. 

CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 

The earliest churches of this denomination were organized in Callaway, 
Boone and Howard Counties, some time previously to 1829. The first church 
was formed in St. Louis in 1836 by Elder R. B. Fife. The first State Sunday 
School Convention of the Christian Church, was held in Mexico in 1876. Be- 
sides a number of private institutions, this denomination has three State Institu- 
tions, all of which have an able corps of professors and have a good attendance 
of pupils. It has one religious paper published in St. Louis, "7%^ Christian,^^ 
which is a weekly publication and well patronized. The membership of this 
church now numbers nearly one hundred thousand in the State and is increasing 
rapidly. It has more than five hundred organized churches, the greater portion 
of which are north of the Missouri River. 

CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

In the spring of 1820, the first Presbytery of this denomination west of the Mis- 
sissippi, was organized in Pike County. This Presbytery included all the territory 
of Missouri, western Illinois and Arkansas and numbered only four ministers, two 
of whom resided at the time in Missouri. There are now in the State, twelve 
, Presbyteries, three Synods, nearly three hundred ministers and over twenty thou- 
sand members. The Board of Missions is located at St. Louis. They have a 
number of High Schools and two monthly papers published at St. Louis. 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

In 1806, Rev. John Travis, a young Methodist minister, was sent out to the 
"Western Conference" which then embraced the Mississippi .Valley, from Green 
County, Tennessee. During that year Mr. Travis organized a number of small 
churches. At the close of his conference year, he reported the result of his 
labors to the Western Conference, which was held at Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1870, and 
showed an aggregate of one hundred and six members and two circuits, one 
called Missouri and the other Meramec. In 1808, two circuits had been formed, 
and at each succeeding year the number of circuits and members constantly in- 
creased, until 181 2, when what was called the Western Conference was divided 
into the Ohio and Tennessee Conferences, Missouri falling into the Tennessee 
Conference. In 1 816, there was another division when the Missouri Annual Con- 
ference was formed. In 1810, there were four traveling preachers and in 1820, 
fifteen traveling preachers, with over 2,000 members. In 1836, the territory of 
the Missouri Conference was again divided when the Missouri Conference includ- 
ed only the State. In 1840 there were 72 traveling preachers, 177 local ministers 
and 13,992 church members. Between 1840 and 1850, the church was divided 



64 HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 

by the organization of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. In 1850, the mem- 
bership of the M. E. Church was over 25,000, and during the succeeding ten 
years the church prospered rapidly. In 1875, the M. E. Church reported 274 
church edifices and 34,156 members; the M. E. Church, South, reported 443 
church edifices and 49,588 members. This denomination has under its control 
several schools and colleges and two weekly newspapers. 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

The Presbyterian Church dates the beginning of their missionary efforts in 
the State as far back as 1814, but the first Presbyterian Church was not organized 
until 18 1 6 at Bellevue settlement eight miles from St. Louis. The next churches 
were formed in 1816 and in 1817 at Bonhomme, Pike County. The First Pres- 
byterian Church was organized in St. Louis in 18 17, by Rev. Salmon Giddng. 
The first Presbytery was organized in 181 7 by the Synod of Tennessee with four 
ministers and four churches. The first Presbyterian house of worship (which 
was the first Protestant) was commenced in 1719 and completed in 1826. In 
1820 a mission was formed among the Osage Indians. In 183 i, the Presbytery 
was divided into three : Missouri, St. Louis and St. Charles. These were erected 
with a Synod comprising eighteen ministers and twenty-three churches. 

The church was divided in 1838, throughout the United Stales. In i860 the 
rolls of the Old and New School Synods together showed 109 ministers and 146 
churches. In 1866 the Old School Synod was divided on political questions 
springing out of the war — a part forming the Old School, or Independent Synod 
of Missouri, who are connected with the General Assembly South. In 1870, the 
Old and New School Presbyterians united, since which time this Synod has stead- 
ily increased until it now numbers more than 12,000 members with more than 220 
churches and 150 ministers. 

This Synod is composed of six Presbyteries and has under its control one or 
two institutions of learning and one or two newspapers. That part of the origi- 
nal Synod which withdrew from the General Assembly remained an independent 
body until 1874 when it united with the Southern Presbyterian Church. The 
Synod in 1875 numbered 80 ministers, 140 churches and 9,000 members. It has 
under its control several male and female institutions of a high order. The St 
Louis Presbyterian, a weekly paper, is the recognized organ of the Synod. 

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH. , 

The missionary enterprises of this church began in the State in 1819, when 
a parish was organized in the City of St. Louis. In 1828, an agent of the Do- 
mestic and Foreign Missionary Society, visited the city, who reported the condi- 
tion of things so favorably that Rev. Thomas Horrell was sent out as a missionary 
and in 1825, he began his labors in St. Louis. A church edifice was completed 
in 1830. In 1836, there were five clergyman of this denomination in Missouri, 
who had organized congregations in Boonville, Fayette, St. Charles, Hannibal 
and other places. In 1840, the clergy and laity met in convention, a diocese 
was formed, a constitution and canons adopted, and in 1844 a Bishop was chosen, 
he being the Rev. Cicero S. Hawks. 

Through the efforts of Bishop Kemper, Kemper College was founded near 
St. Louis, but was afterward given up on account of pecuniary troubles. In 
1847, the Clark Mission began and in 1849 the Orphans Home, a charitable in- 
stitution was founded. In 1865, St. Luke's Hospital was established. In 1875, 
there were in the city of St. Louis, twelve parishes and missions and twelve cler- 
gymen. This denomination has .several schools and colleges, and one newspaper. 

UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

This denomination is made up of the member of the Associate and Associate 
Reformed churches of the Northern States, which two bodies united in 1858, taking 



HISTORY OF MISSOURI. 65 

the name of United Presbyterian Church of North America. Its members were 
generally bitterly opposed to the institution of slavery. The first congregation 
was organized at Warrensburg, Johnson county in 1867. It rapidly increased in 
numbers, and had, in 1875, ten ministers and five hundred members. 

UNITARIAN CHURCH. 

This church was formed in 1834, by Rev. W. G. Eliot, in St. Louis. The 
churches are few in number throughout the State, the membership being probably 
less than 300, all told. It has a mission house and free school, for poor children, 
supported by donations. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

The earliest written record of the Catholic Church in Missouri shows that 
Father Watrin performed ministerial services in Ste. Genevieve, in 1760, and in 
St. Louis in 1766. In 1770, Father Meurin erected a small log church in St. 
Louis. In 181 8, there were in the State, four chapels, and for Upper Louisiana, 
seven priests. A college and seminary were opened in Perry county about this 
period, for the education of the young, being the first college west of the Missis- 
sippi River. In 1824, a college was opened in St. Louis, which is now known as 
the St. Louis University. In 1826, Father Rosatti was appointed Bishop of St. 
Louis, and, through his instrumentality, the Sisters of Charity, Sisters of St. 
Joseph and of the Visitation were founded, besides other benevolent and charita- 
ble institutions. In 1834 he completed the present Cathedral Church. Churches 
were built in different portions of the State. In 1847 St. Louis was created an 
arch-diocese, with Bishop I^enrick, Arch-Bishop. 

In Kansas City there are five parish churches, a hospital, a convent and sev- 
eral parish schools. In 1868 the northwestern portion of the State was erected 
into a separate diocese, with its seat at St. Joseph, and Right-Reverend John J. 
Hogan appointed Bishop. There were, in 1875, ^^ ^^^ City of St, Louis, 34 
churches, 27 schools, 5 hospitals, 3 colleges, 7 orphan asylums and 3 female pro- 
tectorates. There were also 105 priests, 7 male, and 13 female orders, and 20 
conferences of St. Vincent de Paul, numbering 1,100 members. In the diocese, 
outside of St. Louis, there is a college, a male protectorate, 9 convents, about 120 
priests, 150 churches and 30 stations. In the diocese of St. Joseph there were, 
in 1875, 21 priests, 29 churches, 24 stations, i college, 1 monastery, 5 convents 
and 14 parish schools. 

Number of Sunday Schools in 1878 2,067 

Number of Teachers in 1878 ,. 18,010 

Number of Pupils in 1878 I39>578 

THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS. 

Instruction preparatory to ministerial work is given in connection with col- 
legiate study, or in special theological courses, at : 

Central College, (M. E. South) Fayette. 

Central Wesleyan College (M, E. Church) Warrenton. 

Christian Univesity (Christian) Canton. 

Concordia College Seminary CEnvangelical Lutheran) St. Louis. 

Lewis College (M. E. Church) Glasgow. 

St. Vincent's College (Roman Catholic) Cape Girardeau. 

Vardeman School of Theology (Baptist) Liberty. 

The last is connected with William Jewell College. 



History of St. Louis. 



ST. LOUIS. 

Her First Settlement — Arrival of the First Steamboat — Removal of the Capital to Jefferson 
City — When Incorporated — Population by Decades — First Lighted by Gas — Death of one 
of her Founders, Pierre Chouteau — Cemeteries — Financial Crash — Bondholders and 
Coupon-clippers — Value of Heal and Personal Property — Manufacturers— Criticism. 

It was nearly a century and a quarter ago that St. Louis's first arrival 
proclaimed the site of the future metropolis of the Mississippi Yalley, In 
1762 M. Pierre Laclede Liquestc and his two companions, Auguste and 
tierre Chouteau, landed upon the site which was destined to become a 
great city. They were the avant-couriers and principal members of a com- 
pany which had certain privileges secured to them by the governor of the 
Territory of Louisiana, which then included the whole of Missouri, tliat of 
trading with the Indians, and which was known as the Louisiana Fur Com- 
pany, with the privilege further granted of establishing such posts as their 
business might demand west of the Mississippi and on the Missouri rivers. 
They had been on a prospecting tour and knew something of the country, 
and on February 15, 1T74, Laclede, with the above named companions, took 
possession of the ground which is now the city of St. Louis. They estab- 
lished a trading-post, took formal possession of the countrj^ and called theii 
post St. Louis. In 1768 Captain Rios took possession of the post as a part of 
Spanish territory, ceded to it by France by the treaty of Paris, and it re- 
mained under the control of successive Spanish governors until March 10, 
1804. The Spanish government, by the treaty of San Ildefonso in 1800, 
retroceded the territory to France, and, by purchase, France ceded the whole 
country to the United States, April 30, 1803. In October of the same year 
Congress passed an act approving the purchase, and authorizing the pi-esi- 
dent to take possession of the country or Territorj'^ of Louisiana. This was 
done February 15, 1804, when Captain Amos Stoddard, of the United States 
army, and the agent of the United States, received from Don Carlos De- 
hault Delapus, a surrender of the post of St. Louis and the Territory of 
Upper Louisiana. On the 10th of March the keys to the government house 
and the archives and public propert}' were turned over or delivered to the 
representative of the United States, the Spanish flag was lowered, the stars 



HISTORY OF ST. LOUIS. 67 

and stripes thrown to the breeze, accompanied witli the roar of artillery and 
music, and the transfer was complete. In 1805 St. Louis liad its first post- 
office established, and the place was incorporated as a town in 1809. It did not 
grow very fast, but was the recognized headquarters for the territory of the 
west and northwest. The French from Indiana and other points had settled 
there, and the town was decidedly Frencli in its character and population. 
The Missouri Fur Company which had its headquarters there was organized 
in 1808, of which Pierre Chouteau was the head. His associates were 
Manuel Lisa, Wm. Clark, Sylvester Labadie, and others, and such familiar 
names as the Astors, Bent, Sublette, Cabanne, General Ashly and Robert 
Campbell were prominently identified with the town and its progress. The 
first paper was issued July 2, 1808. 

In 1812 the Territory of Louisiana, or that part north, was changed and 
named the Territory of Missouri, and was given Territorial rights, with a 
representation on the fioor of Congress. St, Louis was the seat of the Ter- 
ritorial government until 1820, and the first legislature met in that town, 
and part of its proceedings was the removal of the seat of the government 
to St. Charles, where it remained until located at Jefferson City in 1826. 
In 1822 St. Louis began to take on more style, and was incorporated as a 
city December 9th of that year. There had been a bank established in 

1817, and quite a large number of business houses were built and occupied, 
and a number of loan offices chartered. When St. Louis became an Ameri- 
can city her population was 925; this was in 1804. When the Territory 
was named Missouri, and she was the seat of government in 1812, her pop- 
ulation had reached 2,000. AVilliam Deckers laid the first pavement in 

1818. A ferry had been started in 1804. The first steamboat arrived in 
1817. It was a low-pressure steamboat, built at Pittsburgh, and named the 
General Pike. It arrived August 2d, and was greeted by the entire popula- 
tion, who gazed upon her with wonder and astonishment. The Indians 
were a badly scared crowd, and could not be induced to come near it. The 
first steamboat stemmed the tide of the Missouri in 1819, and the same 
year the first steamboat from New Orleans put in its appearance at St. 
Louis. It was twenty-seven days en route. 

BOUNDARIES AND INCORPORATION. 

In 1820 the pojDulation had reached 4,928, and when incorporated in 
1822 was believed to number about 5,000, not much immigration having 
come in. The boundary lines of the city when she received her charter 
were defined as follows: The line commencing at the middle of Mill Creek, 
just below the gas works, thence west to Seventh Street and up Seventh 
Street to a point due west of " Roy's Tower," thence to the river. The city 
plat embraced 385 acres of ground. 

The first churcli was built in 1824, and was of the Presbyterian denomi- 
nation. The second was an Episcopal Church, erected in 1825. A new 



68 HISTORY OF ST. LOUIS, 

court-house was built in 1827, and also a market-house. These old-time 
landmarks have long since disappeared, and no mark is left to tell the tale 
of their being. The spot or location is recorded, but what that availeth is 
not of comprehension to the generation of to-day. 

ADVANCEMENT. 

The first brick house was said to have been erected in 1814. The first 
mayor of the city was "Wm. 0. Lane. The St. Louis University was founded 
in 1829; the Catholic Cathedral was completed in 1832 and consecrated by 
Bishop Rosetti. 

In 1833 the population of St. Louis was about six thousand, and the tax- 
able property, real and personal, aggregated $2,745,000. St. Louis, like 
all other cities, felt the blighting efiects of the financial crash of 1837, 
still her progress was not wholly checked. Her vitality was great and her 
resources spread over the territory, in many cases, out of the reach of the 
troubles of the times. Her fur trade was immense and the crash had little 
to do with that, so that while slie felt the depression in her financial circles, 
her commercial prosperity was in no wise checked. There is very little more 
in the history of St. Louis to record than the noting of her general prosper- 
ity and steady onward progress for the next decade. 

Her population in 1840 had risen to 16,469, and in 1844, 34,140. The 
population had more than doubled in four years. Fine buildings had arisen 
in place of the old fur warehouses of the early French settlers. Stately res- 
idences appeared in the suburbs; and in all that gave promise of a great and 
influential city, she had advanced and was advancing rapidly. The Mercantile 
Library was founded in 1848, and gas had been introduced the year pre- 
vious, the city being first lighted on the night of November 4, 1847. Li the 
great cholera year, 1849, the disease assumed an epidemic form, and of that 
dread scourge the people had a fearful experience. The progress of St. Louis 
had been handsomely commemorated on the eighty-third anniversary of its 
founding, the date being February 15, 1847. Among the living, and the 
only survivor of the memorable trio who first landed and located the city, 
was the venerable Pierre Chouteau, who, with his brother, had accompanied 
Laclede Liqueste, to locate a trading-post for the fur company of which they 
were members. He was a prominent figure in the celebration, and though 
at an advanced age, he was in the enjoj^ment of his full faculties, and was 
keenly alive to the wonderful progress of the city in the eighty-three years 
of its life. In 1849, the epidemic year, all that was mortal of Pierre Chou- 
teau was consigned to its last resting-place, and with him all living memory 
ceased of the first settlement and of the rise and progress of the city. From 
that date history could record but written facts, the oral record had ceased 
to exist. His elder brother, Auguste Chouteau, had preceded him to the 
mystic beyond, having departed this life in February, 1829. 



HISTORY OF ST. LOUIS. ' 69 

EXTENSION OF CITY LIMITS. 

The city limits had been greatly extended in 1841, embracing an area of 
two thousand six hundred and thirty acres, instead of the three hundred 
and eighty-five acres in December, 1822. This showed the wonderful growth 
of the city, which, even then, was contracted, and its suburbs were fast fill- 
ing up. 

The Institution for the Blind was incorporated in 1851, and the popula- 
tion had increased to 94,000 in 1852. 

CEMETERIES. 

St. Louis took pride in her " cities of the dead," for she has several ceme- 
teries, with wooded dales and sylvan retreats, well suited as the last resting- 
place of those whose remains are deposited in the " Silent City." We will 
speak here of only two, because of the care taken of them, tlieir size, and 
their rich and diversified surroundings, which give them a lonely, yet pleas- 
ant look, to all who visit them. The Bellefontaine was purchased by an as- 
sociation of gentlemen who secured an act of incorporation in 1849, and at 
once commenced the improvement of the ground. In 1850 the first sale of 
lots took place. The cemetery comprises two hundi'ed and twenty acres of 
land. The Calvaiy Cemetery has 320 acres, of which 100 are laid out and 
improved. This resting-place of the dead was purchased in 1852, by the 
Archbishop of the Diocese of St. Louis, and like tlie first above mentioned, 
is a lovely and secluded spot, well suited for the purpose intended. 

BRIDGE DISASTER. 

In 1854 the terrible accident, known as the Gasconade Bridge disaster, 
occurred, when many prominent citizens of St. Louis lost their lives. 

FINANCIAL CRASH. 

In 1857 the financial crash had a greater efiect upon St. Louis than the 
one of 1837. Her merchants had been prosperous and extended their line 
of credits and the rapidly growing city had brought many new and venture- 
some people, who, believing in its future, had embarked in business enter- 
prises which rec[uired a few more years of steady rise and progress to place 
them on a stable foundation. These, of course, went down in the general 
crash, but the stream was only temporally dammed, and the debris was soon 
cleared away. The flood-tide had set toward the west, and the greater the 
crash the greater swelled the tide of immigration toward the setting sun. 

The era of a healtliy, and it would seem, permanent prosperity, again 
dawned upon tlie metropolis of the Mississippi Yalley in 1861, and this time 
not even the civil war, which then begran to cast its baleful shadow over the 
Union, checked its onward career, and at the opening of this terrible drama 
St. Louis claimed a population of 187,000 souls. The war added to its 



70 HISTORY OF ST. LOUIS. 

financial and commercial prosperity, for it became the entrepot of supplies 
for the army of tlie southwest, and the headquarters of army operations. 
The valuation of real estate and personal property which had only been a 
little risin_^ two and a half millions of dollars in 1833, was now, in 1860, 
$73,765,670. 

What the war added was more in the line of its financial and commercial 
development than in the spreading of its area or the building up of its waste 
places, but when war's fierce alarm had ceased the tide began to flow west- 
ward, and with it came the building mania, for homes and houses had to be 
provided for tlie rush of new-comers. 

Chicago, which had nearly monopolized the railroads as an objective point, 
seemed now to have secured all that would pay, and St. Louis became the 
focus of all eyes. Kansas, Colorado and the Southwest began to loom up in 
its agricultural and mineral resources; the vast quantities of land which had 
been voted by venal congressmen to great railroad corporations were now 
thrown upon the market, and Kansas became a leading State for the attrac- 
tion of the emigrant. In this more railroads were necessary, and the great 
crossing of the Mississippi was at St. Louis. Then the bridging of that great 
river commenced, Capt. Eads having made known his plans for this important 
work soon after the close of the war. The jubilee was not enjoyed, however, un- 
til 1874, when, on July 4th, the bridge was completed and opened to the rail- 
way companies. This was another era which marked a rapid progress in 
the future city of the valley. Sixteen separate and distinct lines of railway 
centered at St. Louis with completion of the bridge, and from those lines 
and the river trafiic, St. Louis was evidently sure of lier future. 

BONDHOLDERS AND COUPON-CLIPPERS. 

It was only when a concentration of wealth took a new departure that the 
glorious future whicli appeared so near became so far. The energy and en- 
terprise of the people had, in a large measure, previous to the war, been used 
toward building up the city, and embarking in manufactures, etc., but soon 
after the war that wealth was turned into government bonds and the energy 
and enterprise were concentrated by these rich holders in cutting coupons 
off of these same bonds every three months, and with few exceptions they 
are still at the exhaustive work. Whatever of advanced progress has been 
given to St. Louis the past ten years, outside of her Aliens, Stannards, and 
perhaps a score of others, has been by the new arrivals. It was, in '69 or 
'70, that her local papers were prospecting on the enervating influence that 
a hundred first-class funerals would have on the material prosperity of the 
" Future Great." The liglit and airy business of coupon-clipping had be- 
come epidemic, and millions of dollars which ought to have been invested in 
manufacturing and other enterprises, were sunk in the maelstrom of govern- 
ment bonds, and, so far as tlie material adv^ancement of the city was con- 
cerned, might as well have been buried in the ocean. Still St. Louis ini- 



I 



HISTORY OF ST. LOUIS. 71 

proved, for new arrivals of the progressive order seeing an opening would 
drop in, and those who could not clip coupons for a business worked on as 
their limited capital would permit. And so it was found that in 1870 real 
estate had reached $119,080,800, while personal property was $147,969,660. 
In 1875 the value of real estate had advanced $12,000,000, reaching the 
gross sum of $131,141,000, and personal property $166,999,660, a gain of 
nearly $20,000,000 in five years. The valuation January 1, 1879, was, of real 
estate, $140,976,540, and personal property, $172,829,980, or a total valua- 
tion of real and personal property of $313,806,520, with a population of 
about 340,000. Great advancement had taken place in blocks of magnifi- 
cent buildings, in the increase of her wholesale trade, in the area of her city 
limits, in the enlargement of her working jDopulation, so that the coupon- 
clippers who had stood at the front in 1870 now held a rear position, and 
were rather looked down upon as drones of society, wrapped in self and the 
vanity of self importance, and of little use to the progress or to the det- 
riment of the great city. Railroads run to every point of the compass. Her 
tunnel and the union depot had become a fixed fact, macadamized roads led 
to all parts of the country, miles upon miles of streets were paved and side- 
walks laid with substantial brick or stone, street cars to every part of the 
city, and the river-front flashing with trafiic, which, in point of develop- 
ment, has exceeded the most sanguine expectation of those who had believed 
in its future, while the expressions of those who had built their faith on the 
railroads depriving a free water-course of the wealth of her ofiering has 
been simply one of astonishment. 

ST. LOUIS PARKS. 

In one respect St. Louis has exhibited commendable sense in having se- 
cured a number of parks, breathing places for her industrial population and 
pleasant drives for her wealthy citizens. There are no less than seventeen 
of these beautiful places, many of them small, but so scattered about the 
city as to be convenient to all her citizens. Her great park, whicli is called 
"Forest Park," has !,372 acres, and the city has expended in purchases, 
laying out and beautifying the grounds, nearly one million of dollai'S. Cor- 
ondelet Park has an area of 183.17 acres, O'Fallan Park has an area of 158.32 
acres, and Tower Grove Park 270 acres. These are the largest, the oth- 
ers ]"epresent but a small number of acres each. Of the smaller ones, Lafayette 
Park leads with twenty-six acres, while the smallest, Jackson Place, has less 
than two acres. 

BUILDINGS AND BANKS. 

There were 1,318 brick and 369 frame buildings put up in 1878, at a cost 
of $3,000,000. A very fine custom-house is approaching completion. They 
had, January 1, 1879, twenty-nine banks in St. Louis, five of which were 
national banks. The combined capital of all was $12,406,019. Thi'^ shows 



72 HISTORY 01'' ST. LOUIS. 

a healthy progress, hut one of not more than ordinary in the line of huild- 
ing improvements. It should have reached ten millions to show that ad- 
vanced progress becoming a city which claims it is destined to become the 
central sun of the great Mississip])i Yalley. 

In 1878 there was 2,291 arrivals of steamboats, and 2,348 departures. The 
commerce of the river was some half a million of dollars. The new barge, 
lines and the wheat movement down the Mississippi for the year 1881, in^ 
eluding her other river traffic, will undoubtedly double the business bf 187S. 
The figures are not in, butthe first half year has made a wonderful increase. 
Her commerce is steadily improving. There is not an article of domestic 
produce but has rapidly advanced in the amount received the past few years. 
The cereals and stock, cattle, sheep and hogs, also the roots and vegetables, 
have rapidly grown in quantity. St. Louis is the greatest mule market in 
the world. 

In its public buildings the United States custom-house stands first. A 
massive building of white granite occu2)ying a whole square, and when fin- 
ished will have cost $6,000,000. The business in the custom department 
will exceed two millions dollars the first year of its opening. The Cham- 
ber of Commerce is another magnificent structure just completed at a cost 
of $1,800,000. The county court-house, which also takes a square of ground, 
and is built in the shape of a Greek cross, with a fine dome, cost $2,000,000. 
The county building, known as the " Four Courts," and the city ])rison is a 
beautiful three story, and half basement structure, which cost $1,250,000. 
The Polytechnic Institute costing $800,000, and the magnificent Southern 
Hotel finished, and occupied May, 1881, at a cost of $1,250,000 for building 
and furniture. 

There are public buildings of lesser note, many private structures of 
magnificent proportions, with a wealth of beautiful surroundings, theaters, 
hotels, etc., all that go to make up a great city, school-houses of ample pro- 
portions, churches beautiful in architectural design of Grecian, Doric and 
Gothic, many of them being very costly in their build. One hundred and 
seventy-one churches are found within her limits, and the denominations 
cover all that claim the Protestant or Catholic faith. The Cathedral on 
"Walnut Street is the oldest church edifice, but not the most costly in the 
city. 

The public school library was founded in 1872, and numbers 36,000 vol- 
umes. The Mercantile Library has 42,000 volumes, and contains not only 
many valuable literary works, but many choice works of art. 

MANUFACTUKES. 

In this line St. Louis is fast reaching a commanding situation. So long 
as railroads commanded the freighting facilities of the city and the great 
higliway to the sea wdiich Providence had placed at her door was ignored 
for man's more expensive route by rail, St. Louis remained but an infant 



HISTORY OF ST. LOUIS. 73 

in manufacturing enterprises — and these bad succumbed in many in- 
stances to the power of monopolies, or to the tariff of freight which took 
off all the profits, and her more eastern competitors were the gainers. 
But in the last two years Nature's great highway to the sea has begun to be 
utilized and St. Louis has all at once opened her eyes to the fact that she 
has a free railway of water to the sea, the equal of twenty railroads by land, 
■■^nd it only needs the cars (the barges) to revolutionize the carrying trade 
of the Mississippi and Missouri valleys. The track is free to all. He 
who can build the cars can have the track ready at all times for use. The 
Father of Waters lies at her door; a mountain of iron is but a few miles 
away; coal, also, lies nearly at her gates, and while she has slept the sleep 
of years, these vast opportunities might have made her, ere this, the equal 
of any manufacturing city on the globe. She will become such, for no 
other city can show such vast resources or such rapid and cheap facilities 
for distribution. Even the coupon-clippers are waking up and believe 
there are higher and nobler aims for man than the lavish expenditure of 
wealth in indolence and selfish pleasure. The surplus wealth of St. Louis, 
if invested in manufacturing enterprises, would make her the wonder of the 
continent. She may realize this some day — when she does, will wonder at 
the stupidity and folly that has controlled her for so many years. Foun- 
dries, machine-shops, rolling-mills, cotton and woolen factories, car-shops, 
these and a thousand other industries are but waitinsj for the maffic touch 
of an enterprising people to give them life. 

The year 1881 opens auspiciously for a new life. St. Louis now begins 
to consider the question of progress from a more enlightened standpoint, 
and with a look of intelligent action. It may take a little time yet to drive 
sleep from her eyelids and sloth from her limbs, but it looks now more than 
ever as though she would accomplish this and wake up to the full fruition 
of her great opportunities — in fact, to her manifest destiny. Missouri ought 
to be proud of St. Louis, but that cannot be wliile sloth lies at tlic portals 
of her gates and the dry-rot of old fogyism guides lier present course. 

The brewery business of St. Louis is one of her leading departments of 
trade. She has the largest establishment in the world for bottling beer, 
a building two hundred feet long and thirty feet broad. The manufacture 
of wine is another important business which has assumed immense pro- 
portions. Distilling, rectifying and wholesale dealing in liquors is another 
branch that adds a large revenue to the taxable wealth of the city. There 
is nothing in the manufacturers' line but what could sustain a healthy 
growth in St. Louis, if even plain business sense is at command. Her 
future may be said to be all before her, for her manufacturing interests 
are yet in theii- infancy. She can become the manufacturing center of the 
continent. The center or receiving point for the greatest amount of cereals 
any city can handle, and the stock center also of the country, St. Louis may, 
with the opportunities within her grasp, well be called the "Future Great." 



74 HISTORY OF ST. LOUIS. 



CHAPTER OF CRITICISM 

But the name " Future Greaf'' is used at this time by her rivals in tones 
of derision. That she should ha\'e ignored so many years the great and 
bountiful resources nature has so lavishly bestowed upon her, aye! it would 
seem, even spurned them through an ignorance as dense as it is won- 
derful, is very strange, and has brought a stigma of disgrace upon the 
character of her peoj^le. This action on her part has not escaped the 
notice of men of wealth, of towering ambition, of nerve force and of un- 
limited energy, and to-day one of the railway kings of the country, Jay 
Gould, of New York, has grasped the scepter of her commercial life and 
rules with a grasp of steel, and through his iron roadways run the com- 
mercial life-blood which flows through the arteries of her business life. 
That this neglect of her great opportunities should have placed it in the 
power of one man to become the arbiter of her fate is as humiliating as it 
has proved costly. Millions have poured into the coffers of Jay Gould, who, 
seeing this vast wealth of resources lying idle or uncared for, had tlie nerve 
to seize and the far-seeing judgment and enterprise to add them to his own 
personal gains The world can admire the bold energy of tlie man, and 
the genius that can grasp and guide the commercial destinies of an 
Empire, but it is none the less a blot upon the tair name, capital and enter- 
prise of a great city, and should mantle the cheek of every Sc. Louisian 
with shame. The writer feels all that lie has here written, but his pride as 
a Missourian cannot blind him to the faults of her people. 

St. Louis is an old city and there has been much written of her extraor- 
dinary progress, and yet whatever that progress is, has been caused far 
far more by her people being compelled to take advantage of the opportu- 
nities within their reach than making such by their own energy and enter- 
prise. If she has grown in population and in wealth, it is because she 
could not help herself After forty years of life, as late as 1812, the cur- 
rency of St. Louis was still conlined to peltries, trinkets, maple sugar, 
hone}', bees -wax, venison, hams, etc., in tact, all barter and trade, and yet 
those who have compiled her local history talk wildly of her destiny and 
prophesy wonders for her in the near future. It is best to look at St. Louis 
as she is to-day. It is to be hoped that her future growth may not take 
pattern after her past, and that the new men who have taken her com- 
mercial future into their keeping will still exhibit that towering genius for 
the development of St. Louis that has characterized them in their eastern 
home. 

The future of St. Louis would seem to be one of a rapidly growing citj'-, 
not only in population, but in commercial and financial strength as though 
founded upon a rock. This is the present outlook. While the genius of 
Gould and his associates has secured millions of dollars by their business 



niSTOllY OF ST LOUIS. 75 

ventures, there are other millions still left to build up and add to her pros, 
perity and greatness if rightly managed. 

The tremendous energy of Gould has astonished the sleepy St, Louisians 
as much as if they had been treading upon live coals, and in waking up 
they have discovered that their sleep and indolence have cost them several 
millions. Gould, Keene, Dillon, Sage and their associates do not work for 
nothing, and the people who claim the "Future Great" as their abiding 
place should lose no time in taking a firm hold of the present and guiding 
her toward the great destiny which awaits her, with the winning cards in 
their own hands. The Kew Yorkers have shown them a will and a way, 
and now let them practice the lesson it has cost them so much to learn. 

It has been over a century since St. Louis took a start into life, and it is 
quite that since the ring of the pioneer's ax and the sharp crack of his rifle 
reverberated through her streets. The slow progress of pioneer life has 
departed and modern civilization, with the light of genius for its guide, is 
rapidly progressing and recording history for future generations. When in 
1817 the first steamboat landed at St. Louis, the possibilities of what the 
future might be began to dawn upon the minds of her people, and that 
year may be well proclaimed as the dividing line between the old and the 
new era of St. Louis's destiny. From that day she looked forward, not 
backward, and while up to that time she seemed to have lived in the past, 
it was the future before her that then riveted her attention. She kept up a 
lively step to the music of progress for several years, and the Father of 
Waters and the mighty Missouri with their fleets of water-craft attested 
her enterprise, and she grew apace. But in a few years she again fell 
asleep, and slept until the snort of the iron horse awoke her rudely 
from slumber. She had grown even while she slept, because the great 
water-way which passed her door had become the pathway of a mighty 
business. But this grand highway to the sea which had nourished her 
while she slept was at once forgotten or relegated to the rear, and her 
awakened energies were given to the prancing steed whose breath was fire, 
that made the earth tremble at his strength, and whose speed was like the 
wings of the wind. The railroad fever had taken possession of the Queen 
City of the Valley. She grew apace and for years she has reveled in the 
new love, and the grand old Father of Waters which had nurtured her into 
life was forgotten. But she has again awakened from her quiet dreams, 
and the iron horse which had lulled her to repose was found while bringing 
millions to her door to have taken millions more away. And in this year 
of 1881 she opens her eyes to her true destiny, and the grand Old Father 
of Waters, which she had striven to drive from her, was once more recog- 
nized as the very foundation or bed-rock of her commercial life, the power 
that was to keep in check the absorption of her wealth, from the monopo- 
lizing influence and insatiable maw of the railway kings. She now proudly 
points to the grand old river, and the fleets of barges borne upon its bosom 



7G HISTORY OF ST. LOUIS. 

filled witli the wealth of an empire, and calls on her sister, Chicago, to 
look at this glorious sight. The " Garden City " has already snuffed the 
battle from afar, and is ready to struggle for a commercial supremacy 
in which there are literally millions, for nature has done the work, and 
St. Louis will win. The "City by the Lake" is deserving, and had she the 
opportunities which have lain so long dormant in possession of her rival, 
would have been to-day the wonder of the world. But it is the rugged 
path that brings out man's energy and endurance, not the smooth road. So 
it is with cities. And so the majestic MississipjDi flows on, bearing upon 
its waters the riches of the valley, and pouring into the lap of the Queen 
City upon its banks millions upon millions of wealth. If the sj)irit oi 
1881 shall continue, then St. Louis will soon become the pride of the State. 
In reality she will be the "Future Great "of the American Continent. 
She that stands on the bank of this great inland sea, the commerce of an 
empire flowing at her feet, her sails in every clime and country, she is 
indeed to become a great city, the arbiter of the commercial world and the 
Queen City whose wealth, commanding influence, culture and refinement 
will attest the greatness of her people and command the homage of the 
world. Such is to be the " Future Great" city, St. Louis. 

STATISTICS. 

Debt of St. Louis, January 1, 1881, $22,507,000; rate of taxation on the 
$100, $1.75. 

The receipts of all kinds of grain, 51,958,177 bushels. 

Twenty-four flouring-mills manufactured 2,077,625 barrels of flour in 
1880. 

The receipts of cotton for 1880 were 496,570 bales. 

There were 12,846,169 pounds of tobacco manufactured into plug, fine-cut 
and smoking tobacco. 

There were 330,935,973 feet of lumber received in 1880. 

St. Louis received for the year 1880, 41,892,356 bushels of coal. 

Seven elevators have a total capacity of 5,650,000 bushels, and three more 
are being erected and one other enlarged. 

The aggregate of bank clearing for 1880 amounted to $1,422,918,978. 

The post-office distributed in 1880,43,731,844 pieces, weighing 4,250,000 
pounds. 

Post-office orders issued numbered 53,337, and represented $879,943.90. 

The value of school property is $2,851,133. 

The steel bridge cost $13,000,000 and tunnel $1,500,000. 



Laws of Missouri. 



HOMESTEAD EXEMPTION LAW. 



The homestead exemption law of the State of Missouri has been une of 
the most enlightened laws passed for the benefit of the people. In the 
last session of the general assembly of the State, the spring of 1880-81, 
there was a material change in the law, and it is given here in full. Thus 
every head of a family can be secure in -a home of moderate value, if he 
will not waive his right to it. There are printed notes now drawn up in 
which there is a clause printed waiving the right of holding such property 
under that law. When a man signs such a note, his home stands in the 
same light as his other propert3^ These, notes should never be signed un- 
less by or with the consent of the wife as well as the husband. The law 
reads, as amended, as follows and is in full force at this time: 

Section 1. Section twenty-six hundred and eighty-nine (2689) of the Re- 
vised Statutes of Missouri, is hereby amended by striking out, " or incor- 
porated towns and villages having a less population," and inserting in lieu 
thereof, "having a population of ten thousand or less," in twelfth line, and 
by inserting immediately after " dollars," fifteenth line, the words " and 
in cities and incorporated towns and villages having a population less than 
ten thousand, such homesteads shall not include more than five acres of 
ground or exceed the total value of $1,500," so that said section as amended 
shall read as follows: 

Sec. 2689. TJie homestead of every housekeeper or head of a family, con- 
sisting of a dwelling-house and appurtenances, and the land in connection 
therewith, not exceeding the amount and value herein limited, which is or shall 
be used by such housekeeper, or head of a family as such homestead, shall, to- 
gether wifrh the rents, issues and products thereof, be exempt from attach- 
ment and execution, except as herein provided; such homestead in the 
country shall not include more than one hundred and sixty acres of land, or 
exceed the total value of fifteen Imndred dollars; and in cities having a pop- 
ulation of forty thousand or more, such homestead shall not include more 
than eighteen square rods of ground, or exceed the total value of three 
thousand dollars; and in cities having a population of ten thousand and less 
than forty thousand, such homestead shall not include more than thirty 
square rods of ground, or exceed the total value of fifteen hundred dollars; 



78 LAWS OF MISSOURI. 

and in cities and incorporated towns and villages having a population les3 
than ten thousand, such homestead shall not include more than five acres of 
ground, or exceed the total value of fifteen hundred dollars; and any mar- 
ried woman may file her claim to the tract or lot of land occupied by her 
and her husband, or by her, if abandoned by her husband, as a homestead; 
said claim shall set forth the tract or lot claimed, that she is the wife of the 
person in whose name the said tract or lot appears of record, and said claim 
shall be acknowledged by her before some ofiicer authorized to take proof or 
acknowledgments of instruments of writing, affecting real estate, and be 
filed in the recorder's office, and it shall be the duty of the recorder to re- 
ceive and record the same. After the filing of such claims, duly acknowl- 
edged, the husband shall be debarred from, and incapable of selling, mort- 
p-aa-ino- or alienatino; the homestead in any manner whatever, and every 
such sale, mortgage or alienation is hereby declared null and void ; and the 
filing of any such claims, as aforesaid, with the recorder, shall impart notice 
to all persons of the contents thereof, and all subsequent purchasers and 
mortgagers shall be deemed, in law and equity, to purchase with notice: 
Provided., however^ that nothing herein contained shall be so construed as 
to prevent the husband and wife from jointly conveying, mortgaging, alien- 
ating or in any other manner disposing of such homestead or any part 
thereof. 

Approved, March 26, 1881. 

HUSBAND NOT LIABLE. 

An Act to exempt the husband from the payment of the debts of the wife contracted before 
marriage. 

Section 1. The property owned by a man before his marriage, and that 
which he may acquire after his marriage by purchase, descent, gift, grant, 
devise, or in any other manner whatsoever, and the profits thereof, except 
such as may be acquired from the wife, shall be exempt from all debts and 
liabilities contracted or incurred by his wife before their marriage. 

Sec. 2. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent with this act are hereby 
repealed. 

Aj^proved, March 25, 1881. 

EIGHTS OF MARRIED WOMEN. 

The law passed by the general assembly on the rights and privileges of 
married women is full and complete, is composed of fourteen sections and 
too long to be embodied in this work. The law can be found in the " Re- 
vised Statutes of Missouri, volume 1, 1879." It is chapter 51, and found 
on pages 557 to 561. 

HEDGES TRIMMED. 

It may not be known to all that a law was passed by the last general 
assembly (1880-1881), that " every person owning a hedge fence, over five 



I 



LAWS OF MISSOURI. 79 

years old, upon the "line of any public road or highway in this State, is 
hereby required to cut down the same, to the height of not more tlian five 
feet nor less than four feet, every two years: Provided^ that hedge fences 
inclosing orchards, house-yards and stock-yards, shall be exempt from the 
provisions of this act." 

The overseer of roads is to serve the notice and the owner has thirty days 
to commence, and if he fail to do it the overseer shall have it done and the 
owner must pay all expenses of the same. It can be collected of him by 
law, same as revenue for road purposes. 

The law passed and took effect March 16, 1881. 

CHANGING SCHOOL-HOUSE SITES. 

Section 1. The voters of any school-district in this State may change 
the location of a school-house site when the same, for any cause, may be 
deemed necessary and notice of such com tem plated change shall have been 
given by the directors at least twenty days prior thereto by posting at least 
three written notices in three of the most public places in the district where 
such school-house site shall be located: Provided^ that in every case a 
majority of the voters of said district shall only be necessary to remove a 
site nearer the center of a school district, but in all cases to remove a site 
further from the center of a school-district it shall require two-thirds of the 
legal voters of such school-district. 

Sec. 2, All acts and parts of acts in conflict with this act are hereby 
repealed. 

Approved, March 24, 1881. 

MARRIAGE LICENSE. 

The legislature of 1880-81, passed a marriage license act which makes 
It necessary for persons before marriage to secure a license. No person au- 
thorized to perform the marriage ceremony, can legally do so without first 
seeing the license, and a marriage performed without a license is not legal 
and a penalty is attached. The intent of the law is to have an official rec- 
ord which will stand in the courts and settle any dispute either of mar- 
riage or property which may hereafter arise. The law reads: 

Section 1. Previous to any marriage in this State a license for that pur- 
pose shall be obtained. 

Section 2. The recorder of the county issues the license and the parties 
must be, the male 21 years and the female 18 years of age. If younger the 
parents or guardian must give consent. 

PURCHASING BOOKS BY SUBSCRIPTION. 

The business of jpublisliing hooks hy subscription, having so often been 
brought into disrepute by agents making representations and declarations 



80 LAWS OF MISSOUKI. 

not authorized hj the jpuUisher, in order to prevent that as much as possi- 
ble, and that there may be more general knowledge of the relation such 
agents bear to their principal, and the law governing such cases, the follow- 
ing statement is made: 

A subscription is in the nature of a contract of mutual promises, by 
which the subscriber agrees to fay a certain sum for the work described ; 
the consideration is that the publisher shall puUish the hook named, 
and deliver the same, for which the subscriber is to pay the price named. 
The nature and character of the work are described by the prospectus 
and sample shown. These should be carefully examined before sub- 
scribing, as they are the basis and consideration of the promise to pay, 
and not the too often exaggerated statements of the agent, who is merely 
employed to solicit subscriptions, for which he i§ usually paid a commis- 
sioii for each subscriber, and has no authority to change or alter the con- 
ditions upon which the subscriptions are authorized to be made by the 
publisher. Should the agent assume to agree to m«ke the subscription 
conditional, or modify or cJtange the agreement of the publisher, as set out 
by the prospectus and sample, in order to bind the principal, the sub- 
scriber should see that such condition or changes ai-e stated over or in con- 
nection with his signature, so that the publisher may have notice of the same. 
All persons making contracts in reference to matters of this kind, or any 
other business, should remember that the law as loritten is, that they can 
not be altered, varied, or rescinded verbally, but if done at all, must be 
done in writing. It is therefore important that all persons contemplating 
sabscribhig should distinctly understand that all talk before or after the 
subscription is made is not admissible as evidence, and is no part of the 
contract. 

Persons employed to solicit subscriptions are known to the trade as 
canvassers. They are agents appointed to do a particular business in a 
prescribed mode and have no authority to do it any other way to the prej- 
udice of their principal, nor can they bind their principal in any other 
manner. They can not collect money, or agree that paj'ment may be made 
in anything else but money. They can not extend the time of payment 
beyond the time of delivery nor bind their principal for the payment of 
expenses incurred in their business. 

It would save a great deal of trouble, and often serious loss, if persons, 
before signing their names to any subscription book, or any written instru- 
ment, would examine carefully what it is; and if they cannot read them- 
selves call on some one disinterested who can. 



LAWS OF MISSOURI. Q\ 

FORMS OF DEEDS, LEASES, MORTGAGES, Etc. 

GENERAL FORM OF WILL FOR REAL AND PERSONAL PROPERTY. 

I, James Johnson, of the town of Muncie, county of Delaware, and State 
of Indiana, being aware of the uncertainty of life, and in failing health, but 
of sound mind and memory, do make and declare this to be my last will 
and testament, in manner as follows; to- wit., 

First — I give, devise and bequeath to my son James Horace Johnson, 
$1,000 in bank stock, of the First JN"ational Bank of Boston, and the farm 
owned by myself, in the township of "Washington, Shelby county, Mis- 
souri, and consisting of eighty acres of land with all the houses, tene- 
ments and improvements thereunto belonging, to have and to hold unto my 
said son, his heirs and assigns forever. 

Second — I give, devise and bequeath to each of my two daughters, Ida 
Louisa Johnson and Annie May Johnson, each $1,000 in cash, and each 
one a quarter section of land owned by myself in the township of Jasper, 
Henry county, Illinois, and recorded in my name in the record of said 
county, where said land is located; the north 160 acres to go to Ida Louisa, 
my eldest daughter. 

TJdrd — I give, devise and bequeath to my son Thomas Alfred Johnson, 
ten shares of railroad stock in the Mississippi & Ohio Railroad, and my lot, 
with the residence thereon, in Dayton, Ohio, with all the improvements 
and appurtenances thereunto belonging, which said real estate is recorded 
in my name in the county where situated. 

Fo'wth — I give to my wife Samuella Richardson Johnson, all my house- 
hold furniture, goods, chattels and personal property about my home not 
hitherto disposed of, including $5,000 of bank stock, in the Merchants' 
National Bank of Toledo, Ohio, fifteen shares in the Mississippi & Ohio 
Railroad, and the free and unrestricted use, possession and benefit of the 
home farm so long as she may live, in lieu of dower to which she is en- 
titled by law, said farm being my present place of residence. 

Fifth — It is also ray will and desire that at the death of my wife, Sam- 
uella Richardson Johnson, or at any time when she may arrange to relin- 
quish her life interest in the above mentioned homestead, the same may 
revert to my above named children, or to the lawful heirs of each. 

And lastly — I nominate and appoint as executors of this, my last will 
and testament, my wife, Samuella Richardson Johnson, and my eldest son, 
James Horace Johnson. 

I further direct that my debts and necessary funeral expenses shall be 
paid from moneys now on deposit in the Savings Bank of Dayton, Ohio, 
the residue of such money to revert to my wife, Samuella Richardson 
Johnson, for her use forever. 

6 



82 LAWS OF MISSOURI. 

In witness whereof, I, James Johnson, to this, my last will and testament, 
have hereunto set my hand and seal, this fourth day of December, 1876. 

James Johnson. 

Signed and declared by James Johnson as and for his last will and testa- 
ment, in the presence of us, who, at his request and in his presence and in 
the presence of each other, have subscribed our names hereunto as witnesses 

thereof. 

Thomas Ddgan, Dayton, Ohio. 

Rochester McQuade, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

CODICIL. 

Whereas, I, James Johnson, did, on the fourth day of December, 1876, 
make ray last will and testament, I do now, by this writing, add this codicil 
to my said will, to be taken as a part thereof. 

Whereas, By the dispensation of Providence, my daughter Ida Louisa 
has deceased, October 10th, 1877; and 

Whereas, A son has been born to me, which son is now christened John 
Wesley Jolmson, I give and bequeath unto him my gold watch, and all 
right, interest and title in lands, bank stock and chattels bequeathed to 
my deceased daughter, Ida Louisa, in the body of this will. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set ray hand and seal this 10th day 

of January, 1878. 

James Johnson. 

Signed, sealed, published and declared to us by the testator, Jaraes 
Johnson, as and for a codicil to be annexed to his last will and testament, 
and we, at his request and in his presence, and in the presence of each 
other, have subscribed our names as witnesses thereto, at the date hereof. 

Thos. Dugan, Dayton, Ohio. 

Charles Jackson, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

form of lease. 

This article of agreement, made and entered into on this day 

of A. D. 188-, by and between , of the county of , 

and State of Missouri, of the first part, and , of the county of 

, and State of Missouri, of the second part, witnesseth that the 

said party of the first part has this day leased unto the party of the second 
part the following described premises; to-wit., 

\Ilere insert description.'] 

for the term of from and after the day of A. D. 188-, 

at the rent of dollars, to be paid as follows; to-wit., 

\_Here insert terms.] 



I 



LAWS OF MISSOURI. 83 

And it is furtlier agreed that if any rent shall be due or unpaid, or if de- 
fault be made in any of the cov'enants herein contained, it shall then be law- 
ful for the said party of the first part to re-enter the said premises, or to 
distrain for such rent; or he may recover possession thereof, by action of 
forcible entry and detainer, or he may use all or any of the remedies to effect 
such possession. 

And the party of the second part agrees to pay to the party of the first 
part the rent as above stated, except when said premises are untenantable 
by reason of fire, or from any other cause than the carelessness of the party 
of the second part, or persons family, or in employ, or by su- 
perior force or inevitable necessity. And the said party of the second part 

covenants and agrees that will use the said premises as a , and 

for no other purpose whatsoever; and that especially will not use said 

premises, or permit the same to be used, for any unlawful business or pur- 
poses whatsoever; that will not sell, assign, underlet or relinquish said 

premises without the written consent of the lessor, under a penalty of a for- 
feiture of all rights under this lease, at the election of the party of the 

first part; and that use all due care and diligence in guarding said 

property, with the buildings, gates, fences, trees, vines, shrubbery, etc., from 
damages by fire and the depredation by animals; that will keep build- 
ings, gates, fences, etc., in as good repair a,s they now are, or may at any 
time be placed bj^ the lessor, damages by superior force, inevitable necessity, 
or fire from any other cause than from the carelessness of the lessor, or per- 
sons of family, or in employ, excepted; and that upon the expira- 
tion of this lease, or upon a breach by said lessee of any of the said cove- 
nants herein contained will, without further notice of any kind, quit 

and surrender the occupancy and possession of said premises in as good 
condition as reasonable use, natural wear and decay thereof will permit, 
damages by fire as aforesaid, superior force, or inevitable necessity, alone 
excepted. 

In witness whereof, the said parties have subscribed their names on the 
date first above written 

Signed in presence of • • 



REAL ESTATE MORTGAGE. 



Know all men by these presents: That , of county, and 

State of , in consideration of dollars, in hand paid by , 

of county, and State of , do hereby sell and convey unto the 

said , the following described premises, situated in the county of 

, and State of ; to-wit., 

[Here insert description. 1 

and do hereby covenant with the said that lawfully seized of 



84 LAWS OF MISSOURI. 

Baid premises, that they are free from incumbrance, that have good 

right and lawful authority to sell and convey the same; and do hereby 

covenant to warrant and defend the same against the lawful claims of all 

persons whomsoever. To be void upon the condition that the said 

shall pay the full amount of principal and interest at the time therein spec- 
ified, of certain promissory notes, for the sum of dollars, 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

And the said mortgagor agrees to pay all taxes that may be levied upon 
the above described premises. It is also agreed by the mortgagor that if it 
becomes necessary to foreclose this mortgage, a reasonable amount shall be 
allowed as an attorney's fee for foreclosing. And the hereby relin- 
quishes all her right of dower and homestead in and to the above described 
premises. 

Signed the day of , A. D, 18 — . 



CHATTEL MORTGAGE. 

Know all men by these presents: That , of county, and 

State of , in consideration of dollars, in hand paid by , 

of county, and State of , do hereby sell and convey unto the said 

, the following described personal property, now in the possession of 

, in the county of , State of ; to-wit., 

{Here insert description.'] 

and do hereby warrant the title of said property, and that it is free from 
any incumbrance or lien. The only right or interest retained by grantor in 
the said property being the right of redemption herein provided. This con- 
veyance to be void upon condition that the said grantor shall pay to said 
grantee, or his assigns, the full amount of principal and interest at the time 

therein specified, of certain promissory notes of even date herewith, 

for the sum of dollars, 

One note for $ — , due •, 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ — , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for % — , due , IS — , with interest annually at per cent. 

The grantor to pay all taxes on said propert3% and if at anytime any part or 
portion of said notes should be due and unpaid, said grantor may proceed 
by sale or foreclosure to collect and pay himself the unpaid balance of said 
notes, whether due or not, the grantor to pay all necessary expenses of such 
foreclosure, including $ attorney's fees, and whatever remains after pay- 
ing ofiTsaid notes and expenses, to be paid over to said grantor. 

Signed the day of , 18 — . 



LAWS OF MISSOURI. 



85 



QUITCLAIM DEED. 

Know all men by these presents: That , of county, 

State of , in consideration of dollars, to in hand paid by 

, of county, and State of , the receipt whereof do 

hereby acknowledge, have bargained, sold and quitclaimed, and by these 

presents do bargain, sell and quitclaim unto the said , and to 

heirs and assigns forever, all I'ight, title and interest, estate, claim and 

demand, both in law and in equity, and as well In possession as in expect- 
ancy, of, in and to the following described premises; to-wit., 

{Here insert description.'] 

With all and singular the hereditaments and appurtenances thereto be- 
lono:ino;. 

Signed this day of , A. D. 18 — 

Signed in presence of 



WARRANTY DEED. 

Know all men by these presents: That , of county, and 

State of , in consideration of the sum of dollars, in hand paid 

by , of county, and State of , do hereby sell and convey 

unto the said , and to heirs and assigns, the following described 

premises, situated in the county of , State of Missouri; to-wit., 

[Here insert deselection.'] 

And do hereby covenant with the said that a — law- 
fully seized in fee simple of said premises, that they are free from incum- 
brance; that ha — good right and lawful authority to sell the same, 

and do hereby covenant to warrant and defend said premises, and ap- 
purtenances thereto belonging, against the lawful claims of all persons 

whomsoever; and the said hereby relinquishes all her right of 

dower and of homestead in and to the above described premises. 

Signed the day of ■ , A. D. 18 — . 

Signed in presence of 



acknowledgment. 

All forms of deeds, mortgages, or bond for deed, shall have the following 
form of acknowledgment: 



36 laws of missouri. 

State of Missouri, 



County of- 

Be it remembered, that on this day of , A. D. 18 — , before 

me the undersigned, a in and for said county, personally appeared 

, to uie personally known to be the identical person who executed the 

above (deed, mortgage, etc.,) as and acknowledged signature 

thereto to be voluntary act and deed. 

Witness my hand and seal, the day and year last above written. 



notes. 

Form of note is legal, worded in the simplest way, so that the amount 
and time of payment are mentioned: 

$100. New York, Sept. 1, 1881. 

Sixty days after date I promise to pay to John Doe, or order, one hun- 
dred dollars, for value received, with interest. 

Richard Roe. 

A note to be payable in anything else but money, needs only the article 
substituted in the above form. " With interest," means at the legal rate, and 
any other rate must be mentioned, or if no interest is to be paid until after 
the maturity of the note it should be so stated. 

ORDERS. 

Orders should be simply worded: 

Mr. D. II. Waters, St. Louis, Mo., January 2, 1881. 

Please pay J. Walker twenty-five dollars and charge to account of 

J. Turner. 

If it is to be paid in trade it should be so expressed after the word dol- 
lars. 

RECEIPTS. 

Receipts should state when received and for what; thus: 

'$100. St. Louis, Mo., January 1, 1878. 

Received of J. W. Hardin one hundred dollars, for services in the harvest 
field to date, in full. 

Or, 

« 

Received of J. W. Hardin fifty dollars, for one week's work of self and 
team, in hauling stone, in full. 

R. W. Fields. 

If only part is paid it should read, " on account," instead of " in full." 



LAWS OF MISSOURI 

87 

BILL OF PURCHASE. 

It should state each article and price, as follows: 

J. W. Shattuck, St. Louis, Mo., January 1, 1878. 

Bought of J. D. Adams. 

To 5 Yards Jeans @.50 • $2.50 

"20 " Browu Domestic .08 1.60 



Received payment, 14.10 

J. D. Adams. 

VALUABLE RULES. 

How to find the gross and net weight of a hog, is by the rule that a hog's 
net weight is one fifth less than his gross weight. For instance, a hog 
weighing 4-00 pounds gross, would when dressed weigh 320. 

A good rule to find the capacity of a granary or a wagon-bed is multiply 
by (short method) the number of cubic feet by 6308, and point off one dec- 
imal place — the result will be the correct answer in bushels and tenths of 
bushels. 

To find the contents of a corn-crib multiply the number of cubic feet by 
64 (short method) or by 4|- ordinary method, and point off' one decimal — 
the result will be the answer in bushels. This rule applies when it is first 
cribbed and before the corn shrinks. 

For the contents of a cistern or tank, multiply the square of the mean 
diameter by the depth (all in feet) and this product by 5681 (short method) 
and point oft' one decimal place — the result will be the contents in barrels 
of 31-| gallons each. 

To measure boards multiply the length (in feet) by the width (in inches), 
divide the product by 12 — the result will be the contents in square feet. 

Note. — This is the coiTect measurement for every inch of thickness. 

The same in substance is the rule for scantling, joists, plank, sills, etc. 
Multiply the width, thickness and length together (the width and thickness 
in inches and the length in feet) and divide the product by 12 — the result 
will be square feet. 

To find the number of brick required in a building, multiply the number 
of cubic feet by 22-|-. The number of cubic feet is found by multiplying 
the length, height and thickness (in feet) together. 

A congressional township is thirty-six sections, each a square mile. 

A section of land is 640 acres. 

A quarter section, 160 acres, is a half a mile square. 

Eighty acres is a half mile long and one quarter of a mile wide. 

Forty acres is a quarter of a mile square. 

The sections of a congressional township are all numbered from one to 
thirty-six, commencing at the northeast corner of the township. 



88 



LAWS OF MISSOURI. 



One hundred and ninety-six pounds is one barrel of flour. 

Two hundred pounds is one barrel of pork. 

Fifty six pounds is called a firkin of butter. 

A cord of wood is four feet wide, four feet high, and eight feet long. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



The lawful weight of the following articles is the following number of 
pounds per bushel, and so understood when no special contract is made. 



Apples, peaches and quinces 48 

Cherries, grapes, currants or gooseberries 40 
Strawberries, raspberries or blackberries. 32 

Osage-orange seed 32 

Millettseed 45 

Clover seed 60 

Flax seed 56 

Sorghum seed 30 

Timothy seed 45 

Hemp seed 44 

Broom-com seed 30 

Blue-grass seed 14 

Hungarian grass seed 45 

Sweet potatoes 46 

Castor bean 46 

Dried apples 24 

Dried peaches 33 



Rye.. 

Salt. . 
Sand. 



. 56 
. 50 
.130 



Lime 80 

Beans 60 

Bran... 20 

Oats 33 

Wheat 60 

Barley 48 

Buckwheat 52 

Corn-meal 48 

Stone coal 80 

Corn, in the ear , 70 

Potatoes 60 

Onions 57 

Shelled corn 56 



There is a fine and penalty attached for giving false weights. 




1 



RESIDENCE OF GOVERNOR MC NAIR, IN 1820, THE FIRST ELECTED GOVERNOR 

OF MISSOURI. 



Constitution, 



ADOPTED BY A VOTE OF THE PEOPLE, OCTOBER 30, 1875. WENT INTO OPERATION 

NOVEMBER 30, 1875. 



PREAMBLE. 

We, the people of Missouri, with profound reverence for the Supreme 
Ruler of the Universe, and grateful for his goodness, do, for the better 
government of the state, establish this constitution. 

ARTICLE I. — BOUNDARIES. 

Section 1. The boundaries of the state as heretofore established by 
law, are hereb}' ratified and confirmed. The state shall have concurrent 
jurisdiction on the river Mississippi, and every other river bordering on the 
state, so far as the said rivers shall form a common boundary to this state 
and any other state or states; and the river Mississippi and the navigable 
rivers and waters leading to the same, shall be common highways, and 
forever free to the citizens of this state and of the United States, without 
any tax, duty, import or toll therefor, imposed by this state. 

ARTICLE II. — BILL OP RIGHTS. 

In order to assert our rights, acknowledge our duties, and proclaim the 
principles on which our government is founded, we declare: 

Section 1. That rjl political power is vested in, and derived from the 
people; that all government of right originates from the people, is founded 
upon their will onlv, and is instituted solely for the good of the whole. 

Sec. 2. That the people of this state have the inherent, sole and exclu- 
sive right to regulate the internal government and police thereof, and to 
alter and abolish their constitution and form of government whenever 
they may deem it necessary to their safety and happiness: Provided, 
Such change be not repugnant to the constitution of the United States. 

Sec. 3. That Missouri is a free and independent state, subject only to 
the constitution of the United States; and as the preservation of the 
states and the maintenance of their governments, are necessary to an 
indestructible Union, and were intended to co-exist with it, the legislature 
is not authorized to adopt, nor will the people of this state ever assent to 
any amendment or change of the constitution of the United States which 
may in any wise impair the right of local self-government belonging to 
the people of this state. 

Sec. 4. That all constitutional government is intended to promote the 
general welfare of the people ; that all persons have a natural right to life, 
liberty and the enjoyment of the gains of their own industry; that to give 
security to these things is the principal office of government, and that 
when government does not confer this security, it fails of its chief design. 

Sec. 5. That all men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship 
Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience; that no 



90 CONSTITUT[ON OF MISSOURI. 

person can, on account of his religious opinions, be rendered ineligible to 
any office of trust or profit under this state, nor be disqualified from testi- 
fying, or from serving as a juror; that no human authority can control or 
interfere with the rights of conscience; that no person ought, by anv law, 
to be molested in his person or estate, on account of his religious persua- 
sion or profession; but the libert}^ of conscience hereby secured, shall not 
be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, nor to justify practices 
inconsistent with the good order, peace or safety of this state, or with the 
rights of others. 

Sec. 6. That no person can be compelled to erect, support or attend 
any place or system of worship, or to maintain or support an}^ priest, min- 
ister, preacher or teacher of any sect, church, creed or denomination of re- 
ligion; but if any person shall voluntarily make a contract for any such 
object, he shall be held to the performance of the same. 

Sec. 7. That no money shall ever be taken from the public treasury, 
directly or indirectly, in aid of any church, sect or denomination of religion, 
or in aid of any priest, preacher, minister or teacher thereof, as such; and 
that no preference shall be given to, nor any discrimination made against 
any church, sect or creed of religion, or any form of religious faith or wor- 
ship. 

Sec. 8. That no religious corporation can be established in this state, 
except such as may be created under a general law for the purpose only 
of holding the title to such real estate as may be prescribed by law for 
church edifices, parsonages and cemeteries. 

Sec. 0. That all elections shall be free and open ; and no power, civil 
or military, shall at any time interfere to prevent the free exercise of the 
right of sufTrage. 

Sec. 10. The courts of justice shall be open to every person, and cer- 
tain remedy afforded for every injur}^ to person, propert}^ or character, 
and that right and justice should be administered without sale, denial or 
delay. 

Sec. 11. That the people shall be secure in their persons, papers, 
homes and effects, from unreasonable searches and seizures; and no war- 
rant to search any place, or seize any person or thing, shall issue without 
describing the place to be searched, or the person or thing to be seized, as 
nearly as may be; nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affir- 
mation reduced to writing. 

Sec. 12. That no person shall, for felony, be proceeded against crimi- 
nally otherwise than by indictment, except in cases arising in the land or 
naval forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or pub- 
lic danger; in all other cases, offenses shall be prosecuted criminally by in- 
dictment or information as concurrent remedies. 

Sec. 13. That treason against the state can consist only in levying 
war against it, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort; 
that no person can be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of two 
witnesses to the same overt act, or on his confession in open court; that 
no person can be attainted of .treason or felony by the general assembly; 
that no conviction can work corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate; 
that the estates of such persons as mav destroy their own lives shall 
descend or vest as in cases of natural death; and when any person shall 
be killed by casualty, there shall be no forfeiture by reason thereof. 

Sec. 14. That no law shall be passed impairing the freedom of speech; 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 91 

that every person shall be free to say, write or publish whatever he will 
on any subject, being responsible for all abuse of that liberty; and that in 
all suits and prosecutions for libel, the truth thereof may be given in evi- 
dence, and the jury, under the direction of the court, shall determine the 
law and the fact. 

Sec. 15. That no ex ^ost facto law, nor law impairing the obligation 
of contracts, or retrospective in its operation, or making any irrevocable 
grant of special privileges or immunities, can be passed by the general 
assembly. 

Sec. 16. That imprisonment for debt shall not be allowed, except for 
the nonpayment of fines and penalties imposed for violation of law. 

Sec. 17. That the right of no citizen to keep and bear arms in defense 
of his home, person and property, or in aid of the civil power, when thereto 
legally summoned, shall be called in question; but nothing herein con- 
tained is intended to justify the practice of wearing concealed weapons. 

Sec. 18. That no person elected or appointed to any office or employ- 
ment of trust or profit under the laws of this state, or any ordinance of 
any municipality in this state, shall hold such office without personally 
devoting his time to the performance of the duties to the same belonging. 

Sec. 19. That no person who is now, or may hereafter become a col- 
lector or receiver of pubhc money, or assistant or deputy of such collector 
or receiver, shall be eligible to any office of trust or profit in the state of 
Missouri under the laws thereof, or of any municipality therein, until he 
shall have accounted for and paid over all the public money for which he 
may be accountable. 

Sec. 20. That no private property can be taken for private use with or 
without compensation, unless by the consent of the owner, except for pri- 
vate ways of necessity, and except for drains and ditches across the lands 
of others for agricultural and sanitary purposes, in such manner as may be 
prescribed by law; and that whenever an attempt is made to take private 
property for a use alleged to be public, the question whether the contem- 
plated use be really public shall be a judicial question, and as such, judi- 
cially determined, without regard to any legislative assertion that the use 
is public. 

Sec. 21. That private property shall not be taken or damaged for pub- 
lic use without just compensation. Such compensation shall be ascer- 
tained by a jury or board of commissioners of not less than three free- 
holderSj in such manner as may be prescribed by law; and until the same 
shall be paid to the owner, or into court for the owner, the property shall 
not be disturbed, or the proprietary rights of the owner therein divested. 
The fee of land taken for railroad tracts without consent of the owner 
thereof, shall remain in such owner, subject to the use for which it is 
taken. 

Sec. 22. In criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the right to 
appear and defend, in person, and by counsel; to demand the nature and 
cause of the accusation; to meet the witnesses against him face to face; to 
have process to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf, and a 
speedy, public trial by an impartial jury of the county. 

Sec. 23. That no person shall be compelled to testify against himself 
in u criminal cause, nor shall any person, after being once acquitted by a 
jury, be again, for the same offense, put in jeopardy of life or liberty; but 
if the jury to which the question of his guilt or innocence is submitted 



92 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

fail to render a verdict, the court before which the trial is had may, in its 
discretion, discharge the jury and commit or bail the prisoner for trial at 
the next term of court, or if the state of business will permit, at the same 
term ; and if judf^ment be arrested after a verdict of guilty on a defective 
■indictment, or if judgment on a verdict of guilty be reversed for error in 
law, nothing herein contained shall prevent a new trial of the prisoner on 
a proper indictment, or according to correct principles of law. 

Sec. 24. That all persons shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, ex- 
cept for capital offenses, when the proof is evident or the presumption great. 

Sec. 25. That excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines 
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted. 

Sec. 20. That the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall never 
be suspended. 

Sec. 27. That the military shall always be in strict subordination to 
the civil power; that no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any 
house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, except in the 
manner prescribed b}'' law. 

Sec. 28. The right of trial by jury, as heretofore enjoyed, shall remain 
inviolate; but a jury for the trial of criminal or civil cases, in courts not of 
record, may consist of less than twelve men, as maybe prescribed bylaw. 
Hereafter, a grand jury shall consist of twelve men, any nine of whom 
concurring ma}^ find an indictment or a true bill. 

Sec. 29. That the people have the right peaceably to assemble for 
their common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers of gov- 
ernment for redress of grievances by petition or remonstrance. 

Sec. 30. That no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property 
without due process of law. 

Sec. 31. That there cannot be in this state either slavery or involun- 
tary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall 
have been duly convicted. 

Sec. 32. The enumeration in this constitution of certain rights shall 
not be construed to deny, impair, or disparage others retained by the 
people. 

ARTICLE III. — THE DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS. 

The powers of government shall be divided into three distinct depart- 
ments — the legislative, executive, and judicial — each of which shall be con- 
fided to a separate magistracy and no person, or collection of persons, 
charged with the exercise of powers properly belonging to one of those 
departments, shall exercise any power properly belonging to either of the 
others, except in the instances in this constitution expressly directed or 
permitted. 

ARTICLE IV.— LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1. The legislative power, subject to the Hmitations herein 
contained, shall be vested in a senate and house of representatives, to be 
styled "The General Assembly of the State of Missouri." 

representation and apportionment. 

Sec. 2. The house of representatives shall consist of members to be 
chosen every second year by the qualified voters of the several counties, 
and apportioned in the following manner: The ratio of representation shall 
be ascertained at each apportioning session of the general assembly, by 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 



93 



dividing the whole number of inhabitants of the state, as ascertained by 
the last decennial census of the United States, by the number two hun- 
dred. Each county having one ratio, or less, shall be entitled to one rep- 
resentative; each county having two and a half times said ratio, shall be 
entitled to two representatives; each county having four times said ratio, 
shall be entitled to three representatives; each county having six times 
such ratio, shall be entitled to four representatives, and so on above that 
number, giving one additional member for every two and a half additional 
ratios. 

Sec. 3. When any county shall be entitled to more than one repre- 
sentative, the county court shall cause such county to be subdivided into 
districts of compact and contiguous territory, corresponding in number to 
the representatives to which such county is entitled, and in population as 
nearly equal as may be, in each of which the qualified voters shall elect 
one representative, who shall be a resident of such district: Provided, 
That when any county shall be entitled to more than ten representatives, 
the circuit court shall cause such county to be subdivided into districts, so 
as to give each district not less than two, nor more than four representa- 
tives, who shall be residents of such district ; the population of the districts to 
be proportioned to the number of representatives to be elected therefrom. 

Sec. 4. No person shall be a member of the house of representatives 
who shall not have attained the age of twenty-four years, who shall not be 
a male citizen of the United States, who shall not have been a qualified 
voter of this state two 3''ears, and an inhabitant of the county or district 
which he may be chosen to represent, one year next before the day of his 
election, if such county or district shall have been so long established, but 
if not, then of the county or district from which the same shall have been 
taken, and who shall not have paid a state and county tax within one year 
next preceding the election. 

Sec. 5. The senate shall consist of thirty-four members, to be chosen 
by the qualified voters of their respective districts for four years. For the 
election of senators the state shall be divided into convenient districts, as 
nearly equal in population as may be, the same to be ascertained by the 
last decennial census taken by the United States. 

Sec. 6. No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained the 
age of thirty years, who shall not be a male citizen of the United States, 
who shall not have been a qualified voter of this state three years, and an 
inhabitant of the district which he may be chosen to represent one year 
next before the day of his election, if such district shall have been so long 
established; but if not, then of the district or districts from which the same 
shall have been taken, and who shall not have paid a state and county tax 
within one year next preceding the election. When any county shall be 
entitled to more than one senator, the circuit court shall cause such county 
to be subdivided into districts of compact and contiguous territory, and of 
population as nearly equal as may be, corresponding in number with the 
senators to which such county may be entitled; and in each of these one 
senator, who shall be a resident of such district, shall be elected by the 
qualified voters thereof. 

Sec. 7. Senators and representatives shall be chosen according to the 
rule of apportionment established in this constitution, until the next decen- 
nial census by the United States shall have been taken and the result 
thereof as to this state ascertained, when the apportionment shall be revised 



9i CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

and adjusted on the basis of that census, and every ten years there- 
after upon the basis of the United States census; or if such census be not 
taken, or is delayed, then on the basis of a state census; such apportion- 
ment to be made at the first session of the general assembl}' after each 
such census: Provided^ That if at any time, or from any cause, the general 
assembly shall fail or refuse to district the state for senators, as required 
in this section, it shall be the duty of the governor, secretary of state, and 
attorney-general, within thirty days after the adjournment of the general 
assembly on which such duty devolved, to perform said duty, and to file in 
the office of the secretary of state a full statement of the districts formed 
by them, including the names of the counties embraced in each district, 
and the numbers thereof; said statement to be signed by them, and 
attested by the great seal of the state, and upon the proclamation of the 
governor, the same shall be as binding and effectual as if done by the 
general assembly. 

Sec. 8. Until an apportionment of representatives can be made, in 
accordance with the provisions of this article, the house of representa- 
tives shall consist of one hundred and forty-three members, which shall be 
divided among the several counties of the state, as follows: The county of 
St. Louis shall have seventeen; the county of Jackson four; the county of 
Buchanan three; the counties of Franklin, Greene, Johnson, Lafayette, 
Macon, Marion, Pike, and Saline, each two, and each of the other coun- 
ties in the state, one. 

Sec. 9. Senatorial and representative districts may be altered, from 
time to time, as public convenience may require. When any senatorial 
district shall be composed of two or more counties, they shall be contigu- 
ous; such districts to be as compact as may be, and in the formation of 
the same no county shall be divided. 

Sec 10. The first election of senators and representatives, under this 
constitution, shall be held at the general election in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-six, when the whole number of representa- 
tives, and the senators from the districts having odd numbers, who shall 
compose the first class, shall be chosen; and in one thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy-eight, the senators from the districts having even num- 
bers, who shall compose the second class, and so on at each succeeding 
general election, half the senators provided for by this constitution shall 
be chosen. 

Sec 11. Until the state shall be divided into senatorial districts, in 
accordance with the provisions of this article, said districts shall be con- 
stituted and numbered as follows: 

The First District shall be composed of the counties of Andrew, Holt, 
Nodaway and Atchison. 

Second District — The counties of Buchanan, DeKalb, Gentry and 
Worth. 

Third District — The counties of Clay, Clinton and Platte. 

Fourth District —The counties of Caldwell, Ray, Daviess and Harrison. 

Fifth District — The counties of Livingston, Grundy, Mercer and Carroll. 

Sixth District — Tiie counties of Linn, Sullivan, Putnam and Chariton. 

Seventh District — The counties of Randolph, Howard and Monroe. 

Eighth District — The counties of Adair, Macon and Schuyler. 

Ninth District — The counties of Audrain, Boone and Callaway. 



I 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 95 

Tenth District — The counties of St. Charles and Warren. 

Eleventh District — The counties of Pike, Lincoln and Montgomery. 

Twelfth District — The counties of Lewis, Clark, Scotland and Knox. 

Thirteenth District — The counties of Marion, Shelby and Ralls. 

Fourteenth District — The counties of Bates, Cass and Henry. 

Fifteenth District — The county of Jackson. 

Sixteenth District — The counties of Vernon, Barton, Jasper, Newton 
and McDonald. 

Seventeenth District — The counties of Lafayette and Johnson. 

Eighteenth District — The counties of Greene, Lawrence, Barry, Stone 
and Clu-istian. 

Nineteenth District — The counties of Saline, Pettis and Benton. 

Twentieth 'District — The counties of Polk, Plickory, Dallas, Dade, 
Cedar and St. Clair. 

Twenty-first District — The counties of Laclede, Webster, Wright, 
Texas, Douglas, Taney, Ozark and Howell. 

Twenty-second District — The counties of Phelps, Miller, Maries, Cam- 
den, Pulaski, Crawford and Dent. 

Twenty-third District — The counties of Cape Girardeau, Mississippi, 
New Madrid, Pemiscot, Dunklin, Stoddard and Scott. 

Twenty-fourth District — The counties of Iron, Madison, Bollinger, 
Wayne, Butler, Reynolds, Carter, Ripley, Oregon and Shannon. 

Twenty-fifth District — The counties of Franklin, Gasconade and Osage. 

Twenty-sixth District — The counties of Washington, Jefferson, St. 
Francois, Ste. Genevieve and Perry. 

Twenty-eighth District — The counties of Cooper, Moniteau, Morgan 
and Cole. 

St. Louis county shall be divided into seven districts, numbered respec- 
tively, as follows: 

Twenty-seventh, Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth, Thirty-first, Thirty-second, 
Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth. 

Sec. 12. No senator or representative shall, during the term for which 
he shall have been elected, be appointed to any office under this state, or 
any municipality thereof; and no member of congress or person holding 
any lucrative office under the United States, or this state, or any munici- 
pality thereof, (militia offices, justices of the peace and notaries public 
excepted,) shall be eligible to either house of the general assembly, or remain 
a member thereof, after having accepted any such office or seat in either 
house of congress. 

Sec. 13. If any senator or representative remove his residence from 
the district or county for which he was elected, his office shall thereby be 
vacated. 

Sec. 14. Writs of election to fill such vacancies as may occur in either 
house of the general assembly, shall be issued by the governor. 

Sec. 15. Every senator and representative elect, before entering upon 
the duties of his office, shall take and subscribe the following oath or affirm- 
ation: "I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will support the constitution 
of the United States and of the state of Missouri, and faithfully perform 
the duties of my office, and that I will not knowingly receive, directly or 
indirectly, any money or other valuable thing, for the performance or 
non-performance of any act or duty pertaining to my office, other than the 
compensation allowed by law." The oath shall be administered in the 



96 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

halls of their respective houses, to the members thereof, by some judge of 
the supreme court, or the circuit court, or the county court of Cole 
county, or after the organization, by the presiding officer of either house, 
and shall be filed in the office of the secretary of state. Any member of 
either house refusing to take said oath or affirmation, shall be deemed to 
have thereby vacated his office, and any member convicted of having vio- 
lated his oath or affirmation, shall be deemed guilty of perjury, and be 
forever thereafter disqualified from holding any office of trust or profit in 
this state. 

Sec. 16. The members of the general assembly shall severally receive 
from the public treasury such compensation for their services as may, 
from time to time, be provided by law, not to exceed five dollars per day 
for the first seventy days of each session, and after that not to exceed one 
dollar per day for the remainder of the session, except the first session held 
under this constitution, and during revising sessions, when the}^ m^iy re- 
ceive five dollars per day for one hundred and twenty days, and one dollar 
per day for the remainder of such sessions. In addition to per diem, the 
members shall be entitled to receive traveling expenses or mileage, for any 
regular and extra session not greater than now provided by law; but no 
member shall be entitled to traveling expenses or mileage for any extra 
session that may be called within one day after an adjournment of a regu- 
lar session. Committees of either house, or joint committees of both 
houses, appointed to examine the institutions of the state, other than those 
at the seat of government, may receive their actual expenses, necessarily 
incurred while in the performance of such duty; the items of such ex- 
penses to be returned to the chairman of such committee, and by him cer- 
tified to the state auditor, before the same, or any part thereof, can be 
paid. Each member may receive at each regular session an additional sum 
of thirty dollars, which shall be in full for all stationery used in his official 
capacity, and all postage, and all other incidental expenses and perquisites; 
and no allowance or emoluments, for any purpose whatever, shall be made 
to, or received by the members, or any member of either house, or for their 
use, out of the contingent fund or otherwise, except as herein expressly 
provided; and no allowance or emolument, for any purpose whatever, 
shall ever be paid to any officer, agent, servant or employe of either 
house of the general assembly, or of any committee thereof, except such 
per diem as may be provided for by law, not to exceed five dollars. 

Sec. 17. Each house shall appoint its own officers; shall be sole judge 
of the qualifications, election and returns of its own members; may deter- 
mine the rules of its own proceedings, except as herein provided ; may 
arrest and punish by fine not exceeding three hundred dollars, or imprison- 
ment in a county jail not exceeding ten days, or both, any person, not a 
member, who shall be guilty of disrespect to the house by any disorderly or 
contemptuous behavior in its presence during its sessions; may punish its 
members for disorderly conduct; and with the concurrence of two-thirds 
of all members elect, may expel a member; but no member shall be ex- 
pelled a second time for the same cause. 

Sec. 18. A majority of the whole number of members of each house 
shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may ad- 
journ from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members 
in such manner and under such penalties as each house may provide. 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 



97 



Sec. 19. The sessions of each house shall be held with open doors, 
except in cases which may require secrecy. 

Sec. 20. The general assembly elected in the year one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-six shall meet on the first Wednesday after the 
first day of Januar}', one thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven ; and 
thereafter the general assembly shall meet in regular session once only in 
every two yeafs; and such meeting shall be on the first Wednesday after 
the first day of January next after the elections of the members thereof. 

Sec 21. Every adjournment or recess taken by the general assemibly 
for more than three days, shall have the effect of and be an adjournment 
sme die. 

Sec. 22. Every adjournment or recess taken by the general assembly 
for three days or less, shall be construed as not interrupting the session at 
which they are had or taken, but as continuing the session for all the pur- 
poses mentioned in section sixteen of this article. 

Sec 23. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn 
for more than two days at any one time, nor to any other place than that 
in which the two houses maybe sitting. 

LEGISLATIVE PROCEEDINGS. 

Sec 24. The style of the laws of this state shall be: '■^ Be it enacted 
by the General Assembly of the State of Missouri, as follows .•" 

Sec 25. No law shall be passed, except by bill, and no bill shall be so 
amended in its passage through either house, as to change its original 
purpose. 

Sec 26. Bills may originate in either house, and may be amended or 
rejected by the other; and every bill shall be read on three different days 
in each house. 

Sec 27. No bill shall be considered for final passage unless the same 
has been reported upon by a committee and printed for the use of the 
members. 

Sec 28. No bill (except general appropriation bills, which may em- 
brace the various subjects and accounts for and on account of which moneys 
are appropriated, and except bills passed under the third subdivision of 
section forty-four of this article) shall contain more than one subject, which 
shall be clearly expressed in its title. 

Sec 29. All amendments adopted by either house to a bill pending 
and originating in the same, shall be incorporated with the bill by engross- 
ment, and the bill as thus engrossed, shall be printed for the use of the 
members before its final passage. The engrossing and printing shall be 
under the supervision of a committee, whose report to the house shall set 
forth, in writing, that they find the bill truly engrossed, and that the 
printed copy furnished to the members is correct. 

Sec 30. If a bill passed by either house be returned thereto, amended 
by the other, the house to which the same is returned shall cause the 
amendment or amendments so received to be printed under the same super- 
vision as provided in the next preceding section, for the use of the mem- 
bers before final action on such amendments. 

Sec 31. No bill shall become a law, unless on its final passage the 
vote be taken by yeas and nays, the names of the members voting for and 
against the same be entered on the journal, and a majority of the members 
elected to each house be recorded thereon as voting in its favor. 

7 



98 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

Sec. 32. No amendment to bills by one house shall be concurred in 
by the other, except by a vote of a majority of the members elected thereto 
taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those voting for and against 
recorded upon the journal thereof; and reports of committees of confer- 
ence shall be adopted in either house only by the vote of a majority of the 
members elected thereto, taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those 
voting recorded upon the journal. 

Sec. 33. No act shall be revived or re-enacted by mere reference to 
the title thereof, but the same shall be set forth at length, as if it were an 
original act. 

Sec. 34. No act shall be amended by providing that designated words 
thereof be stricken out, or that designated words be inserted, or that desig- 
nated words be stricken out and others inserted in lieu thereof; but the 
words to be stricken out, or the words to be inserted, or the words to be 
stricken out and those inserted in lieu thereof, together with the act or 
section amended, shall be set forth in full, as amended. 

Sec 35. When a bill is put upon its final passage in either house, and, 
failing to pass, a motion is made to reconsider the vote by which it was 
defeated, the vote upon such motion to reconsider shall be immediately 
taken, and the subject finally disposed of before the house proceeds to any 
other business. 

Sec 36. No law passed by the general assembly, except the general 
appropriation act, shall take effect or go into force until ninety days after 
the adjournment of the session at which it was enacted, unless in case of 
an emergency, (which emergency must be expressed in the preamble or in 
the body of the act), the general assembly shall, by a vote of two-thirds 
of all the members elected to each house, otherwise direct; said vote to be 
taken by yeas and nays, and entered upon the journal. 

Sec 37. No bill shall become a law until the same shall have been 
signed by the presiding officer of each of the two houses, in open session; 
and before such officer shall affix his signature to any bill, he shall suspend 
all other business, declare that such bill will now be read, and that, if no 
objections be made, he will sign the same, to the end that it may become a 
law. The bill shall then be read at length, and if no objections be made, 
he shall, in presence of the house, in open session, and before any other 
business is entertained, affix his signature, which fact shall be noted on the 
journal, and the bill immediately sent to the other house. When it reaches 
the other house the presiding officer thereof shall immediately suspend all 
other business, announce the reception of the bill, and the same proceedings 
shall thereupon be observed, in every respect, as in the house in which it 
was first signed. If in either house any member shall object that any sub- 
stitution, omission, or insertion has occurred, so that the bill proposed to be 
signed is not the same in substance and form as when considered and 
passed by the house, or that any particular clause of this article of the 
constitution has been violated in its passage, such objection shall be passed 
upon by the house, and if sustained, the presiding officer shall withhold his 
signature; but if such objection shall not be sustained, then any five mem- 
bers may embody the same, over their signatures, in a written protest, 
under oath, against the signing of the bill. Such protest, when offered in 
the house, shall be noted upon the journal, and the original shall be an- 
nexed to the bill to be considered by the governor in connection therewith. 

Sec. 38. When the bill has been signed, as provided for in the preced- 



I 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 99 

ing section, it shall be the duty of the secretary of the senate, if the bill 
originated in the senate, and of the chief clerk of the house of representa- 
tives, if the bill originated in the house, to present the same in person, on 
the snme day on which it was signed as aforesaid, to the governor, 
and enter the fact upon the journal. Every bill presented to the governor, 
and returned within ten days to the house in which the same originated, 
with the approval of the governor, shall become a law, unless it be in vio- 
lation of some provision oi this constitution. 

Sec. 39. Every bill presented as aforesaid, but returned without the 
approval of the governor, and with his objections thereto, shall stand as 
reconsidered in the house to which it is returned. The house shall cause 
the objections of the governor to be entered at large upon the journal, and 
proceed, at its convenience, to consider the question pending, which shall 
be in this form: "Shall the bill pass, the objections of the governor thereto 
notwithstanding?" The vote upon this question shall be taken by yeas 
and nays, and the names entered upon the journal, and if two-thirds of all 
the members elected to the house vote in the affirmative, the presiding 
officer of that house shall certify that fact on the roll, attesting the same 
by his signature, and send the bill, with the objections of the governor, to 
the other house, in which like proceedings sliall be had in relation thereto; 
and if the bill receive a like majority of the votes of all the members elected 
to that house, the vote being taken by yeas and nays, the presiding officer 
thereof shall, in like manner, certify the fact upon the bill. The bill thus 
certified shall be deposited in the office of the secretary of state, as an au- 
thentic act, and shall become a law in the same manner and with like effect 
as if it had received the approval of the governor. 

Sec. 40. Whenever the governor shall fail to perform his duty, as pre- 
scribed in section twelve, article V, of this constitution, in relation to any 
bill presented to him for his approval, the general assembl}^ rnay, by joint 
resolution, reciting the fact of such failure and the bill at length, direct the 
secretary of state to enrol the same as an authentic act in the archives of 
the state, and such enrollment shall have the same effect as an approval by 
the governor: Provided, That such joint resolution shall not be submit- 
ted to the governor for his approval. 

Sec. 41 . Within five years after the adoption of this constitution all 
the statute laws of a general nature, both civil and criminal, shall be re- 
vised, digested, and promulgated in such manner as the general assembly 
shall direct; and a like revision, digest, and promulgation shall be made 
at the expiration of every subsequent period of ten years. 

Sec. 42. Each house shal.1, from time to time, publish a journal of its 
proceedings, and the yeas and nays on any question shall be taken and 
entered on the journal at the motion of any two members. Whenever the 
yeas and nays are demanded, the whole fist of members shall be called, 
and the names of the absentees shall be noted and published in the journal. 

LIMITATION ON LEGISLATIVE POWER. 

Sec. 43. All revenue collected and moneys received by the state from 
any source whatsoever, shall go into the treasury, and the general assem- 
bly shall have no power to divert the same, or to permit money to be drawn 
from the treasury, except in pursuance of regular appropriations made by 
law. All appropriations of money by the successive general assemblies 
shall be made in the following order: 



100 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

Fh'st, For the payment of all interest upon the bonded debt of the 
state that may become due during the term for which each general 
assembly is elected. 

Second^ For the benefit of the sinking fund, which shall not be less an- 
nually than two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 

Thirds For free public school purposes. 

Fourth, For the pa3'ment of the cost of assessing and collecting the 
revenue. 

Fifth, For the payment of the civil list. 

Sixth, For the support of the eleemosynary institutions of the state. 

Seventh, For the pay of the general assembly, and such other purposes 
not herein prohibited, as it may deem necessary; but no general assembly 
shall have power to make any appropriation of money for any purpose 
whatsoever, until the respective sums necessary for the purposes in this 
section specified have been set apart and appropriated, or to give pri- 
oritv in its action to a succeeding over a preceding item as above enumer- 
ated. 

Sec. 44. The general assembly shall have no power to contract or to 
authorize the contracting of any debt or liability on behalf of the state, or 
to issue bonds or other evidences of indebtedness thereof, except in the 
following cases: 

First, In renewal of existing bonds, when they cannot be paid at matu- 
rity, out of the sinking fund or other resources. 

Second, On the occurring of an unforeseen emergency, or casual defi- 
ciency of the revenue when the temporary Hability incurred, upon the rec- 
ommendation of the governor first had, shall not exceed the sum of two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars for any one year, to be paid in not 
more than two years from and after its creation. 

Third, On the occurring of any unforeseen emergency or casual defi- 
ciency of the revenue, when the temporary liability incurred or to be incur- 
red shall exceed the sum of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars for 
any one year, the general assembly may submit an act providing for the 
loan, or lor the contracting of the liability, and containing a provision for 
levying a tax sufficient to pay the interest and principal when they become 
due, (the latter in not more than thirteen years from the date of its crea- 
tion) to the qualified voters of the state, and when the act so submitted 
shall have been ratified by a two-thirds majority, at an election held for 
that purpose, due publication having been made of the provisions of the 
act for at least three months before such election, the act thus ratified 
shall be irrepealable until the debt thereby incurred shall be paid, princi- 
pal and interest. 

Sec. 45. The general assembly shall have no power to give or to lend, 
or to authorize the giving or lending of the credit of the state in aid of or 
to any person, association or corporation, whether municipal or other, or to 
pledge the credit of the state in any manner whatsoever, for the payment 
of the liabilities, present or prospective, of any individual, association of 
individuals, municipal or other corporation whatsoever. 

Sec. 46. The general assembly shall have no power to make any 
grant, or to authorize the making of any grant of public money or thing of 
v^alue to any individual, association of individuals, municipal or other cor- 
poration whatsoever: Provided, That this shall not be so construed as to 
:)revent the grant of aid in a case of public calamity. 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 



101 



Sec. 47. The general assembly shall have no power to authorize any 
county, city, town or township, or other political corporation or subdivision 
of the state now existing, or that may be hereafter established, to lend its 
credit, or to grant public money or thing of value in aid of, or to any indi- 
vidual, association or corporation whatsoever, or to become a stockholder 
in such corporation, association or company. 

Sec. 48. The general assembly shall have no power to grant, or to 
authorize any county or municipal authority to grant any extra compensa- 
tion, fee or allowance to a public officer, agent, servant or contractor, after 
service has been rendered or a contract has been entered into and per- 
formed in whole or in part, nor pay nor authorize the payment of any claim 
hereafter created against the state, or any county or municipality of the 
state under any agreement or contract made without express authority of 
law; and all such unauthorized agreements or contracts shall be null and 
void. 

Sec. 49. The general assembly shall have no power hereafter to sub- 
scribe or authorize the subscription of stock on behalf of the state, in any 
corporation or association except for the purpose of securing loans hereto- 
fore extended to certain railroad corporations by the state. 

Sec. 50. The general assembly shall have no power to release or 
alienate the lien held by the state upon any railroad, or in anywise change 
the tenor or meaning, or pass any act explanatory thereof; but the same 
shall be enforced in accordance with the original terms upon which it was 
acquired. 

Sec. 51. The general assembly shall have no power to release or ex- 
tinguish, or authorize the releasing or extinguishing, in whole or in part, 
the indebtedness, liability or obligation of any corporation or individual, to 
this state, or to any county or other municipal corporation therein. 

Sec 52. The general assembly shall have no power to make any ap- 
propriation of mone}^, or to issue any bonds or other evidences of indebted- 
ness for the payment, or on account, or in recognition of any claims audited, 
or that may hereafter be audited by virtue of an act entitled " An act to 
audit and adjust the war debt of the state, " approved March 19, 1874, or any 
act of a similar nature, until after the claims so audited shall have been 
presented to and paid by the government of the United States to the state 
of Missouri. 

Sec 53. The general assembly shall not pass any local or special law: 

Authorizing the creation, extension or impairing of liens: 

Regulating the afTairs of counties, cities, townships, wards or school 
districts: 

Changing the names of persons or places: 

Changing the venue in civil or criminal cases: 

Authorizing the laying out, opening, altering or maintaining roads, 
highways, streets or alleys: 

Relating to ferries or bridges, or incorporating ferry or bridge compa- 
nies, except for the erection of bridges crossing streams which form 
boundaries between this and any other state: 

Vacating roads, town plats, streets or alleys: 

Relating to cemeteries, grave yards or public grounds not of the state: 

Authorizing the adoption or legitimation of children: 

Locating or changing county seats: 

Incorporating cities, towns or villages, or changing their charters: 



102 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

For the opening and conducting of elections, or fixing or changing the 
places of voting: 
Granting divorces: 

Erecting new townships, or changing township lines, or the lines of 
school districts: 

Creating offices, or prescribing the powers and duties of officers in 
counties, cities, townships, election or school districts: 
Changing the law of descent or succession: 

Regulating the practice or jurisdiction of, or changing the rules of evi- 
dence in any judicial proceeding or inquiry before courts, justices of the 
peace, sheriffs, commissioners, arbitrators or other tribunals, or providing 
or changing methods for the collection of debts, or the enforcing of judg- 
ments, or prescribing the effect of judicial sales of real estate: 

Regulating the fees or extending the powers and duties of aldermen, 
justices of the peace, magistrates or constables: 

Regulating the management of public schools, the building or repairing 
of school houses, and the raising of money for such purposes: 
Fixing the rate of interest: 

Affecting the estates of minors or persons under disability: 
Remitting fines, penalties and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally 
paid into the treasury: 

Exempting property from taxation: 
Regulating labor, trade, mining or manufacturing: 

Creating corporations, or amending, renewing, extending or explaining 
the charter thereof: 

Granting to any corporation, association or individual any special or 
exclusive right, privilege or immunity, or to any corporation, association or 
individual, the right to lay down a railroad track: 
Declaring any named person of age: 

Extending the time for the assessment or collection of taxes, or other- 
wise relieving any assessor or collector of taxes from the due performance 
of their official duties, or their securities from liability: 
Giving effect to informal or invalid wills or deeds: 
Summoning or empanneling grand or petit juries: 
For limitation of civil actions: 

Legalizing the unauthorized or invalid acts of any officer or agent of 
the state, or of any county or municipality thereof. In all other cases 
where a general law can be made applicable, no local or special law shall 
be enacted; and whether a general law could have been made applicable 
in any case, is hereby declared a judicial question, and as such shall be ju- 
dicially determined without regard to any legislative assertion on that 
subject. 

Nor shall the general assembly indirectly enact such special or local 
law by the partial repeal of a general law ; but laws repealing local or 
special acts may be passed. 

Sec. 51. No local or special law shall be passed unless notice of the 
intention to apply therefor shall have been published in the locality where 
the matter or thing to be afiected may be situated, which notice shall state 
the substance of the contemplated law, and shall be published at least 
thirty days prior to the introduction into the general assembly of such 
bill, and in the manner to be provided by law. The evidence of such 
notice having been published, shall be exhibited in the general assembly 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 1()3 

before such act shall be passed, and the notice shall be recited in the act 
according to its tenor. 

Sec. 55. The general assembly shall have no power, when convened 
in extra session by the governor, to act upon subjects other than those 
specially designated in the proclamation by which the session is called, or 
recommended by special message to its consideration by the governor 
after it shall have been convened. 

Sec. 56. The general assembly shall have no power to remove the 
seat of government of this state from the city of Jefferson. 

ARTICLE V. — EXECUTIVE department. 

Section 1. The executive department shall consist of a governor, 
lieutenant governor, secretary of state, state auditor, state treasurer, 
attorney general and superintendent of public schools, all of whom, except 
the lieutenant governor, shall reside at the seat of government during 
their term of office, and keep the public records, books and papers there, 
and shall perform such duties as may be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 2. The term of office of the governor, lieutenant governor, sec- 
retary of state, state auditor, state treasurer, attorney general and super- 
intendent of public schools, shall be four years from the second Monday 
of January next after their election, and until their successors are elected 
and qualified; and the governor and state treasurer shall be ineligible to 
re-election as their own successors. At the general election to be held in 
the year one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six, and every four 
years thereafter, all of such officers, except the superintendent of public 
schools, shall be elected, and the superintendent of public schools shall be 
elected at the general election in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
seventy-eight, and every four years thereafter. 

Sec. 3. The returns of every election for the above named officers 
shall be sealed up and transmitted by the returning officers to the secre- 
tary of state, directed to the speaker of the house of representatives, who 
shall immediately, after the organization of the house, and before proceed- 
ing to other business, open and publish the same in the presence of a 
majority of each house of the general assembl}^, who shall for that pur- 
pose assemble in the hall of the house of representatives. The person 
having the highest number of votes for either of said offices shall be 
declared duly elected; but if two or more shall have an equal and the 
highest number of votes, the general assembly shall, by joint vote, choose 
one of such persons for said office. 

Sec. 4. The supreme executive power shall be vested in a chief mag- 
istrate, who shall be styled "the governor of the state of Missouri." 

Sec. 5. The governor shall be at least thirty-five years old, a male, 
and shall have been a citizen of the United States ten years, and a resi- 
dent of this state seven years next before his election. 

Sec. 6. The governor shall take care that the laws are distributed and 
faithfully executed; and he shall be a conservator of the peace through- 
out the state. 

Sec. T. The governor shall be commander-in-chief of the militia of 
this state, except when they shall be called into the service of the United 
States, and may call out the same to execute the laws, suppress insurrec- 
tion and repel invasion; but he need not command in person unless 
directed so to do by a resolution of the general assembly. 



104 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

Sec. 8. The governor shall have power to grant reprieves, commuta- 
tions and pardons, after conviction, for all offenses, except treason and 
cases of impeachment, upon such condition and with such restrictions and 
limitations as he may think proper, subject to such regulations as may be 
provided by law relative to the manner of applying for pardons. He shall, 
at each session of the general assembly, communicate to that body each 
case of reprieve, commutation or pardon granted, stating the name of the 
convict, the crime of which he was convicted, the sentence and its date, 
the date of the commutation, pardon or reprieve, and the reason for grant- 
ing the same. 

Sec. 9. The governor shall, from time to time, give to the general 
assembly information relative to the state of the government, and shall 
recommend to its consideration such measures as he shall deem necessary 
and expedient. On extraordinary occasions he may convene the general 
assembly by proclamation, wherein he shall state specifically each matter 
concerning which the action of that body is deemed necessary. 

Sec 10. The governor shall, at the commencement of each session of 
the general assembly, and at the close of his term of office, give informa- 
tion by message, of the condition of the state, and shall recommend such 
measures as he shall deem expedient. He shall account to the general 
assembly, in such manner as may be prescribed by law, for all moneys 
received and paid out by him from any funds subject to his order, with 
vouchers; and at the commencement of each regular session, present esti- 
mates of the amount of money required to be raised by taxation for all 
purposes. 

Sec. 11. When any office shall become vacant, the governor, unless 
otherwise provided by law, shall appoint a person to fill such vacancy, 
who shall continue in office until a successor shall have been duly elected 
or appointed and qualified according to law. 

Sec 12. The governor shall consider all bills and joint resolutions, 
which, having been passed by both houses of the general assembly, shall 
be presented to him. He shall, within ten days after the same shall have 
been presented to him, return to the house in which they respectively 
originated, all such bills and joint resolutions, with his approval endorsed 
thereon, or accompanied by his objections: Provided, That if the general 
assembly shall finally adjourn within ten days after such presentation, 
the governor ma}^, within thirty days thereafter, return such bills and res- 
olutions to the office of the secretary of state, with his approval or reasons 
for disapproval. 

Sec 13. If any bill presented to the governor contain several items 
of appropriation of money, he may object to one or more items while 
approving other portions of the bill. In such case he shall append to the 
bill, at the time of signing it, a statement of the items to which he objects, 
and the appropriations so objected to shall not take effect. If the general 
assembly be in session, he shall transmit to the house in which the bill 
originated a copy of such statement, and the items objected to shall be 
separately reconsidered. If it be not in session, then he shall transmit the 
same within thirty days to the office of secretary of state, with his approval 
or reasons for disapproval. 

Sec. 14. Every resolution to which the concurrence of the senate and 
house of representatives may be necessary, except on questions of adjourn- 
ment, of going into joint session, and of amending this constitution, shall 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 105 

be presented to the governor, and before the same shall take effect, shall 
be proceeded upon in the same manner as in the case of a bill: Provided, 
That no resolution shall have the effect to repeal, extend, alter or amend 
an}^ law. 

Sec. 15. The lieutenant ofovernor shall possess the same qualifications 
as the governor, and by virtue of his office shall be president of the senate. 
In committee of the whole he may debate all questions; and when there 
is an equal division he shall give the casting vote in the senate, and also in 
joint vote of both houses. 

Sec. 16. In case of death, conviction, or impeachment, failure to qual- 
ify, resignation, absence from the state, or other disability of the governor, 
the powers, duties, and emoluments of the office for the residue of the 
term, or until the disability shall be removed, shall devolve upon the lieu- 
tenant governor. 

Sec. 17. The senate shall choose a president fro tempore to preside in 
cases of the absence or impeachment of the lieutenant-governor, or when 
he shall hold the office of governor. If there be no heutenant-governor, 
or the Heutenant governor shall, for any of the causes specified in section 
sixteen, of this article, become incapable of performing the duties of the 
office, the president of the senate shall act as governor until the vacancy 
is filled, or the disability removed; and if the president of the senate, for 
any of the above named causes, shall become incapable of performing the 
duties of governor, the same shall devolve upon the speaker of the house 
of representatives, in the same manner, and with the same powers and 
compensation as are prescribed in the case of the office devolving upon 
the lieutenant-governor. 

Sec. 18. The lieutenant-governor, or the president -pro tempore of the 
senate, while presiding in the senate, shall receive the same compen- 
sation as shall be allowed to the speaker of the house of representatives. 

Sec. 19. No person shall be eligible to the office of secretary of state, 
state auditor, state treasurer, attorney-general, or superintendent of public 
schools, unless he be a male citizen of the United States, and at least 
twenty-five years old, and shall have resided in this state at least five years 
next before his election. 

Sec. 20. The secretary of state shall be the custodian of the seal of 
the state, and authenticate therewith all official acts of the governor, his 
approval of laws excepted. The said seal shall be called the "Great Seal 
of the State of Missouri," and the emblems and devices thereof, hereto- 
fore prescribed by law, shall not be subject to change. 

Sec. 21. The secretary of state shall keep a register of the official acts 
of the governor, and when necessary, shall attest them, and lay copies of 
the same, together with copies of all papers relative thereto, before either 
house of the general assembly whenever required to do so. 
• Sec. 22. An account shall be kept by the officers of the executive 
department of all moneys and choses in action disbursed, or otherwise dis- 
posed of by them severally, from all sources, and for every service per- 
formed; and a semi-annual report thereof shall be made to the governor 
under oath. The governor may at any time require information, in writ- 
ing, under oath, from the officers of the executive department, and all 
officers and managers of state institutions, upon any subject relating to 
the condition, management and expenses of their respective offices and 
institutions; which information, when so required, shall be furnished by 



1QQ CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

such officers and managers, and any officer or manager who at any time 
shall make a false report, shall be guilty of perjury and punished accord- 
ingly- 

Sec. 23. The governor shall commission all officers not otherwise pro- 
vided for by law. All commissions shall run in the name and by the 
authority of the state of Missouri, be signed by the governor, sealed with 
the great seal of the state of Missouri, and attested by the secretary of state. 

Sec. 24. The officers named in this article shall receive for their ser- 
vices a salary to be established by law, which shall not be increased or 
diminished during their official terms; and they shall not, after the expir- 
ation of the terms of those in office at the adoption of this constitution, 
receive to their own use any fees, costs, perquisites of office, or other com- 
pensation. All fees that may hereafter be payable by law for any service 
performed by any officer provided for in this article shall be paid in 
advance into the state treasur3\ 

Sec. 25. Contested elections of governor and lieutenant-governor 
shall be decided by a joint vote of both houses of the general assembly, 
in such manner as may be provided by law ; and contested elections of 
secretary of state, state auditor, state treasurer, attorney-general, and su- 
perintendent of public schools shall be decided before such tribunal, and 
in such manner as may be provided by law. 

ARTICLE "VI. -JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT. 

Section 1. The judicial power of the state, as to matters of law and 
equity, except as in this constitution otherwise provided, shall be vested 
in a supreme court, the St. Louis court of appeals, circuit courts, crim- 
inal courts, probate courts, county courts, and municipal corporation courts. 

Sec. 2. The supreme court; except in cases otherwise directed by this 
constitution, shall have appellate jurisdiction only, which shall be co-ex- 
tensive with the state, under the restrictions and limitations in this consti- 
tution provided. 

Sec. 3. The supreme court shall have a general superintending con- 
trol over all inferior courts. It shall have power to issue writs of habeas 
corpus, mandamus, quo warranto, certiorari, and other original remedial 
writs, and to hear and determine the same. 

Sec. 4. The judges of the supreme court shall hold office for the term 
of ten years. The judge oldest in commission shall be chief justice of the 
court; and, if there be more than one commission of the same date, the 
court may select the chief justice from the judges holding the same. 

Sec. 5. The supreme court shall consist of five judges, any three of 
whom shall constitute a quorum; and said judges shall be conservators of 
the peace throughout the state, and shall be elected by the qualified voters 
thereof. 

Sec. 6. The judges of the supreme court shall be citizens of the 
United States, not less than thirty years old, and shall have been citizens 
of this state for five years next preceding their election or appointment, 
and shall be learned in the law. 

Sec. 7. The full terms of the judges of the supreme court shall com- 
mence on the first day of January next ensuing their election, and those 
elected to fill any vacanc}^ shall also enter upon the discharge of their 
duties on the first day of January next ensuing such election. Those ap- 
pointed shall enter upon the discharge of their duties us soon as qualified. 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 



107 



Sec. 8. The present judges of the supreme court shall remain in 
office until the expiration of their respective terms of office. To fill their 
places as their terms expire, one judge shall be elected at the general 
election in eighteen hundred and seventy-six, and one every two years 
thereafter. 

Sec. 1). The supreme court shall be held at the seat of government at 
such times as may be prescribed by law; and until otherwise directed by 
law, the terms of said court shall commence on the third Tuesday in Octo- 
ber and April of each year. 

Sec. 10. The state shall provide a suitable court room at the seat of 
government, in which the supreme court shall hold its sessions; also a 
clerk's office, furnished offices for the judges, and the use of the state 
library. 

Sec. 11. If, in any cause pending in the supreme court, or the St. 
Louis court of appeals, the judges sitting shall be equally divided in opin- 
ion, no judgment shall be entered therein based on such division; but the 
parties to the cause may agree upon some person, learned in the law, to 
act as special judge in the cause, who shall therein sit with the court, and 
give decision in the same manner and with the same effect as one of the 
judges. If the parties cannot agree upon a special judge, the court shall 
appoint one. 

Sec. 13. There is hereby established in the city of St. Louis an appel- 
late court, to be known as the " St. Louis court of appeals," the jurisdic- • 
tion of which shall be coextensive with the city of St. Louis and the coun- 
ties of St. Louis, St. Charles, Lincoln and Warren. Said court shall have 
power to issue writs of habeas corpus, quo warranto, mandamus, certiorari, 
and other original remedial writs, and to hear and determine the same; and 
shall have a superintending control over all inferior courts of record in said 
counties. Appeals shall lie from the decisions of the St. Louis court of ap- 
peals to the supreme court, and writs of error may issue from the supreme 
court to said court in the following cases only: In all cases where the 
amount in dispute, exclusive of costs, exceeds the sum of two thousand five 
hundred dollars; in cases involving the construction of the constitution of 
the United States or of this state; in cases where the validity of a treaty or 
statute of, or authority exercised under the United States is drawn in ques- 
tion ; in cases involving the construction of the revenue laws of this state, 
or the title to any office under this state; in cases involving title to real 
estate; in cases where a county or other political subdivision of the state, 
or any state officer is a party, and in all cases of felony. 

Sec 13. The St. Louis court of appeals shall consist of three judges, 
to be elected by the qualified voters of the city of St. Louis, and the coun- 
ties of St. Louis, St. Charles, Lincoln and Warren, who shall hold their 
offices for the period of twelve years. They shall be residents of the dis- 
trict composed of said counties, shall possess the same qualifications as 
judges of the supreme court, and each shall receive the same compensation 
as is now, or may be, provided by law for the judges of the circuit court of 
St. Louis county, and be paid from the same sources: Provided^ That 
each of said counties shall pay its proportional part of the same, according 
to its taxable property. 

Sec. 14. The judges of said court shall be conservators of the peace 
throughout said counties. Any two of said judges shall constitute a quo- 
rum. There shall be two terms of said court to be held each year, on the 



108 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

first Monday of March and October, and the first term of said court shall 
be held on the first Monday in January, 1876. 

Sec. 15. The opinions of said court shall be in writing, and shall be 
filed in the cases in which they shall be respectively made, and become 
parts of their record; and all laws relating to the practice in the supreme 
court shall apply to this court, so far as the same may be applicable. 

Sec. 16. At the first general election held in said city and counties 
after the adoption of this constitution, three judges of said court shall be 
elected, who shall determine by lot the duration of their several terms of 
office, which shall be respectively four, eight and twelve years, and certify 
the result to the secretar}'- of state; and every four years thereafter one 
judge of said court shall be elected to hold office for the term of twelve 
years. The term of office of such judges shall begin on the first Monday 
in January next ensuing their election. The judge having the oldest 
license to practice law in this state, shall be the presiding judge of said 
court. 

Sec. it. Upon the adoption of this constitution the governor shall 
appoint three judges for said court, who shall hold their offices until the 
first Monday of January, eighteen hundred and seventy-seven, and until 
their successors shall be duly qualified. 

Sec. 18. The clerk of the supreme court at St. Louis shall be the clerk 
.of the St. Louis court of appeals until the expiration of the term for which 
he was appointed clerk of the supreme court, and until his successor shall 
be duly qualified. 

Sec. 19. All cases which may be pending in the supreme court at St. 
Louis at the time of the adoption of this constitution, which by its terms 
would come within the final appellate jurisdiction of the St. Louis court of 
appeals, shall be certified and transferred to the St. Louis court of appeals, 
to be heard and determined by said court. 

Sec. 20. All cases coming to said court by appeal, or writ of error, 
shall be triable at the expiration of fifteen days from the filing of the tran- 
script in the office of the clerk of said court. 

Sec. 21. Upon the adoption of this constitution, and after the close of 
the next regular terms of the supreme court at St. Louis and St. Joseph, as 
now established by law, the office of the clerk of the supreme court at St. 
Louis and St. Joseph shall be vacated, and said clerks shall transmit to the 
clerk of the supreme court at Jefferson City all the books, records, docu- 
ments, transcripts and papers belonging to their respective offices, except 
those required by section nineteen of this article, to be turned over to the 
St. Louis court of appeals; and said records, documents, transcripts and 
papers shall become part of the records, documents, transcripts and papers 
of said supreme court at Jefierson City, and said court shall hear and 
determine all the cases thus transferred as other cases. 

Sec. 22. The circuit court shall have jurisdiction over all criminal 
cases not otherwise provided for by law; exclusive original jurisdiction in 
all civil cases not otherwise provided for; and such concurrent jurisdiction 
with, and appellate jurisdiction from inferior tribunals and justices of the 
peace as is or ma}^ be provided b}' law. It shall hold its terms at such 
times and places in each count}^ as may be by law directed; but at least 
two terms shall be held every year in each county. 

Sec. 23. The circuit court shall exercise a superintending control over 
criminal courts, probate courts, county courts, municipal corporation 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 



109 



courts, justices of the peace, and all inferior tribunals in each county in 
their respective circuits. 

Sec. 24. The state, except as otherwise provided in this constitution, 
shall be divided into convenient circuits of contiguous counties, in each of 
which circuits one circuit judge shall be elected ; and such circuits may be 
changed, enlarged, diminished or abolished, from time to time, as public 
convenience may require; and whenever a circuit shall be abolished, the 
office of the judge of such circuit shall cease. 

Sec. 25. The judges of the circuit courts shall be elected by the quali- 
fied voters of each circuit; shall hold their offices for the term of six years, 
and shall reside in and be conservators of the peace within their respective 
circuits. 

Sec. 26. No person shall be eligible to the office of judge of the cir- 
cuit court who shall not have attained the age of thirty years, been a citi- 
zen of the United States five years, a qualified voter of this state for three 
years, and who shall not be a resident of the circuit in which he may be 
elected or appointed. 

Sec. 27. The circuit court of St. Louis county shall be composed of 
five judges, and such additional number as the general assembly may, 
from time to time, provide. Each of said judges shall sit separately for 
the trial of causes and the transaction of business in special term. The 
judges of said circuit court may sit in general term, for the purpose of 
making rules of court, and for the transaction of such other business as 
may be provided by law, at such time as they may determine ; but shall have 
no power to review any order, decision or proceeding of the court in 
special term. The St. Louis court of appeals shall have exclusive jurisdic- 
tion of all appeals from, and writs of error to circuit courts of St. Charles, 
Lincoln and Warren counties, and the circuit court of St. Louis county, in 
special term, and all courts of record having criminal jurisdiction in said 
counties. 

Sec. 28. In any circuit composed of a single county, the general assem- 
bly may, from time time, provide for one or more additional judges, as the 
business shall require ; each of whom shall separately try cases and per- 
form all other duties imposed upon circuit judges. 

Sec. 29. If there be a vacancy in the office of judge of any circuit, or 
if the judge be sick, absent, or from any cause unable to hold any term, or 
part of term of court, in any county in his circuit, such term, or part of 
term of court, may be held by a judge of any other circuit; and at the re- 
quest of the judge of any circuit, any term of court, or part of term in his 
circuit, may be held by the judge of any other circuit, and in all such cases, 
or in any case where the judge cannot preside, the general assembly shall 
make such additional provision for holding court as may be found necessary. 

Sec. 30. The election of judges of all courts of record shall be held as 
is or may be provided by law, and in case of a tie or contested election be- 
tween the candidates, the same shall be determined as prescribed by law. 

Sec. 31. The general assembly shall have no power to establish crim- 
inal courts, except m counties having a population exceeding fifty thousand. 

Sec. 32. In case the office of judge of any court of record becomes va- 
cant by death, resignation, removal, failure to qualify, or otherwise, such 
vacancy shall be filled in the manner provided by law. 

Sec. 33. The judges of the supreme, appellate and circuit courts, 
and of all other courts of record receiving a salary, shall, at stated times, 



110 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

receive such compensation for their services as is or may be prescribed by 
law; but it shall not be increased or diminished during the period for which 
they were elected. 

Sec 31. The general assembly shall establish in every count}^ a pro- 
bate court, which shall be a court of record, and consist of one judge, who 
shall be elected. Said court shall have jurisdiction over all matters per- 
taining to probate business, to granting letters testamentary and of admin- 
istration, the appointment of guardians and curators of minors and persons 
of unsound mind, settling the accounts of executors, administrators, cura- 
tors and guardians, and the sale or leasing of lands by administrators, 
curators and guardians; and, also, jurisdiction over all matters relating to 
apprentices: Provided^ That until the general assembly shall provide by 
law for a uniform system of probate courts, the jurisdiction of probate 
courts heretofore established shall remain as now provided by law. 

Sec. 35. Probate courts shall be uniform in their organization, juris- 
diction, duties and practice, except that a separate clerk may be provided 
for, or the judge may be required to act, ex-qfficio, as his own clerk. 

Sec. 36. In each county there shall be a county court, which shall be 
a court of record, and shall have jurisdiction to transact all county and 
such other business as may be prescribed by law. The court shall consist 
of one or more judges, not exceeding three, of whom the probate judge 
may be one, as may be provided by law. 

Sec. 37. In each county there shall be appointed, or elected, as many 
justices of the peace as the pubhc good may require, whose powers, duties 
and duration in office shall be regulated by law. 

Sec. 38. All writs and process shall run, and all prosecutions shall be 
conducted in the name of the " state of Missouri ;" all writs shall be 
attested by the clerk of the court from which they shall be issued; and all 
indictments shall conclude " against the peace and dignity of the state." 

Sec. 39. The St. Louis court of appeals and supreme court shall 
appoint their own clerks. The clerks of all other courts of record shall 
be elective, for such terms and m such manner as may be directed by law ; 
•provided, that the term of office of no existing clerk of any court of record, 
not abolished by this constitution, shall be affected by such law. 

Sec. 40. In case there be a tie, or a contested election between can- 
didates for clerk of any court of record, the same shall be determined 
in such manner as may be directed by law. 

Sec. 41. In case of the inability of any judge of a court of record to 
discharge the duties of his office with efficiency, by reason of continued 
sickness, or physical or mental infirmity, it shall be in the power of the 
general assembly, two thirds of the members of each house concurring, 
with the approval of the governor, to remove such judge fi-om office; but 
each house shall state on its respective journal the cause for which it shall 
wish his removal, and give him notice thereof, and he shall have the right 
to be heard in his defense, in such manner as the general' assembly shall 
by law direct. 

Sec. 42. All courts now existing in this state, not named or provided 
for in this constitution, shall continue until the expiration of the terms of 
office of the several judges; and as such terms expire, the business of said 
court shall vest in the court having jurisdiction thereof in the counties 
where said courts now exist, and all the records and papers shall be trans- 
ferred to the proper courts. 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 



Ill 



Sec. 43. The supreme court of the state shall designate what opin- 
ions delivered by the court, or the judge thereof, may be printed at the ex- 
pense of the state; and the general assembly shall make no provision for 
payment b}^ the state for the publication of any case decided by said court, 
not so designated. 

Sec 44. All judicial decisions in this state shall be free for publica- 
tion by an}^ person. 

ARTICLE Vn. — IMPEACHMENTS. 

Section 1. The governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, 
state auditor, state treasurer, attorney general, superintendent of pub- 
lic schools, and judges of the supreme, circuit and cri-minal courts, and 
of the St. Louis court of appeals, shall be liable to impeachment for high 
crimes or misdemeanors, and for misconduct, habits of drunkenness, or op- 
pression in office. 

Sec 2. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of 
impeachment. All impeachments shall be tried by the senate, and, when 
sitting for that purpose, the senators shall be sworn to do justice according 
to law and evidence. When the governor of the state is on trial, the chief 
justice of the supreme court shall preside. No person shall be convicted 
without the concurrence of two-thirds of the senators present. But judg- 
ment in such cases shall not extend any further than removal from office, 
and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust or profit under this 
state. The party, whether convicted or acquitted, shall, nevertheless, be 
liable to prosecution, trial, judgment and punishment according to law. 

ARTICLE VIII.— SUFFRAGE AND ELECTIONS. 

Section 1. The general election shall be held biennially on the Tues- 
day next following the first Monday in November. The first general elec- 
tion under this constitution shall be held on that day, in the year one thou- 
sand eight hundred and seventy-six; but the general assembly may, by 
law, fix a different day, two-thirds of all the members of each house con- 
senting thereto. 

Sec 2. Every male citizen of the United States, and every male per- 
son of foreign birth, who may have declared his intention to become a citi- 
zen of the United States according to law, not less than one year nor more 
than five j^ears before he offers to vote, who is over the age of twenty-one 
years, possessing the following qualifications, shall be entitled to vote at 
all elections by the people: 

Firsts He shall have resided in the state one year immediately preceding 
the election at which he offers to vote. 

Second^ He shall have resided in the county, city or town where he 
shall offer to vote, at least sixty days immediately preceding the election. 

Sec 3. All elections by the people shall be by ballot ; every ballot voted 
shall be numbered in the order in which it shall be received, and the 
number recorded b}^ the election officers on the list of voters, opposite the 
name of the voter who presents the ballot. The election officers shall be 
sworn or affirmed not to disclose how any voter shall have voted, unless 
required to do so as witnesses in a judicial proceeding: Provided, That in all 
cases of contested elections the ballots cast may be counted, compared with 
the list of voters, and examined under such safeguards and regulations as 
may be prescribed by law. 



112 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

Sec. 4-. Voters shall, in all cases except treason, felony or breach of 
the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at elections, 
and in going to and returning therefrom. 

Sec. 5. The general assembly shall provide, by law, for the registra- 
tion of all voters in cities and counties having a population of more than 
one hundred thousand inhabitants, and may provide for such registration in 
cities having a population exceeding twentj^-five thousand inhabitants and 
not exceeding one hundred thousand, but not otherwise. 

Sec. 6. All elections, by persons in a representative capacity, shall be 
viva voce. 

Sec 7. For the purpose of voting, no person shall be deemed to have 
gained a residence by reason of his presence, or lost it by reason of his ab- 
sence, while employed in the service, either civil or military, of this state, 
or of the United States, nor while engaged in the navigation of the waters 
of the state or of the United States, or of the high seas, nor while a student 
of any institution of learning, nor while kept in a poor house or other asy- 
lum at public expense, nor while confined in public prison. 

Sec. 8. No person, while kept at any poor house, or other asylum, at 
public expense, nor while confined in any public prison, shall be entitled to 
vote at any election under the laws of this state. 

Sec. 9. The trial and determination of contested elections of all public 
officers, whether state, judicial, municipal, or local, except governor and 
lieutenant governor, shall be by the courts of law, or by one or more of the 
judges thereof. The general assembly shall, by general law, designate the 
court or judge by whom the several classes of election contests shall be 
tried, and regulate the manner of trial and all matters incident thereto; but 
no such law, assigning jurisdiction or regulating its exercise, shall apply to 
any contest arising out of any election held before said law shall take ei^ect. 

Sec 10. The general assembly may enact laws excluding from the 
right of voting all persons convicted of felony or other infamous crime, or 
misdemeanors connected with the exercise of the right of suffrage. 

Sec 11. No officer, soldier or marine, in the regular army or navy of 
the United States, shall be entitled to vote at any election in this state. 

Sec 12. No person shall be elected or appointed to any office in this 
state, civil or military, who is not a citizen of the United States, and who 
shall not ha vie resided in this state one year next preceding his election or 
appointment. 

ARTICLE IX.— COUNTIES, cities and towns. 

Section 1. The several counties of this state, as they now exist, are 
hereby recognized as legal subdivisions of the state. 

Sec 2. The general assembly shall have no power to remove the 
county seat of any count}^, but the removal of county seats shall be pro- 
vided for by general law ; and no county seat shall be removed unless two- 
thirds of the qualified voters of the county, voting on the proposition at a 
general election, vote therefor; and no such proposition shall be sub- 
mitted oftener than once in five years. All additions to a town, which 
is a county seat, shall be included, considered and regarded as part of the 
county seat. 

Sec 3. The general assembly shall have no power to establish any 
new county with a territory of less than four hundred and ten square miles, 
nor to reduce any county, now established, to a less area or less population 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 1^3 

than required for a ratio of representation existing at the time; but when 
a new county is formed, having a population less than a ratio of represent- 
ation, it shall be attached for representative purposes to the county from 
which the greatest amount of territory is taken until such ratio shall be 
obtained. No county shall be divided or have any portion stricken there- 
from, without submitting the question to a vote of the people of the county, 
nor unless a majority of all the qualified voters of the county or counties 
thus affected, voting on the question, shall vote therefor; nor shall any new 
county be established, any line of which shall run within ten miles of the 
then existing county seat of any county. In all cases of the establishment 
of any new county, the new county shall be held for and obliged to pay its 
ratable proportion of all the liabilities then existing of the county or coun- 
ties from which said new county shall be formed. 

Sec. 4. No part of the territory of any county shall be stricken ofl'and 
added to an adjoining county, without submitting the question to the qual- 
ified voters of the counties immediately interested, nor unless a majority of 
all the qualified voters of the counties thus afiected, voting on the question, 
shall vote therefor. When any part of a county is stricken ofl:'and attached 
to another county, the part stricken off shall be holden for, and obliged to 
pay its proportion of all the liabilities then existing of the county from 
which it is taken. 

Sec. .3. When any new county, formed from contiguous territory taken 
from older counties, or when any county to which territory shall be added 
taken from an adjoining count}^, shall fail to pay the proportion of indebt- 
edness of such territory, to the county or counties from which it is taken, 
then it may be lawful for any county from which such territory has been 
taken, to levy and collect, by taxation, the due proportion of indebtedness 
of such territory, in the same manner as if the territory had not been 
stricken off. 

Sec. 6. No county, township, cit3^ or other municipalit}^, shall here- 
after become a subscriber to the capital stock of any railroad or other cor- 
poration or association, or make appropriation or donation, or loan its credit 
to, or in aid of any such corporation or association, or to or in aid of any 
college or institution of learning, or other institution, whether created for 
or to be controlled by the state or others. All authority heretofore con- 
ferred for any of the purposes aforesaid by the general assembly, or by 
the charter of any corporation, is hereby repealed: Provided, hozuever^ 
That nothing in this constitution contained shall affect the right of any 
such municipality to make such subscription, where the same has been au- 
thorized under existing laws by a vote of the people of such municipality 
prior to its adoption, or to prevent the issue of renewal bonds or the use of 
such other means as are or ma}' be prescribed by law, for the liquidation or 
payment of such subscription, or of any existing indebtedness. 

Sec. 7. The general assembly shall provide, by general laws, for the 
organization and classification of cities and towns. The number of such 
classes shall not exceed four; and the power of each class shall be defined 
by general laws, so that all such municipal corporations of the same class 
shall possess the same powers and be subject to the same restrictions. The 
general assembly shall also make provisions, by general law, whereb}'' any 
city, town or village, existing by virtue of any special or local law, maj 
elect to become subject to, and be governed by, the general laws relating 
to such corporations. 



114 ' CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

Sec. 8. The general assembly may provide, by general law, for town- 
ship organization, under which any county may organize whenever a ma- 
jorit}^ of the legal voters of such county, voting at any general election, 
shall so determine; and whenever any county shall adopt township organ- 
ization, so much of this constitution as provides for the management of 
county affairs, and tlie assessment and collection of the revenue by county 
officers, in conflict with such general law for township organization, may 
be dispensed with, and the business of said county, and the local concerns 
of the several townships therein, may be transacted in such manner as may 
be prescribed by law: Provided^ That the justices of the county court in 
such case shall not exceed three in number. 

Sec. 9. In any county which shall have adopted " Township Organiz- 
ation," the question of continuing the same may be submitted to a vote of 
the electors of such county at a general election, in the manner that shall 
be provided by law; and if a majority of all the votes cast upon that 
question shall be against township organization, it shall cease in said 
county; and all laws in force in relation to counties not having township 
organization shall immediateh^ take effect and be in force in such county. 

Sec. 10. There shall be elected by the qualified voters in each county, 
at the time and places of electing representatives, a sheriff and coroner. 
They shall serve for two years, and until their successors be duly elected 
and quaHfied, unless sooner removed for malfeasance in office, and shall be 
eligible only four years in any period of six. Before entering on the duties 
of their office, they shall give security in the amount and in such manner 
as shall be prescribed by law. Whenever a county shall be hereafter 
established, the governor shall appoint a sheriff" and a coroner therein, who 
shall continue in office until the next succeeding general election, and until 
their successors shall be duly elected and qualified. 

Sec 11. Whenever a vacancy shall happen in the office of sheriff or 
coroner, the same shall be filled by the county court. If such vacancy hap- 
pen in the office of sheriff more than nine months prior to the time of 
holding a general election, such county court shall immediately order a 
special election to fill the same, and the person by it appointed shall hold 
office until the person chosen at such election shall be duly qualified; 
otherwise, the person appointed by such county court shall hold office 
until the person chosen at such general election shall be duly qualified. 
If any vacancy happen in the office of coroner, the same shall be filled for 
the remainder of the term by such county court. No person elected or 
appointed to fill a vacancy in either of said offices shall thereby be ren- 
dered ineligible for the next succeeding term. 

Sec. 12. The general assembly shall, by a law uniform in its opera- 
tion, provide for and regulate the fees of all county officers, and for this 
purpose may classify the counties by population. 

Sec 13. The fees of no executive or ministerial officer of any county 
or municipality, exclusive of the salaries actually paid to his necessary 
deputies, shall exceed the sum of ten thousand dollars for any one year. 
Every such officer shall make return, quarterly, to the county court of all 
fees by him received, and of the salaries by him actually paid to his depu- 
ties or assistants, stating the same in detail, and verifying the same by his 
affidavit; and for any statement or omission in such return, contrary to 
truth, such officer shall be liable to the penalties of willful and corrupt 
perjury. 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. II5. 

Sec. 14. Except as otherwise directed by this constitution, the general 
assembly shall provide for the election or appointment of such other 
county, township and municipal officers, as public convenience may 
require; and their terms of office and duties shall be prescribed by law; 
but no term of office shall exceed four years. 

Sec. 15. In all counties having a city therein containing over one hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants, the city and county government thereof may 
be consolidated in such manner as may be provided by law. 

Sec. 16. Any city having a population of more than one hundred 
thousand inhabitants, may frame a charter for its own government, con- 
sistent with and subject to the constitution and laws of this state, by 
causing a board of thirteen freeholders, who shall have been for at least 
five years qualified voters thereof, to be elected by the qualified voters of 
such city at any general or special election; which board shall, within 
ninety daj'S after such election, return to the chief magistrate of such city 
a draft of such charter, signed by the members of such board or a majority 
of them. Within thirty days thereafter, such proposed charter shall be 
submitted to the qualified voters of such city, at a general or special elec- 
tion, and if four-sevenths of such qualified voters voting thereat, shall rat- 
ify the same, it shall, at the end of thirty days thereafter, become the char- 
ter of such city, and supersede any existing charter and amendments 
thereof. A duplicate certificate shall be made, setting forth the charter 
proposed and its ratification, which shall be signed by the chief magistrate 
of such city, and authenticated by its corporate seal. One of such certifi- 
cates shall be deposited in the office of the secretary of state, and the other, 
after being recorded in the office of the recorder of deeds for the county 
in which such city lies, shall be deposited among the archives of such city, 
and all courts shall take judicial notice thereof. Such charter, so adopted, 
may be amended by a proposal therefor, made by the law-making author- 
ities of such cit}^, published for at least thirty days in three newspapers of 
largest circulation in such city, one of which shall be a newspaper printed 
in the German language, and accepted by three-fifths of the quahfied 
voters of such city, voting at a general or special election, and not other- 
wise; but such charter shall always be in harmony with and subject to the 
constitution and laws of the state. 

Sec 17. It shall be a feature of all such charters that they shall pro- 
vide, among other things, for a mayor or chief magistrate, and two houses 
of legislation, one of which at least shall be elected b}'- general ticket; and 
in submitting any such charter or amendment thereto to the qualified 
voters of such city, any alternative section or article may be presented for 
the choice of the voters, and may be voted on separately, and accepted or 
rejected separately, without prejudice to other articles or sections of the 
charter or any amendment thereto. 

Sec 18. In cities or counties having more than two hundred thousand 
inhabitants, no person shall, at the same time, be a state officer and an 
officer of any county, city or other municipality; and no person shall, at 
the same time, fill two municipal offices, either in the same or different 
municipalities; but this section shall not apply to notaries public, justices 
of the peace or officers of the militia. 

Sec 1 9. The corporate authorities of any county, cit}^ or other munic- 
ipal subdivision of this state, having more than two hundred thousand in- 
habitants, which has already exceeded the limit of indebtedness prescribed 



IIQ CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

in section twelve of article X of this constitution, may, in anticipation of 
the customary annual revenue thereof, appropriate, during any fiscal year, 
toward the general governmental expenses thereof, a sum not exceeding 
seven-eighths of the entire revenue cipplicable to general governmental 
purposes (exclusive of the payment of the bonded debt of such county, city 
or municipality) that was actually raised by taxation alone during the pre- 
ceding fiscal year; but until such excess of indebtedness cease, no further 
bonded debt shall be incurred, except for the renewal of other bonds. 

ST. LOUIS. 

Sec. 20. The city of St. Louis may extend its limits so as to embrace 
the parks now without its boundaries, and other convenient and contiguous 
territory, and frame a charter for the government of the city thus enlarged, 
upon the following conditions, that is to say: The council of the city and 
county court of the county of St. Louis, shall, at the request of the mayor 
of the city ofSt. Louis, meet in joint session and order an election, to be held 
as provided for general elections, by the qualified voters of the city and 
county, of a board of thirteen freeholders of such city or county, whose 
duty shall be to propose a scheme for the enlargement and definition of the 
boundaries of the city, the reorganization of the government of the county, 
the adjustment of the relations between the city thus enlarged and the 
residue of St. Louis county and the government of the city thus enlarged, 
by a charter in harmony with and subject to the constitution and laws of 
Missouri, which shall, among other things, provide for a chief executive 
and two houses of legislation, one of which shall be elected by general 
ticket, which scheme and cliarter shall be signed in duplicate by said board 
or a majority of them, and one of them returned to the mayor of the city 
and the other to the presiding justice of the county court within ninety 
days after the election of such board. Within thirty days thereafter the 
city council and county court shall submit such scheme to the qualified 
voters of the whole county, and such charter to the qualified voters of the 
city so enlarged, at an election to be held not less than twenty nor more 
than thirty days after the order therefor; and if a majority of such qualified 
voters, voting at such election, shall ratify such scheme and charter, then 
such scheme shall become the organic law of the county and city, and such 
charter the organic law of the city, and at the end of sixty days thereafter 
shall take the place of and supersede the charter of St. Louis, and all 
amendments thereof, and all special laws relating to St. Louis county in- 
consistent with such scheme. 

Sec. 21. A copy of such scheme and charter, with a certificate thereto 
appended, signed l3y the mayor and authenticated by the seal of the city, 
and also signed by the presiding justice of the county court and authenti- 
cated by the seal of the county, setting forth the submission of such scheme 
and charter to the qualified voters of such county and city and its ratifica- 
tion, by them, shall be made in duplicate, one of which shall be deposited 
in the office of the secretary of state, and the other, after being recorded in 
the office of the recorder of deeds of St. Louis county, shall be deposited 
among the archives of the city, and thereafter all courts shall take judicial 
notice thereof. 

Sec. 22. The charter so ratified may be amended at intervals of not 
less than two years, by proposals therefor, submitted by the law-making 
authorities of the city to the qualified voters thereof at a general or special 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 117 

election, held at least sixty days after the publication of such proposals, 
and accepted by at least three-fifths of the qualified voters voting thereat. 

Sec. 23. Such charter and amendments shall always be in harmony 
with, and subject to the constitution and laws of Missouri, except only, 
that provision may be made for the graduation of the rate of taxation for 
city purposes in the portions of the city which are added thereto by the 
proposed enlargement of its boundaries. In the adjustment of the rela- 
tions between city and county, the city shall take upon itse.t *^he entire 
park tax; and in consideration of the city becoming the propriucor of all 
the county buildings and property within its enlarged limits, it shall as- 
sume the whole of the existing county debt, and thereafter the city and 
county of St. Louis shall be independent of each other. The city shall be 
exempted from all county taxation. The judges of the county court shall 
be elected by the qualified voters outside of the city. The city, as en- 
larged, shall be entitled to the same representation in the general assem- 
bly, collect the state revenue, and perform all other fiinctions in relation to 
the state in the same manner as if it were a county, as in this constitution 
defined; and the residue of the county shall remain a legal county of the 
state of Missouri, under the name of the county of St. Louis. Until the 
next apportionment for senators and representatives in the general assem- 
bly, the city shall have six senators and fifteen representatives, and the 
county one senator and two representatives, the same being the number of 
senators and representatives to which the county of St. Louis, as now or- 
ganized, is entitled under sections eight and eleven, of article IV, of this 
constitution. 

Sec 24. The county and city of St. Louis, as now existing, shall con- 
tinue to constitute the eighth judicial circuit, and the jurisdiction of all 
courts of record, except the county court, shall continue until otherwise 
provided by law. 

Sec. 25. Notwithstanding the provisions of this article, the general 
assembly shall have the same power over the city and county of St. Louis 
that it has over other cities and counties of this state. 

AKTICLE X. — REVENUE AND TAXATION. 

Section 1. The taxing power may be exercised by the general as- 
sembly for state purposes, and by counties and other municipal corpora- 
tions, under authority granted to them by the general assembly, for 
county and other corporate purposes. 

Sec. 2. The power to tax corporations and corporate property shall 
not be surrendered or suspended by act of the general assembly. 

Sec 3. Taxes may be levied and collected for public purposes only. 
The}^ shall be uniform upon the same class of subjects within the territorial 
limits of the authority levying the tax; and all taxes shall be levied and 
collected bv general laws. 

Sec 4. " All property subject to taxation shall be taxed in proportion 
to its value. 

Sec 5. All railroad corporations in this state, or doing business 
therein, shall be subject to taxation for state, county, school, municipal and 
other purposes, on the real and personal property owned or used by them, 
and on their gross earnings, their net earnings, their franchises and their 
capital stock. 

Sec. 6. The property, real and personal, of the state, counties and 



118 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

Other municipal corporations, and cemeteries, shall be exempt from taxa- 
tion. Lots in incorporated cities or towns, or within one mile of the limits 
of any such city or town, to the extent of one acre, and lots one mile or 
more distant from such cities or towns, to the gxtent of five acres, with the 
buildings thereon, may be exempted from taxation, when the same are 
used exclusively for religious worship, for schools, or for purposes purely 
charitable; also, such property, real or personal, as may be used exclusively 
for agricultural or horticultural societies: Provided^ That such exemption| 
shall be only by general law. 

Sec. 7. All laws exempting property from taxation, other than the 
property above enumerated, shall be void. 

Sec. 8. The state tax on property, exclusive of the tax necessary to 
pay the bonded debt ot the state, shall not exceed twenty cents on the 
hundred dollars valuation ; and whenever the taxable property of the state 
shall amount to nine hundred million dollars, the rate shall not exceed fif- 
teen cents. 

Sec. 9. No county, city, town, or other municipal corporation, nor the 
inhabitants thereof, nor the property therein, shall be released or discharged 
from their or. its proportionate share of taxes to be levied for state pur- 
poses, nor shall commutation for such taxes be authorized in any form 
whatsoever. 

Sec. 10. The general assembly shall not impose taxes upon counties, 
cities, towns or other municipal corporations; or upon the inhabitants or 
property thereof, for county, city, town or other municipal purposes; but 
may, by general laws, vest in the corporate authorities thereof, the power 
to assess and collect taxes for such purposes. 

Sec. 11. Taxes for county, city, town and school purposes, may be 
levied on all subjects and objects of taxation ; but the valuation of property 
therefor shall not exceed the valuation of the same property in such town, 
city or school district for state and county purposes. For county purposes 
the annual rate on property, in counties having six million dollars or less, 
shall not, in the aggregate, exceed fifty cents on the hundred dollars valua- 
tion; in counties having six million dollars and under ten million dollars, 
said rate shall not exceed forty cents on the hundred dollars valuation; in 
counties having ten million dollars and under thirty million dollars, said 
rate shall not exceed fifty cents on the hundred dollars valuation; and in 
counties having thirty million dollars or more, said rate shall not exceed 
thirty-five cents on the hundred dollars valuation. For city and town pur- 
poses the annual rate on property in cities and towns having thirty thou- 
sand inhabitants or more, shall not, in the aggregate, exceed one hundred 
cents on the hundred dollars valuation; in cities and towns having less 
than thirty thousand and over ten thousand inhabitants, said rate shall 
not exceed sixty cents on the hundred dollars valuation; in cities and 
towns having less than ten thousand and more than one thousand inhabi- 
tants, said rate shall not exceed fifty cents on the hundred dollars valuation; 
and in towns having one thousand inhabitants or less, said rate shall not 
exceed twenty-five cents on the hundred valuation. For school purposes in 
districts, the annual rate on property shall not exceed fort}'^ cents on the 
hundred dollars valuation: Provided, The aforesaid annual rates for school 
purposes may be increased, in districts formed of cities and towns, to an 
amount not to exceed one dollar on the hundred dollars valuation; and in 
other districts to an amount not to exceed sixty-five cents on the hundred 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 



119 



dollars valuation, on the condition that a majority of the voters who are 
tax-payt^rs, voting at an election held to decide the question, vote for said 
increase. For the purpose of erecting public buildings in counties, cities 
or school districts, the rates of taxation herein limited may be increased 
when the rate of such increase and the purpose for which it is intended 
shall have been submitted to a vote of the people, and two-thirds of the 
qualified voters of such county, cit}-, or school district, voting at such elec- 
tion shall vote therefor. The rate herein allowed to each county shall be 
ascertained by the amount of taxable property therein, according to the 
last assessment for state and county purposes, and the rate allowed to each 
city or town by the number of inhabitants, according to the last census 
taken under the authority of the state, or of the United States; said re- 
strictions, as to rates, shall apply to taxes of every kind and description, 
whether general or special, except taxes to pay valid indebted.ness now ex- 
isting or bonds which may be issued in renewal of such indebtedness. 

Sec. 12. No county, city, town, township, school district or other polit- 
ical corporation or subdivision of the state, shall be allowed to become 
indebted in any manner or for any purpose to an amount exceeding in any 
year the income and revenue provided for such year, without the assent of 
two-thirds the voters thereof, voting at an election to be held for that 
purpose; nor in cases requiring such assent shall any indebtedness be 
allowed to be incurred to an amount including existing indebtedness, in 
the aggregate, exceeding five per centum on the value of the taxable prop- 
erty therem, to be ascertained by the assessment next before the last as- 
sessment for state and county purposes, previous to the incurring of such 
indebtedness: Provided, That with such assent any county may be allowed 
to become indebted to a larger amount for the erection of a court house or 
jail: And -provided further. That any county, city, town, township, school 
district or other political corporation, or subdivision of the state, incurring 
any indebtedness, requinng the assent of the voters as aforesaid, shall, be- 
fore or at the time of doing so, p<rovide for the collection of an annual tax, 
sufficient to pay the interest on such indebtedness as it falls due, and also 
to constitute a sinking fund for payment of the principal thereof, within 
twenty years from the time of contracting the same. 

Sec. 13. Private property shall not be taken or sold for the payment 
of the corporate debt of a municipal corporation. 

Sec. 14. The tax authorized by the sixth section of the ordinance 
adopted June sixth, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-five, is hereby 
abolished, and hereafter there shall be levied and collected an annual tax 
sufficient to pay the accruing interest upon the bonded debt of the state, 
'and to reduce the principal thereof each year by a sum not less than two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars; the proceeds of which tax shall be paid 
into the state treasury, and appropriated and paid out for the purposes 
expressed in the first and second subdivisions of section forty-three of arti- 
cle IV of th!s constitution. The funds and resources now in the state in- 
terest and state sinking funds shall be appropriated to the samepurposes; 
and whenever said bonded debt is extinguished, or a sum sufficient there- 
for has been raised, the tax provided for in this section shall cease to be 
assessed. 

Sec 15. All moneys now, or at any time hereafter, in the state treas- 
ury, belonging to the state, shall, immediately on receipt thereof, be 
deposited by the treasurer to the credit of the state for the benefit of the 



120 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

funds to which they respectively belong, in such bank or banks as he may, 
from time to time, with the approval of the governor and attorney gen- 
eral, select; the said bank or banks giving security, satisfactor}^ to the gov- 
ernor and attorney general, for the safe keeping and payment of such 
deposit, when demanded by the state treasurer on his checks; such bank 
to pay a bonus for the use of such deposits not less than the bonus paid by 
other banks for similar deposits; and the same, together with such interest 
and profits as may accrue thereon, shall be disbursed by said treasurer for 
the purposes of the state, according to law, upon warrants drawn by the 
state auditor, and not otherwise. 

Sec. 16. The treasurer shall keep a separate account of the funds, and 
the number and amount of warrants received, and from whom; and shall 
publish, in such manner as the governor may designate, quarterly state- 
ments, showing the amount of state moneys, and where the same are kept 
or deposited. 

Sec. 17. The making of profit out of state, county, city, town or school 
district money, or using the same for any purpose not authorized by law, 
by any public officer, shall be deemed a felony, and shall be punished as 
provided by law. 

Sec. 18. There shall be a state board of equalization, consisting of the 
governor, state auditor, state treasurer, secretary of state and attorney 
general. The duty of said board shall be to adjust and equalize the valu- 
ation of real and personal property among the several counties in the state, 
and it shall perform such other duties as are or may be prescribed bylaw. 

Sec. 19. No moneys shall ever be paid out of the treasury of this 
state, or any of the funds imder its management, except in pursuance of 
an appropriation by law; nor unless such payment be made, or a warrant 
shall have issued therefor, within two years after the passage of such ap- 
propriation act; and every such law, making a new appropriation, or con- 
tinuing or reviving an appropriation, shall distinctly specify the sum appro- 
priated, and the object to which it is to be applied ; and it shall not be suffi- 
cient to refer to any other law to fix such sum or object. A regular state- 
ment and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money 
shall be published from time to time. 

Sec. 20. The moneys arising from any loan, debt or liability, con- 
tracted by the state, or any county, city, town, or other municipal corpora- 
tion, shall be applied to the purposes for which they were obtained, or to 
the repayment of such debt or liability, and not otherwise. 

Sec. 21. No corporation, company or association, other than those 
formed for benevolent, religious, scientific, or educational purposes, shall be 
created or organized under the laws of this state, unless the persons named 
as corporators shall, at or before the filing of the articles of association or 
incorporation, pay into the state treasury fifty dollars for the first fifty 
thousand dollars or less of capital stock, and a further sum of five dollars 
for every additional ten thousand dollars of its capital stock. And no such 
corporation, company' or association shall increase its capital stock without 
first paying into the treasury five dollars for every ten thousand dollars of 
increase: Provided^ That nothing contained in this section shall be con- 
strued to prohibit the general assembly from levying a further tax on the 
franchises of such corporation. 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 121 

ARTICLE XI.— EDCCATION. 

Section 1. A j^eneral diffusion of knowled^re and intelligence being 
essential to the preservation of the rights and liberties of the people, the 
general assembly shall establish and maintain free public schools for the 
gratuitous instruction of all persons in this state between the ages of six 
and twenty years. 

Sec. 2. The income of all the funds provided by the state for the sup- 
port of free public schools, shall be paid annually to the several county 
treasurers, to be disbursed according to law; but no school district, in 
.which a free public school has not been maintained at least three months 
during the year for which the distribution is made, shall be entitled to 
receive any portion of such funds. 

Sec. 3. Separate free public schools shall be established for the educa- 
tion of children of African descent. 

Sec. 4. The supervision of instruction in the public schools shall be 
vested in a " board of education," whose powers and duties shall be pre- 
scribed by law. The superintendent of public schools shall be president 
of the board. The governor, secretary of state and attorney-general shall 
be ex-officio members, and with the superintendent, compose said board 
of education. 

Sec. 5. The general assembly shall, whenever the public school fund 
will permit, and the actual necessity of the same may require, aid and 
maintain the state university, now established, with its present depart- 
ments. The government of the state university shall be vested in a board 
of curators, to consist of nine members, to be appointed by the governor, 
by and with the advice and consent of the senate. 

Sec. 6. The proceeds of all lands that have been, or hereafter may be 
granted by the United States to this state, and not otherwise appropriated 
by this state or the United States; also, all moneys, stocks, bonds, lands 
and other property now belonging to any state fund for purposes of educa- 
tion; also, the net proceeds of all sales of lands, and other propert}' and 
effects that may accrue to the state by escheat, from unclaimed dividends 
and distributive shares of the estates of deceased persons; also, any pro- 
ceeds of the sales of the public lands which may have been or hereafter 
may be paid over to this state, (if congress will consent to such appropria- 
tion); also, all other grants, gifts or devises that have been, or hereafter 
may be, made to this state, and not otherwise appropriated by the state or 
the terms of the grant, gift or devise, shall be paid into the state treasury, 
and securely invested and sacredly preserved as a public school fund; the 
annual income of which fund, together v.'ith so much of the ordinary reve- 
nue of the state as may be by law set apart for that purpose, shall be faith- 
fully appropriated for establishing and maintaining the free public schools 
and the state university in this article provided for, and for no other uses 
or purposes whatsoever. 

Sec. 7. In case the public school fund now provided and set apart by 
law, for the support of free public schools, shall be insufficient to sustain a 
free school at least four months in every year in each school district in this 
state, the general assembly may provide for such deficiency m accordance 
with section eleven of the article on revenue and taxation ; but in no case 
shall there be set apart less than twenty-five per cent, of the state revenue 
exclusive of the interest and sinking fund, to be applied annually to the 
support of the public schools. 



122 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

Sec. 8. All moneys, stocks, bonds, lands and other property belonging 
to a county school fund; also, the net proceeds from the sale of estrays; 
also, the clear proceeds of all penalties and forfeitures, and of all fines 
collected in the several counties for any breach of the penal or mili- 
tary laws of the state, and all moneys which shall be paid by persons as 
an equivalent for exemption from military duty, shall belong to and be 
securely invested, and sacredly preserved in the several counties, as a 
county public school fund; the income of which fund shall be faithfully 
appropriated' for establishing and maintaining fr.ee public schools in the 
several counties of this state. 

Sec. 9. No part of the public school fund of the state shall ever be 
invested in the stock or bonds, or other obligations of any other state, or 
of any county, city, town or corporation ; and the proceeds of the sales of 
an}' lands or other property which now belong, or may hereafter belong, 
to said school fund, shall be invested in the bonds of the state of Missouri, 
or of the United States. 

Sec 10. All county school funds shall be loaned only upon unincum- 
bered real estate security, of double the valve of the loan, with personal 
security in addition thereto. 

Sec. 11. Neither the general assembly, nor any county, city, town, 
township, school district or other municipal corporation, shall ever make 
an appropriation, or pay from any public fund whatever anything in aid of 
any religious creed, church or sectarian purpose; or to help to support or 
sustain any private or public school, academ^^ seminary, college, univers- 
ity or other institution of learning, controlled by any religious creed, 
church or sectarian denomination whatever; nor shall any grant or 
donation of personal property or real estate ever be made by the state, or 
any county, cit}^, town or other municipal corporation, for any religious 
creed, church or sectarian purpose whatever. 

ARTICLE XII. — CORPORATIONS. 

Section 1. All existing charters, or grants of special or exclusive priv- 
ileges, under which a bona fide organization shall not have taken place, 
and business been commenced in good faith, at the adoption of this con- 
stitution, shall thereafter have no vahdity. 

Sec 2. No corporation, after the adoption of this constitution, shall be 
created by special laws; nor shall any existing charter be extended, 
changed or amended by special laws, except those for charitable, penal or 
reformatory purposes, which are under the patronage and control of the 
state. 

Sec 3. The general assembly shall not remit the forfeiture of the 
charter of any corporation now existing, or alter or amend such forfeited 
charter, or pass an}^ other general or special laws for the benefit of such 
corporations. 

Sec 4. The exercise of the power and right of eminent domain, shall 
never be so construed or abridged as to prevent the taking, by the general 
assembly, of the property and franchises of incorporated companies already 
organized, or that may be hereafter organized, and subjecting them to the 
public use, the same as that of individuals. The right of trial by jury 
shall be held inviolate in all trials of claims for compensation, when in the 
exercise of said right of eminent domain, any incorporated company shall 
be interested either for or against the exercise of said right. 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 123 

Skc. 5. The exercise of the police power of the state shall never be 
abricli^ed, or so construed as to permit corporations to conduct their busi- 
ness in such manner as to infrin^^e the equal rights of individuals, or the 
general well-being of the stale. 

Sec. 6. In all elections for directors or managers of any incorporated 
compan}^ each shareholder shall have the right to cast as many votes in 
the aggregate as shall equal the number of shares so held by him or her 
in said company, multiplied by the number of directors or managers to be 
elected at such election; and each shareholder may cast the whole number 
of votes, either in person or by proxy for one candidate, or distribute such 
votes among two or more candidates; and such directors or managers shall 
not be elected in any other manner. 

Sec. 7. No corporation shall engage in business, other than that ex- 
pressl}^ authorized in its charter or the law under which it may have been 
or hereafter may be organized, nor shall it hold any real estate for any 
period longer than six years, except such as may be necessary and proper 
for carrying on its legitimate business. 

Sec 8. No corporation shall issue stock or bonds, except for money 
paid, labor done or property actually received, and all fictitious increase of 
stock or indebtedness shall be void. The stock and bonded indebtedness 
of corporations shall not be increased, except in pursuance of general law, 
nor without the consent of the persons holding the larger amount in value 
of the stock first obtained at a meeting called for the purpose, first giving 
sixty days public notice, as may be provided by law. 

Sec. 9. Dues from private corporations shall be secured by such means 
as may be prescribed by law, but in no case shall any stockholder be indi- 
vidually liable in any amount over or above the amount of stock owned 
by him or her. 

Sec. 10. No corporation shall issue preferred stock without the con- 
sent of all the stockholders. 

Sec 11. The term "corporation," as used in this article, shall be con- 
strued to include all joint stock companies or associations having any pow- 
ers or privileges not possessed by individuals or partnerships. 

RAILROADS. 

Sec 12. It shall not be lawful in this state for any railway company 
to charge for freight or passengers a greater amount, for the transportation 
of the same, for a less distance than the amount charged for any greater 
distance, and suitable laws shall be passed by the general assembly to en- 
force this provision; but excursion and commutation tickets may be issued 
at special rates. 

Sec 13. Any railroad corporation or association, organized for the 
purpose, shall have the right to construct and operate a railroad between 
any points within this state, and to connect at the state line with railroads 
of other states. Every railroad company shall have the right, with its 
road, to intersect, connect with, or cross any other railroad, and shall receive 
and transport each the other's passengers, tonnage and cars, loaded or 
empty, without delay or discrimination. 

Sec 14. Railways heretofore constructed, or that may hereafter be 
constructed in this state are hereby declared public highways, and railroad 
companies common carriers. The general assembly shall pass laws tc 
correct abuses and prevent unjust discrimination and extortion in the rates 



j24r CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

of freight and passenger tariffs on the different railroads in this state; and 
shall, from time to time, pass laws establishing reasonable maximum rates 
of charges for the transportation of passengers and freight on said railroads, 
and enforce all such laws by adequate penalties. 

Sec. 15. Every railroad or other corporation, organized or doing busi- 
ness in this state under the laws or authority thereof, shall have and main- 
tain a public office or place in this state for the transaction of its business, 
where transfers of stock shall be made, and where shall be kept, for public 
inspection, books in which shall be recorded the amount of capital stock 
subscribed, the najnes of the owners of the stock, the amounts owned by 
them respectivel}^ the amount of stock paid, and by whom, the transfer of 
said stock, with the date of transfer, the amount of its assets and liabilities, 
and the names and places of residence of its officers. The directors of 
every railroad company shall hold one meeting annually in this state, pub- 
lic notice of which shall be given thirty days previousl}^ and shall report 
annually, under oath, to the state auditor, or some officer designated by 
law, all of their acts and doings, which report shall include such matters 
relating to railroads as may be prescribed by law. The general assembly 
shall pass laws enforcing, by suitable penalties, the provisions of this sec- 
tion. 

Sec. 16. The rolling stock and all other movable property belonging 
to any railroad company or corporation in this state, shall be considered 
personal property, and shall be liable to execution and sale in the same 
manner as the personal property of individuals; and the general assembly 
shall pass no law exempting any such property from execution and sale. 

Sec. 17. No railroad or other corporation, or the lessees, purchasers or 
managers of any railroad corporation, shall consolidate the stock, property 
or franchises ol such corporation, with, or lease or purchase the works or 
franchises of, or in any way control any railroad corporation owning or hav- 
ing under its control a parallel or competing line; nor shall any officer of 
such raih-oad corporation act as an officer of any other railroad corporation 
owning or having the control of a parallel or competing line. The ques- 
tion whether railroads are parallel or competing lines shall, when demanded, 
be decided by a jury, as in other civil issues. 

Sec. 18. If any railroad company organized under the laws of this 
state shall consolidate, by sale or otherwise, with any railroad company 
organized under the laws of any other stale, or of the United States, the 
same shall not thereby, become'a foreign corporation; but the courts of this 
state shall retain jurisdiction in all matters which may arise, as if said con- 
solidation had not taken place. In no case shall any consolidation take 
place, except upon public notice of at least sixty days to all stockholders, 
in such manner as may be provided by law. 

Sec. 19. The general assembly shall pass no law for the benefit of a 
railroad or other corporations, or any individual or association of individ- 
uals, retrospective in its operation, or which imposes on the people of an}' 
county or municipal subdivision of the state, a new liability in respecc to 
transactions or considerations already past. 

Sec. 20. No law shall be passed by the general assembly granting the 
right to construct and operate a street railroad within any city, town, vil- 
lage, or on any public highwa}^, without first acquiring the consent of the 
local authorities having control of the street or highwa}^ proposed to be 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 



125 



occupied by such street railroad; and the franchises so granted shall not 
be transferred without similar assent first obtained. 

Sec. 21. No railroad corporation in existence at the time of the adop- 
tion of this constitution shall have the benefit of any future legislation, 
except on condition of complete acceptance of all the provisions of this 
constitution applicable to railroads. 

Sec. 22. No president, director, officer, agent, or employe of any rail- 
road company shall be interested, directly, or indirectly, in furnishing ma- 
terial or supplies to such company, or in the business of transportation as 
a common carrier of freight or passengers over the works owned, leased, 
controlled or worked by such company. 

Sec. 23. No discrimination in charges or facilities in transportation 
shall be made between transportation companies and individuals, or in 
favor of either, by abatement, drawback or otherwise ; and no railroad com- 
pany, or any lessee, manager or employee thereof, shall make any prefer- 
ence in furnishing cars or motive power. 

Sec. 24. No railroad or other transportation compan}^ shall grant free 
passes or tickets, or passes or tickets at a discount, to members ot the gen- 
eral assembly, or members of the board of equalization, or any state, or 
county, or municipal officers; and the acceptance of such pass or ticket, by 
a member of the general assembl}'', or any such officer, shall be a forfeiture 
of his office. 



BANKS. 



Sec. 25. No state bank shall hereafter be created, nor shall the state 
own or be liable for any stock in any corporation, or joint stock company, 
or association for banking purposes, now created or hereafter to be cre- 
ated. 

Sec. 26. No act of the general assembly authorizing or creating cor- 
porations or associations with banking powers (except banks of deposit 
or discount,) nor amendments thereto, shall go into effect, or in any man- 
ner be enforced, unless the same shall be submitted to a vote of the quali- 
fied voters of the state, at the general election next succeeding the pass- 
age of the same, and be approved by a majority of the votes cast at such 
election. 

Sec. 27. It shall be a crime, the nature and punishment of which shall 
be prescribed by law, for any president, director, manager, cashier or other 
officer of any banking institution, to assent to the reception of deposits, or 
the creation of debts by such banking institution, after he shall have had 
knowledge of the fact that it is insolvent, or in failing circumstances; and 
any such officer, agent or manager, shall be individually responsible for 
such deposits so received, and all such debts so created with his assent. 

ARTICLE XIII.— MILITIA. 

Section 1. All able-bodied male inhabitants of this state between the 
ages of eighteen and forty-five years, who are citizens of the United States, 
or have declared their intention of become such citizens, shall be liable to 
military duty in the militia of this state: Provided, That no person who is 
religiously scrupulous of bearing arms, can be compelled to do so, but may 
be compelled to pay an equivalent for military service, in such manner as 
shall be prescribed by law. 

Sec. 2. The general assembly, in providing for the organiza.tion, 



126 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 



equipment and discipline of the militia, shall conform, as nearly as practi- 
cable, to the regulations for the government of the armies of the United 
States. 

Sec. 3. Each company and regiment shall elect its own company and 
regimental officers; but if any company or regiment shall neglect to elect 
such officers within the time prescribed by law, or by the order of the gov- 
ernor, they may be appointed by the governor. 

Sec. 4. Volunteer companies of infantry, cavalry and artillery, may 
be formed in such manner and under such restrictions as may be provided 
by law. 

Sec. 5. The volunteer and militia forces shall in all cases, except trea- 
son, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their 
attendance at musters, parades and elections, and in going to and returning 
from the same. 

Sec. 6. The governor shall appoint the adjutant general, quarter- 
master general and his other staff officers. He shall also, with the advice 
and consent of the senate, appoint all major generals and brigadier generals. 

Sec. 7. The general assembly shall provide for the safe keeping of 
the public arms, military records, banners and relics of the state. 

ARTICLE XIV. — MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS. 

Section 1. The general assembly of this state shall never interfere 
with the primary disposal of the soil by the United States, nor with any 
regulation which congress may find necessary for securing the title in such 
soil to bona fide purchasers. No tax shall be imposed on lands the prop- 
erty of the United States; nor shall lands belonging to persons residing 
out of the limits of this state ever be taxed at a higher rate than the lands 
belonging to persons residing within the state. 

Sec. 2. No person shall be prosecuted in any civil action or criminal 
proceeding for or on account of any act by him done, performed or exe- 
cuted between the first day of January, one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-one, and the twentieth day of August, one thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-six, by virtue of military authority vested in him, or in pursu- 
ance of orders from any person vested with such authority by the govern- 
ment of the United States, or of this state, or of the late Confederate 
states, or any of them, to do such act. And if any action or proceedings 
shall have been, or shall hereafter be instituted against an}^ person for the 
doing of any such act, the defendant may plead this section in bar thereof. 

Sec. 3. No person who . shall hereafter fight a duel, or assist in the 
same as a second, or send, accept, or knowingly carry a challenge therefor, 
or agree to go out of this state to fight a duel, shall hold any office in this 
state. 

Sec. 4. No person holding an office of profit under the United States, 
shall, during his continuance in such office, hold any office of profit under 
this state. 

Sec. 5. In the absence of any contrary provision, all officers now or 
nereafter elected or appointed, subject to the right of resignation, shall 
hold office during their official terms, and until their successors shall be 
duly elected or appointed and qualified. 

Sec. 6. All officers, both civil and military, under the authority of this 
state, shall, before entering on the duties of their respective offices, take 
and subscribe an oathj^or affirmation, to support the constitution of the 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 



127 



United States and of this state, and to demean themselves faithfully in 
office. 

Sec. 7. The general assembly shall, in addition to other penalties, 
provide for the removal from office of county, city, town and township 
officers, on conviction of willful, corrupt or fraudulent violation or neglect 
of official duty. 

Sec. 8. The compensation or fees of no state, county or municipal 
officer shall be increased during his term of office; nor shall the term of 
any office be extended for a longer period than that for which such officer 
was elected or appointed. 

Sec 9. The appointment of all officers not otherwise directed by this 
constitution, shall be made in such manner as may be prescribed by law. 

Sec 10. The general assembly shall have no power to authorize lot- 
teries or gift enterprises for any purpose, and shall pass laws to prohibit the 
sale of lottery or gift enterprise tickets, or tickets in any scheme in the 
nature of a lottery, in this state; and all acts or parts of acts heretofore 
passed by the legislature of this state, authorizing a lottery or lotteries, 
and all acts amendatory thereof, or supplemental thereto, are hereby 
avoided. 

Sec 11. It shall be the duty of the grand jury in each county, at least 
once a year, to investigate the official acts of all officers having charge of 
public funds, and report the result of their investigations in writing to the 
court. 

Sec 12. Senators and representatives shall, in all cases, except trea- 
son, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during the 
session of the general assembly, and for fifteen days next before the com- 
mencement and after the termination of each session; and for any speech 
or debate in either house they shall not be questioned in any other place. 

ARTICLE XV. — MODE op amending the constitution. 

Section 1. This constitution may be amended and revised only in 
pursuance of the provisions of this article. 

Sec 2. The general assembly may, at any time, propose such amend- 
ments to this constitution as a majority of the members elected to each 
house shall deem expedient; and the vote thereon shall betaken by yeas 
and nays, and entered in full on the journals. The proposed amendments 
shall be published with the laws of that session, and also shall be published 
weekly in some newspaper, if such there be, within each county in the 
state, for four consecutive weeks next preceding the general election then 
next ensuing. The proposed amendments shall be submitted to a vote of 
the people, each amendment separately, at the next general election there- 
after, in such manner as the general assembly may provide. If a major- 
ity of the qualified voters of the state, voting for and against any one of 
said amendments, shall vote for such amendment, the same shall be deemed 
and taken to have been ratified by the people, and shall be valid and 
binding, to all intents and purposes, as a part of this constitution. 

Sec 3. The general assembly may at any time authorize, by law a 
vote of the people to be taken upon the question whether a convention 
shall be held for the purpose of revising and amending the constitution of 
this state; and if at such election a majority of the votes on the question 
be in favor of a convention, the governor shall issue writs to the sherifls of 
the different counties, ordering the election of delegates to such a conven- 



i28 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

tion, on a day not less than three and within six months after that on which 
the said question shall have been voted on. At such election each senato- 
rial district shall elect two delegates for each senator to which it may then 
be entided in the general assembly, and every such delegate shall have 
the qualifications of a state senator. The election shall be conducted in 
conformity with the law^s regulating the election of senators. The dele- 
gates so elected shall meet at such time and place as may be provided by 
law, and organize themselves into a convention, and proceed to revise and 
amend the constitution; and the constitution when so revised and amend- 
ed, shall, on a day to be therein fixed, not less than sixty days or more than 
six months after that on which it shall have been adopted by the conven- 
tion, be submitted to a vote of the people for and against it, at an election 
to be held for that purpose ; and, if a majority of all the votes given be in 
favor of such constitution, it shall, at the end of thirty days after such elec- 
tion became the constitution of this state. The result of such elec- 
tion shall be made known by proclamation by the governor. The general 
assembly shall have no power, otherwise than in this section specified, to 
authorize a convention for revising and amending the constitution. 

SCHEDULE. 

That no inconvenience may arise from the alteration and amendments 
in the constitution of this state, and to carry the same into complete effect, 
it is hereby ordained and declared: 

Section 1 . That all laws in force at the adoption of this constitution, 
not inconsistent therewith, shall remain in full force until altered or re- 
pealed by the general assembly; and, all rights, actions, prosecutions, 
claims and contracts of the state, counties, individuals or bodies corporate 
not inconsistent therewith, shall continue to be as valid as if this constitution 
had not been adopted. The provisions of all laws which are inconsistent 
with this constitution, shall cease upon its adoption, except that all laws 
which are inconsistent with such provision of this constitution, as require 
legislation to enforce them, shall remain in force until the first day of Jul}^, 
one thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven, unless sooner amended or 
repealed by the general assembly. 

Sec. 2. That all recognizances, obligations and all other instruments, 
entered into or executed before the adoption of this constitution, to this 
state or to any subdivision thereof, or any municipality therein ; and all 
fines, taxes, penalties and forfeitures, due or owing to this state, or any 
such subdivision or municipality; and all writs, prosecutions, actions and 
causes of action, except as herein otherwise provided, shall continue and 
remain unaffected by the adoption of this constitution. All indictments 
which shall have been found or may hereafter be found, for any crime or 
offense committed before this constitution takes effect, may be proceeded 
upon as if no change had taken place, except as otherwise provided in 
this constitution. 

Sec. 3. All county and probate courts, as now constituted and organ- 
ized, shall continue with their jurisdiction, until the general assembly 
shall by law conform them in their organization to the requirements of this 
constitution. 

Sec. 4. All criminal courts organized and ex-isting under the laws of 
this state, and not specially provided for in thi3 constitution, shall continue 
to exist until otherwise provided by law. 

Sec. 5. All courts of common pleas existing and organized in cities 



CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 129 

and towns having a population exceeding three thousand five hundred in- 
habitants, and such as by the law of their creation are presided over by a 
judge of a circuit court, shall continue to exist and exercise their present 
jurisdiction, until otherwise provided by law. All other courts of common 
pleas shall cease to exist at the expiration of the present terms of office of 
the several judges thereof. 

Sec. 6. All persons now filling any office or appointment in this state, 
shall continue in the exercise of the duties thereof, according to their re- 
spective commissions or appointments, unless otherwise provided by law. 

Sec. 7. Upon the adoption of this constitution, all appeals to, and 
writs of error from the supreme court, shall be returnable to the supreme 
court at the city of Jefferson. 

Sec. 8. Unjtil the general assembly shall make provision for the pay- 
ment of the state and railroad indebtedness of this state, in pursuance of 
section fourteen of article ten of this constitution, there shall be levied 
and collected an annual tax of one-fifth of one per centum on all real estate 
and other property and effects subject to taxation, the proceeds of which 
shall be applied to the payment of the interest on the bonded debt of this 
state as it matures, and the surplus, if any, shall be paid into the sinking 
fund and thereafter applied to the payment of such indebtedness, and to 
no other purpose. 

Sec. 9. This constitution shall be submitted to the people of this state 
for adoption or rejection, at an election to be held for that purpose only, on 
Saturday, the thirtieth day of October, one thousand eight hundred and 
seventv-five. Every person entitled to vote under the constitution and 
laws of this state shall be entitled to vote for the adoption or rejection of 
this constitution. Said election shall be held, and said qualified electors 
shall vote at the usual places of voting in the several counties of this state; 
and said election shall be conducted, and returns thereof made, according 
to the laws now in force regulating general elections. 

Sec. 10. The clerks of the several county courts in this state, shall, at 
least five days before said election, cause to be delivered to the judges of 
election in each election district or precinct, in their respective counties, 
suitable blank poll books, forms of return and five tim'es the number of 
properly prepared printed ballots for said election, that there are voters in 
said respective districts, the expense whereof shall be allowed and paid by 
the several county courts, as other county expenditures are allowed and 
paid. 

Sec. 11. At said election the ballots shall be in the following form: 
New constitution ticket, {erase the clause you do not favor?) New consti- 
tution, — Yes. New constitution, — No. Each of said ticket sshall be 
counted as a vote for or against this constitution, as the one clause or the 
other may be canceled with ink or pencil by the voter, and returns thereof 
shall be made accordingly. If both clauses of the ticket be erased, or if 
neither be erased, the ticket shall not be counted. 

Sec. J 2. "The returns of the whole vote cast for the adoption and 
against the adoption of this constitution shall be made by the several 
clerks, as now provided by law in case of the election of state officers, to 
the secretary of state, within twenty days after the election ; and the re- 
turns of said votes shall, within ten days thereafter, be examined and 
canvassed by the state auditor, state treasurer and secretary of state, or 
any two of them, in the presence of the governor, and proclamation shall 
be made by the governor forthwith of the result of the canvass. 

9 



130 CONSTITUTION OF MISSOURI. 

Sec. 13. If, upon such canvass, it shall appear that a majority of the 
votes polled were in favor of the new constitution, then this constitution 
shall, on and after the thirtieth day of November, one thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy-five, be the supreme law of the state of Missouri, and the 
present existing constitution shall thereupon cease in all its provisions; 
but if it shall appear that a majority of the votes polled were against the 
new constitution, then this constitution shall be null and void, and the 
existing constitution shall continue in force. 

' Sec. 14. The provisions of this schedule required to be executed prior 
to the adoption or rejection of this constitution, shall take effect and be in 
force immediately. 

Sec. 15. The general assembly shall pass all such laws as may be 
necessary to carry this constitution into full effect. 

Sec. 16. The present secretary of state, state auditor, attorney-general, 
and superintendent of public schools, shall, during the remainder of their 
terms of office, unless otherwise directed by law, receive the same com- 
pensation and fees as is now provided by law; and the present state treas- 
urer shall, during the remainder of the term of his office, continue to be 
governed by existing law, in the custody and disposition of the state 
funds, unless otherwise directed by law. 

Sec. 17. Section twelve of [the] bill of rights shall not be so construed 

as to prevent arrests and preliminary examination in any criminal case. 

Done in convention, at tne capitol, in the city of Jefferson, on the second day of August, 
in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five, and of the inde- 
pendence of the United States the oue hundredth. 

WALDO P. JOHNSON, President, St. Clair county. 
N. W. WATKINS, Vice President, Scott county. 

Adams, Washington, Cooper. Letcher, Wm. H., Saline. 

Allen, DeWitt C, Clay. Lay, Alfred M., Cole. 

Alexander, A. M., Monroe. Mabrey, Pinckney, Ripley. 

Black, Francis ¥. ., Jackson. Massey, B. F , Newton. 

Boone, Henry, DeKalb. Maxey, James Harvey, Howell, 

Bradfield, George W., Laclede. McAfee, Charles B., Greene. 

Broadhead, James O., St. Louis. McKee, Archibald V., Lincoln. 

Brokmeyer, Henry C, St. Louis. McCabe, Edward, Marion. 

Carleton, George W, Pemiscot. McKillop, Malcomb, Atchison. 

Chrism AN, William, Jackson. Mortell, Nicholas A., St. Louis. 

Conway, Edmund V., St. Francois. Mudd, Henry Thomas, St. Louis. 

Cottey, Louis F., Knox. Nickerson, Edmund A., Johnson. 

Crews, T. W. B., Franklin. Norton, Elijah Hise, Platte. 

Crockett, Samuel R., Vernon. Pipkin, Philip, Jefferson. 
Davis, Lowndey Henry, Cape Girardeau. Priest, William, Platte. 

Dryden, Leonidas J., Warren Pulitzer, Joseph, St. Louis. 

Dysart, Benjamin Robert, Macon. Ray, John, Barry. 

Edv/ards, John F. T., Iron. Rider, J. H., Bollinger. 

Edwards, James C, St. Louis. Ripey, J. R., Schuyler. 

EiTZEN, Charles D., Gasconade. Roberts, James C, Buchanan. 

Farris, Jamss L., Ray. Ross, J. P., Morgan. 

Fyan, Robert VV. Webster. Ross, John W., Polk. 

Gantt, Thomas Tasker, St. Louis. Rucker, John Fleming, Boone. 

Gottschalk, Louis, St. Louis. Shackelford, Thomas, Howard. 

Hale, John B., Carroll. Shanklin, John H., Grundy. 

Halliburton, W., Sullivan. Shields, George H., St. Louis. 

Hammond, Charles, Chariton. Spaunhorst, Henry J , St. Louis. 

Hardin, Neil Cameron, Pike. Switzler, William F., Boone. 

Holliday, J. A., Caldwell. Taylor, John H., Jasper. 

Hyer, John, Dent. Taylor, Amos Riley, St. Louis. 

Johnson, Horace B., Cole. Todd, Albert, St. Louis. 

Johnston, T. J., Nodoway. Wagner, L. J , Scotland. 

Lackland, Henry CiiAT, St. Charles. Wallace, Henry C, Lafayette. 
Attest* G. N. NOLAN, Secretary. 

J. Boyle Adams, Assistant Secretary 



History of Jasper County. 



CHAPTER L— INTRODUCTION AND NAME. 

Signification of History — Value as Instruction — Object of this Work — Task of the Historian 
and his Fitness — Collected and Compiled — Mistakes — Criticisms — The Name — "Every- 
thing in a Name" — Sergeant Jasper — Jasper among the Minerals — Birds-eye View of 
Jasper County. 

History, in the most general signification, is a narrative of events. It 
includes a record not only of national affairs in the world at large, but also 
an account of small districts, families, and of the lives and acts of individ- 
uals. History is of two kinds — narrative and philosophical. The former is a 
mere statement of facts as they occur, one after another; while the latter 
also comprehends deductions from those facts, and the relation of cause and 
eiFect. At first history took the form of tradition, which is oral opinions 
or memorials handed down from father to son, or from ancestor to posterity, 
assuming the form of religious belief, much of which was obscure and 
mythical. Among the oldest examples of written history are sculptural in- 
scriptions and records of acts of rulers, especially their victories, and are 
found on temples and pyramids of Egypt, Assyria, Greece, and Phoenicia. 
Herodotus, the father of history, was born about the close of the fifth cent- 
ury, B. C, and his writings so far as known are the earliest that can be 
traced of history, aside from the collections of Moses. Thucydides was the 
second great historian, but his writings approached more nearly the philo- 
sophical style than the writings'of Herodotus. The ancient historians of 
Greece and Rome usually confined themselves to plain narrative, as Xeno- 
phon in his Anabasis, Csesar in his Commentaries, and Livy in his History 
of Rome. Tacitus showed his in portraying tyranny in its blackest colors. 
Eusebius was the first ecclesiastical historian. 

Modern history has the tendency of critical rather than merely narrative. 
Many of the histories written within the last half century are wonderful 
monuments of critical research. In these days the historian is no longer a 
mere reporter, he must be prepared to analyze character, and to weigh 
events. He must seek his materials at the fountain head; must compare 
the private with the public actions of the character he portrays, and pre- 



132 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

sent to his readers a picture of men and women, which sliall be accurate in 
minute detail, and yet embrace the remoter consquences of their actions. 

Annals are a chronicle divided into distinct years; biography, the history 
of the life and character of a particular person; memoirs are accounts of 
transactions in which the narrator bore a part; a romance, a fictitious tale; 
and chronicles, the narration of events when time is considered the chief 
feature. All these are closely related to and fall within the province of 

history. 

The writer of history includes within his subjects more and a greater va- 
riety of material than any other literary man, and history is a more fruitful 
source of practical instruction than any other branch of literature. The 
pleasure and profit derived from careful perusal of the pages of history is 
unlimited. Histories are multiplying as the popular demand increases, 
for the chief object in making a book is its sale. All books, except, per- 
haps, the Bible, are made with the prime object of profit. Scientific works, 
works of fiction, histories, school-books, books of poetry, newspapers, and 
all other periodicals, are issued with the full expectation of pecuniary profit 
to the publisher, and it is right that they should receive reward, for, in the 
strife for wealth and power, men would otherwise neglect the cultivation of 
the mind, and the production of hidden truths. No man would publish a 
newspaper for the sole purpose of conferring a benefit on his fellowmen; no 
man would publish a history for the sole object of glory, or through a phi- 
lanthropic act, desiring to confer a blessing upon those in whose hands it 
chanced to fall. Literature, like all other occupations, must be suitably re- 
warded. It is not at all probable that the publishers of this work would 
have undertaken such a great task unless they rightfully expected suitable 
remuneration. 

The history of Jasper county will be found to contain all and more than 
the publishers have promised, or their friends expected. Mistakes and in- 
accuracies will occur. No history, nor any other book, not even the Bible, 
the best of all books, has yet been written without them. 

Books of the character of this history have been known in older states for 
several years. County, township, city, neighborhood, and even family his- 
tories have been compiled in most of the Eastern states, including Ohio, In- 
diana, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, California, and many western 
districts. The history of one of these counties combines the good qualities 
of many histories in one book, besides furnishing a personal sketch of rare 
worth and gratification — a short history of the state, which also relates to 
many national afiairs, then a detailed history of the county under many dif- 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 133 

ferent heads, in such a manner that if the reader will make it a careful 
study he will be greatly pleased and profited. 

The historian should be a man of broad and generous views, free from 
prejudice. Such is a stranger who goes into a county to place in 
order its history. True, he meets with many obstacles which would not 
present themselves to one who has long resided among the scenes he 
desires to narrate, but the advantages possessed by the stranger are far 
greater than those possessed by the resident. The stranger has no friends 
to reward and no enemies to punish. He enters upon his task free to se- 
lect from the best and most reliable sources those items of history which 
will interest the greatest number, without having his mind preoccupied 
with a special subject or particular class of citizens. Just as in an impor- 
tant trial at law, he who enters the jury-box least prejudiced by former 
knowledge of the case makes the best juror, so the intelligent stranger can 
most impartially decide what is acceptable history and what is not. The 
corps of historians who furnish this record of such facts as they have been 
able to obtain by diligent work, did so with no other motive than perform- 
ing their task well, and fulfilling their promise to their patrons. 

That persons will harshly criticise this work, and that, too, when the 
greatest array of facts testif}^ to the correctness of the book, is conceded; 
but the value of a record like this will onlj^ be appreciated in future years, 
when a greater portion of its pages would have been lost or forgotten, had 
not a laudable enterprise rescued them from oblivion. To attempt a criti- 
cism on another is thought, by some, to show wisdom and culture; to such 
the following lines of Pope appropriately apply: 

"Some have at first for wits, then poets, passed; 
Turned critics next, and proved plain fools at last." 

Clustering around the name of an object are associated thoughts as 
immortal as the name itself If, as has been said, " there is nothing in a 
name," then history is vain; for often a single name contains much history. 
The name Washington signifies more to the mind than any other three sylla- 
bles uttered by American freemen. A name is not merely a sound or combi- 
nation of sounds. It has perpetual existence. The person or thing may die 
or vanish away and be forgotten, but the name will live forever. Even the 
ideal picture of Homer, the greatest of poets, will fade from earth, but his 
name will not leave the pages of history till time shall be no more. So 
much importance is attached to the name of an object, that it becomes the 
first thing claiming attention. Immediately after the creation God brought 
every living thing unto Adam to see what he would call them. Nothing 



134 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

exists apart from its name, but the name exists perpetually without the ob- 
ject. In this world there is very little unalloyed truth, but in the expre8-> 
slon, " there is everything in a name," we have a statement much nearer 
universal truth than in the expression " there is nothing in a name." 

For ages the names of heroes have been given to places and things. 
During the short history of America, its great men have been honored by 
the name of numberless counties, cities, towns, municipalities, and post- 
offices. The great name of Washington is met everywhere, from the capi- 
tal of the nation down to the smallest hamlet of a rural district. Franklin, 
Jackson, Lincoln, Grant, and many other names apj^lied to places are fonnd 
in every section and in every state of our Union. It may be asked why, if 
there is much in a name, we do not give the most important name to the 
most important object. The reason of this is that some names are so much 
above any terrestrial object that they are never used in that connection. 
The appellations of Deity are too sacred to be given to mercenary individu- 
als and perishable objects of the world. God holds no man guiltless who 
takes his name in vain. So exalted is the name of Christ that it is written, 
"At the name of Jesus, every knee shall bow, of things in heaven, and 
things in earth, and things under the earth." In our State of Missouri we 
have counties bearing the immortal names of Benton, Boone, Claj^, Douglas, 
Franklin, Green, Harrison, Henry, Jackson, JASPER, Johnson, Lafayette, 
Lincoln, Madison, Pettis, Washington, Webster, and many others. It has 
become a favorite custom to have county and other smaller political divis- 
ions of territory known by the name of some individual, but a state or na- 
tion is not thus named. Many names are given by accident. Some places 
take the name of a river, mountain, or original tribe. Our language has 
become enriched by the new names which have crept into it, and by the 
modification of old ones. 

Not the least among these names appears the one by which our noble 
county is known — Jasper. Our hearts swell with pride when we think 
our countrj' can boast of such names as Sergeant Jasper, who won for him- 
self that deep respect with which the memory of his life shall ever be cher- 
ished in the hearts of Americans, during the battles at Fort Moultrie. Here 
floated the first Eepublican flag of the South. In the early part of an ac- 
tion which took place on June 28, 1776, the stafif was struck by a ball, and 
the flag fell outside the fort. Sergeant Jasper leaped over the breastwork, 
caught up the flag, and springing back tied it to a sponge stafi"— an instru- 
ment for cleaning cannon after a discharge — and hoisted it again to its 
place. The next day Governor Rutledge offered him a sword and a lieu- 



, HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 135 

tenant's commission. He refused, saying: "I am not fit for the company 
ofofiicers; I am only a sergeant." He died in 1779, while grasping the 
banner presented to his regiment at Fort Moultrie. May the county which 
bears the name of tliis bold patriot shine forth in the pages of the history 
of Missouri as a free, grand, and noble shire, and prove itself meritorious 
of the appellation, Jasper. 

So, also, no name could more appropriatel}^ in other respects, immortal- 
ize this county than the one which it bears. As among the minerals jas- 
per is a resplendent gem, so Jasper county is a jewel among her sister 
counties, Jasper has been highly prized from the remotest ages for orna- 
mental purposes, as it has shades of green, yellow, red, and brown, and takes 
a high polish. There is the striped, or beautiful ribbon jasper, the hard, 
velvet-black jasper, with deep green jasper, with red spots, called blood- 
stone, all of which colors are suggested by the green fields, yellow grain, 
red fruit, brown autumn leaves, dark rich soil, the lands striped with prai- 
rie and timber, the lead deposits, the zinc blend, the crystal streams, the ag- 
ate beds, the quartz banks, the pure air, the transparent skies, and the golden 
sunsets of Jasper county. 

Jasper county embraces an area of about 645 square miles near the south- 
western corner of the State of Missouri — Kansas being on its western bound- 
ary, and Arkansas thirty-eight miles from its southern line. It is the pride 
and boast of every loyal Jasperite that if he had the selection of a tract of 
country twenty-one miles in breadth by thirty-one miles in length, any- 
where in southwest Missouri, he would pick the very portion now included 
in the boundaries of this county. 

Before proceeding farther, and for fear we might be misunderstood, and 
to discharge a surplus patriotism, we here challenge the world to show an- 
other 645 square miles of contiguous territory which contains within itself 
so many elements essential to the physical well-being of man, or which is 
capable of sustaining so large a population from resources entirely its own. 
We do not mean to say that the soil of Jasper county is more fertile than 
the valley of the Nile, or that its climate is more equable than the table- 
lands of Peru, or that it is better adapted to fruit-growing than certain por- 
tions of California, or to cattle-raising than Texas, or that it is richer in 
mineral lands than any portion of Nevada, or that it offers to the lover of 
the beautiful landscapes more charming than Devonshii-e, but we do say, 
and firmly believe, that there are few sections on this terrestrial globe of 
equal extent that combine so many of these excellencies in so high a degree 
as does Jasper county. These great advantages readily account for the rapid 



136 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

and unexampled increase in wealtli and population, lifting Jasper county 
from the seventieth in these respects, according to the census of 1860, to 
the third in rank in the state in 1880. 

The face of the country may be divided into three grand classes, bottom 
lands, timber lands, and prairie lands. The latter embraces about three- 
fourths of the area. There are but few places on the widest prairies where 
a timber belt does not end the view, thus relieving the monotony of a limit- 
less expanse of prairie. It is beautifully undulating, and presents many 
delightful landscapes. If you wish rural loveliness, you have it in the 
northern portion of the county, with its rapidly improving farms, comfort- 
able dwellings, green orchards, and long lines of hedge fences. Here and 
there the cozy, painted school-house stands out a permanent object, showing 
that the people are determined to lay the foundations of this country in 
something more enduring than brass or stone, while the steepled church in 
the background adds its religious and home-like charm to the scene. If you 
prefer a grander and wilder view follow the water-courses of Spring River, 
Center Creek, and other sparkling streams. There you have hills and bluffs, 
rocky precipices, luxuriant valleys, with heavy timber and tangled jungles, 
and many delightful farms, smiling with golden harvests. Busy brooks 
croon perpetual love songs in the quiet nooks, and at other places shout an- 
gry defiance to the rocks that vainly .strive to hem them in. Here and there 
a laughing spring of pure and sparkling water glides out from it rocky 
covert, and in its ecstacy turns a thousand summersaults over its pebbled 
bed, until it loses itself in the more staid and dignified bright moun- 
tain stream near by. Do you wish to see a landscape, scarred and torn 
by human ingenuity, as though a mighty earthquake had been at work? 
Yisit the southwestern portion of the county and take a look at the Joplin 
lead regions, derricks, whims, turrets, windlasses, whips, sluices, pigs, walk- 
ing-beams, furnaces, steam engines, and all the appointments of active suc- 
cessful mining are there, while in the center of all this activity is located 
the city of Joplin — the wonder of the West — covering more hills than 
Rome, the Eternal City, did in its palmiest days, and ambitious by trying 
to spread all over the adjoining territory. And the southeastern portion of 
the county furnishes a happy combination of all these advantages, hill, dale, 
woodland, prairie, smiling farms, busy little streams, manufacturing, and 
mining. It would mar the symmetry of the map to leave out any portion 
of Jasper's present dominions. No county in the state is more indivisible. 
Hence we say, Jasper county, now and forever, one and inseparable! 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 137 



CHAPTER II.— NATURAL HISTORY. 

BY D. MATTHEWS. 

The Natural History of the Counti/, incJudhig its Topography ; its Hydrography ; its 

Geological Formations, etc. 

The general natural history of the county will unavoidably be incom- 
pletely discussed at this time. In some departments little or no investiga- 
tion has been made, while in others the work has not been more than fairlv 
begun. Only partial lists can be made of the distribution of species. The 
facts contained in this article are to some extent obtained from publications 
already made. Many of them have been obtained by personal observation 
and investigation. This part of the state has so much yet unknown that a 
society formed to study its natural history would have an extensive field to 
explore, and would doubtless be the means of arousing many to become 
earnest investigators of the wonders around us. 

Topography. — The area of the county is QS7^ square miles. Prairie 
lands comprise nearly three-fourths of its surface. The surface of these is 
generally rolling. Along the larger streams it becomes somewhat hilly, but 
is frequently gently undulating. The steep bluffs are for the most part on 
the northern sides of the streams, thus throwing the slopes to the south. 
Bordering the many streams are broad belts of timber, which give variety 
and beauty to the landscape, and free it from that monotony characteristic 
of unbroken prairie. While the scenery is somewhat subdued, it is at the 
same time picturesque, and in places becomes bold and striking, affording 
a diversified and pleasing view to the beholder. Away from the streams the 
slopes are gentle, thus forming a beautiful farming country, and lying favor- 
able for the construction of public highways. Along the principal streams 
the valleys are broad and fertile. The county is divided into two nearly 
equal parts by Spring River. The northern portion is of great fertility. 
While the southern portion has very desirable land in some places, it must 
be considered inferior to the northern portion for agricultural purposes; it, 
however, forms the great mineral belt of the county. 

Hydrography. — The county is traversed by a number of small streams. 
The principal ones are Spring River, Center Creek, and Dry Wood Fork. 
The most important. Spring River, is a swift-liowing stream, and of great 
utility as a water-power. Its course is almost directly west, and divides the 
county into two nearly equal parts. During the drycst weather it is sup- 
plied with a fair flow of clear, pure water from an innumerable number of 



138 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

never-failing springs. The surface immediately drained by it forms a belt 
of two or three miles on eitiier side. Five miles west of the east line of 
the county White Oak Fork pours its water into Spring River. From this 
point to its confluence with Dry Wood Fork its tributaries are small spring 
branches. Two miles below it receives Blackberry Creek from the north. 
Dry Wood Fork is its largest tributary in the county from the north. It 
flows westward, and its course is almost parallel to that of Spring River, and 
its source is near the eastern line of the county. Irs chief branches are 
Little North Fork, Duval Creek, and Coon Creek; Buck Creek is the largest 
southern branch. Center Creek drains the southern part of the county. 
It is a rapid stream, and traverses the county from the eastern part to the 
west line, and is four miles south of Spring River. Its course is nearly 
parallel to that of the latter stream. Its tributaries are few in number from 
the north, but many from the south. The principal ones are Jenkins's 
Jones's, Grove, and Turkey creeks. 

The springs of the county are many in number. Some of these are of 
considerable magnitude, and are noted for the purity of their water. They 
flow from the Lower Carboniferous rocks. 

Geology. — Before attempting a description of the geology of the county 
an outline of the geological structure of the state will first be given. The 
position of Jasper county in the geological history of the state will then 
be understood. Beginning with the most recent, the formations in Mis- 
souri, in the order of their succession, according to Prof. Broadhead, are 
as follows: 

Quaternary (Post Tertiary). — Alluvium: Bottom prairie, bluff or loess; 
Drift: Altered drift, sand and pebbles, clay and boulders; Tertiary: Cre- 
taceous. 

Carboniferous System. — Upper Carboniferous or Coal-Measures: Upper 
coal, middle coal, lower coal. Clear Creek sandstone, and lower coal; Lower 
Carboniferous: Sandstone; St. Louis Group: St. Louis limestone and War- 
saw limestone; Keokuk Group: Encrinital or Burlington; Chouteau Group: 
Chouteau limestone, vermicular sandstone and shale, lithographic lime- 
stone. 

Devonian System. — Hamilton: Onondaga. 

Silurian Syste?n. — Upper Silurian: Oriskany, Lower Ilelderberg, Ni- 
agara, Cape Girardeau limestone; Lower Silurian (Trenton period), Cincin- 
nati Group: Hudson River shale, Receptaculate limestone, Trenton lime- 
stone, Black River, and Bird's Eye; Magnisian Limestone Scries: 1. Mag- 
nesian limestone, Saccharoidal sandstone; 2. Magnesian limestone, sand- 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 139 

stone; 3. Maguesian limestone, Potsdam limestone, Potsdam sandstone, and 
conglomerate; Archaean: Greenstone, porphyry, and granite. 

Surface Deposit.— The, material lying above the rocks and forming the 
surface is the result of local agencies. Water-worn chert pebbles have been 
taken from excavations made two miles southwest of Carthage. Similar 
pebbles have been found on the higher bluffs fully seventy feet above the 
neigliboring streams. Being found many feet beneath the surface iu 
some places, and again at such an elevation, it is conclusive that such 
pebbles were not deposited by any recent agency. They do not, how- 
ever, belong to the great Drift epoch, as this did not extend southward 
beyond the central part of the state. If, however, they belong to the 
Drift epoch they have been carried to their present position by local 
streams from the north. Solid rocks frequently make their appearance 
on the uplands, and, where not exposed to view, may generally be found 
within a few feet of the surface. In many places the soil and subsoil 
taken together are not more than two or three feet in depth, while under 
them, and overlying the solid rock, are layers of gravel and clay from 
four to eight feet thick. At the lead mines a similar formation of loose 
material is usually found. The banks of the streams show a like struct- 
ure. A section of tlie banks of Center Creek, as observed by Pro- 
fessor Broadhead, shows: 1. One and one-half feet dark soil; 2. Two feet 
red clay; 3. Three feet of gravel bed to the water. 

Upper Carhoniferotis liocJcs. — These rocks form what are known as 
the "coal-measures," and are found in the northwest portion of the county. 
They extend through township 30, ranges 3^ and 32, and through three 
sections of range 31. They then continue into Barton county, and westward 
into Kansas. The dip of the rocks is a little north of west. In this region 
are found, according to the investigations of Prof. Norwood, four or live dis- 
tinct beds of coal, all of which have been worked at various times. Coal is 
not always found underlying what, in geological maps, are termed coal- 
measures. The denudation which has been ceaselessly going on through 
the centuries since the formation of coal has carried away much ol the 
coal measures, thus leaving the coal seams in isolated patches. In this 
county fully one-half of the coal seams are located in ridges. The occur- 
rence of any in the lowland will altogether depend on the nature of the 
surface. Regularity of surface affords a strong presumption for the exis- 
tence of coal. Investigation, however, does not always confirm this. Noth- 
ing less than a thorough topographical survey will be conclusive as to where 
coal may be found. While there are perhaps five distinct beds of coal, all 



140 HISTOKY OF JASPER COUNTY, 

these are not co-extensive with the coal-measures. Prof. Norwood believes 
that at least one bed of coal underlies the entire formation. The thickest 
vein of coal thus far known in this part is eighteen inches. Other veins 
range from twelve to fourteen inches. Eight or ten years ago considerable 
quantity was obtained by stripping, but this method is profitable only where 
the coal lies near the surface. The lowest bed or vein, according to Prof. 
Norwood, is tlie one seen near Medoc, on Little North Fork, at the coal bank 
of Mr. T. C. Arnot. This bed is supposed to be equivalent to the lowest 
bed found at Cline's mound, in Barton county. It is about fourteen inches 
in thickness and is covered by five and a half feet of blue, sandy, semi-bitu- 
minous shale. Above the shale sandstone abounds. The coal consists of alter- 
nate layers of dull and shiny black laminae. The lower part of the coal, 
known among miners as " bottom coal," is of a good quality. The upper 
part of the vein is of inferior quality, as pyrites in considerable quantity 
is mingled with it. On this Fork not far from this mine, a displacement of 
the strata has occurred. Lower Carboniferous limestone being topographically 
above the coal. The latter belonging to a later epoch must have descended 
to its present position by a fault. 

Ten feet above the vein in Mr. Arnot's coal bank and in the same neigh- 
borhood is a vein of coal whose thickness is nearly fifteen inches. Its out- 
crop is rotten, and as none has been removed by stripping its qualit}' cannot 
be determined. Capping the coal is a layer of conglomerate twelve inches 
thick. Overlying this are four feet of gray sandstone. 

In south half northwest section 32, township 30, range 32, a coal bed 
nearl}' twelve inches thick is found occupying a position above the vein in 
Mr. Arnot's bank. The overlying formation is not uniform in its nature. In 
one place it is a light blue sandy shale a foot thtck, which in another place 
is superseded by two feet of local drift and soil — the drift consisting of sand- 
stone and iron carbonate. Under the coal is blue clay shale. To the south 
this coal bed has been observed eighteen inches thick. 

Prof. Norwood gives a general section of rocks in sections 28, 29, and 32, 
township 30, range 32, as follows: 1. Two feet buff and gray micaceous 
sandstone; 2. Twenty-nine feet slope, mostly sandstone; 3. Five feet sandy 
shale; 4. Twelve to eighteen inches coal; 5. Seven to fourteen feet serai- 
bituminous shale to bed of Duval Creek. 

In section 24, township 30, range 32, is a coal bed which is equivalent 
to the top bed at Cline's mound, in Barton county. Coarse sandstone 
caps the vein at this point. West of Round mound, in section IT, township 
30, range 31, is a ridge in which two beds of coal exist. The upper one 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 141 

corresponds to tlie one in secton 24, township 30, range 32; the lowest, to 
the second from the summit in Cline's mound. Prof. Norwood gives the 
following section showing the several strata: No. 1. Seventeen feet slope, 
covered by fragments of sandstone; No. 2. Ten inches coarse, gritty, red- 
dish and gray sandstone; No. 3. Two feet drab and reddish sandstone and 
shale; No. 4. Sixteen inches good coal; No. 5. Five^feet slope; No. 6. 
Eighteen inches white potter's clay; No. 7. One foot red and ocherous clay; 
No. 8. Twelve inches blue and semi-bitnminous shale; No. 9. Eleven inches 
coal; No. 10. Fifty feet slope to prairie level. 

From these data and with those obtained at Cline's mound, in Barton 
county, the person referred to above constructs the following approximate 
vertical section of the coal measures: No. 1. Fifty -five feet slope, lower 
part covered with fragments of curiously ripple-marked sandstone; No. 2. 
Three and one-half feet sandstone; No. 3. Ten inches conglomerate; No. 4. 
Sixteen inches good coal; No. 5. Four feet potter's clay; No. 6. Fifteen to 
twenty feet rocks, covered; No. 7. Five feet sandy shale; No, 8. Twelve to 
eighteen inches coal, found in mounds and ridges; No. 9. Two feet blue 
shale; No. 10. Fourteen feet semi-bituminous shale; No. 11. Five feet 
sandstone; No. 12. Four feet rocks, covered; No. 13. Two and a half feet 
sandstone; No. 14. Five and a half feet sandy, semi-bituminous shale; No. 
15. Fourteen inches-coal; No. 16. Twenty-five feet slope; No. 17. Subcar- 
boniferous limestone. 

This discussion of the upper carboniferous rocks does not give in detail 
all that is known of the coal measures in the northwestern part of the county, 
yet I believe it embodies the principal features. No attempt is made in 
this article to determine accurately the extent of the coal field. The quan- 
tity of coal may be such that it will furnish a reasonable supply for many 
years, provided the mining operations be properly developed. 

A short distance soutii of Carthage are tlie Sherburn mines. The coal 
is thirty-eight feet below the surface and is nearly five feet tliick. The ex- 
tent of the basin has not been determined, but a drift has been driven one 
hundred and thirty seven feet in an east and west direction, and ninety- 
seven feet north and soutii wfthout reaching: its limits. Above the coal is a 
sandstone of a jointed structure fifteen feet thick. Underlying the coal is 
a layer of dark clay, containing pieces of lead and zinc. Most of the coal is, 
according to the statement of Mr. Sherburn, of good quality. 

Eastward from the Sherburn mines is a coal bank belonging to Mr. A. 
W. Rogers. The coal here is about the same depth as in the Sherburn 
mines and is of an excellent quality. A thin layer of shale generally over- 



14:2 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

lies it. Where this is wanting, loose gravel covers the coal. The coal in 
this bank is thought to be of the same vein as that in the mines of Mr. 
Sherburn. 

Slate and coal have been found in several places in the county. They oc- 
cur as merely local deposits or pockets, and belong to the Lower Carbonifer- 
ous rocks. The slate is gray or black, and sometimes passes almost imper- 
ceptibly into impure coal. The coal is of an impure quality, and contains 
thin sheets or crystals of pyrites. 

Lower Carboniferous Rocks. — Except in thenorthwestpart of the county, 
which has already been described, the geological formations belong to the 
Lower Carboniferous rocks, forming but a small portion of them however. 
These form the upper half of the above rocks, and include the Keokuk 
group and perhaps the St. Louis and Chester groups. 

Limestone is the principal rock of the Keokuk group. It is found bor- 
dering the streams of the county and forming the well known bluffs seen in 
so many places. The thickness of the group has not been fully determined. 
The close resemblance which the various beds sustain to each other and the 
great vertical distribution of the same species render the task difficult. Its 
thickness may, however, be approximately determined. The limestone for- 
mations observed along the streams are the same as those in the high ridges. 
As these ridges are in many places fully 150 feet above the neighboring 
streams, it is evident that the rocks of the Keokuk group have this thick- 
ness at least, and they may be much more. 

The limestones are of a bluish-gray color. "When bitumen is dissemi- 
nated through them they are then of a dark color. Besides these colors 
they may be found "of a light, or whitish-gray, or drab." In thickness 
they occur in thin layers and thick beds. 

North of Scotland, on Grove Creek, Prof. Broadhead states that an expos- 
ure of fifty-seven feet of limestone is represented by light shelly limestone. 
The fossils at the top of this formation are Orthis Keokuk, Orthis duhia, Pro- 
ductus cora, and PhilUjysia. At six feet from the summit the limestone is 
coarse ash-gray; eight feet below are fine and coarse beds containing Orthis 
dubia. At twenty-two feet from the top it is coarse and cherty; at twenty- 
seven, it becomes firm, hard limestone; three feet below it changes to coarse 
limestone. From this point to the bottom, coarse, thick beds of limestone 
are found. 

Between the limestone beds layers of oolitic chert occur in many places. 
On the east side of the bluffs at Carthage, and near the top, is a bed 
of mingled chert and limestone. This is over twelve inches thick. Near 



HISTOKY OF JASPER COUNTY. 143 

the bottom of the same bluffs is a bed of the same nature, from two to tour 
feet thick. In the bluffs east of Carthage, near Wilbur Spring, a bed of 
chert and limestone of equal thickness with the last may be seen. Similar 
beds are found on Center Creek., 

The fossils of this group, according to Prof. Broadhead are Zaphrentis 
centroJis, Productus Wortheni, P. cora^ P. altonensis, P. raagnus, P. me- 
sialis, P. eltematus, P. Flemingii, P. setigenus, Spirifev jpseudolineatus, 
S. suhcuspidatus, S. Keokuk^ S. lateralis, S. suhorhioularis, S. incrassa- 
fus, S. Logani, S. increhescens, S. tenuicastatus, S. tenuimarginatus, Al- 
thyris Poissyi, Althyris planosulcata, Terehratula parva, T. trinuclea, 
Rhynchonella 'inutata, R. subouneata, Camaraphoria subtrigona, Chonetes 
planunibona, Orthis duhia, Hemipronites crenisiria, Aviculopecten (two 

species), Myalina San Ludovici, Phillipsia , Platyceras . 

Crinoid stems are very abundant. In some limestones they form almost 
the entire mass. 

Yery fine-grained magnesian limestone may be seen on White Oak Fork 
and at Foster and Dudley's mill, in the eastern part of Jasper, on Spring 
River. It forms thick beds; in some places fully eighteen feet. The meta- 
morphic action which changed it from pure limestone to magnesian lime- 
stone destroyed most of its fossils, so that but few clearly-defined can now 
be seen in it. At a higher horizon Keokuk limestone is easily distinguished. 

Chert is found in nearly all parts of the county. Sometimes it occurs be- 
tween beds of limestone, and may be traced a great distance. In some 
places it is found on the surface. Near the mouth of Lone Elm Creek a bed 
of solid chert, twelve feet thick, caps a chert knob forty-two feet thick. On 
Turkey Creek there is a bed not less than twenty feet thick. Professor 
Swallow states that the chert beds of Shoal Creek are over one hundred feet 
in thickness. The dip of these beds is gradually to the north. These beds 
are oftentimes of great extent, and doubtless underlie the northern portion 
of the county. Bnt few fossils are found in them, 

Masses of chert are found on the surface above the solid limestone of the 
Keokuk group, often intermingled with red clay. These chert fragments 
are fiinty in their nature, and break into sharp, angular masses. The gen- 
eral thickness of this deposit is not more than a few feet, yet it sometimes 
exceeds twenty feet. In composition the red clay is nearly pure silica or 
silicate of alumina. The color is not invariably red. Yellow, buff, and 
pure white clay is found. The fossils of this deposit are: Spirifer pseudo- 
lineatus, S. subcuspidatus, S. spinous, S. Keokuk, 8. increhescens, Al- 
thuris planosculata, Rhynchonella cuneata, Camaraphoria, auhtrigona. 



144 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Rhynchonella ^inutata^ Terehratula fusiformis, Productus cora, P. mag- 
nus, and Hemipronites crenistria. A few crinoids are found, while the 
stems are very abundant. 

The lead and zinc-bearing formations vary in thickness in the many min- 
ing regions of the county, yet the following may be taken to represent a sec- 
tion of such formations: 

1. From 1 foot to 4 feet soil; from to 6 feet gravel. 2, From to 16 
feet sandstone; from to 5 feet black slate and coal. 3. From 20 to 80 feet 
chert, more or less fractured; sometimes it is found in fissured layers; in 
same places it is very soft and porus; from to 20 feet silico-ealcite; from 
to 25 feet alternate layers of limestone and chert. 4. Fully 140 feet or 
more of limestone, coarse-grained and gray in some regions; fine-grained 
and blueish in others.* 

In the mining region the soil is usually of a sandy nature. In some places 
it is clayish and calcareous, and frequently contains fragments of hard or 
rotten chert. The gravel is made up of low water-worn yjieces of chert. 
Mingled with these may be seen brown ferruginous sand or cla3^ The 
gravel is underneath the soil. 

The sandstone consists of small translucent grains of quartz and is quite 
friable. It exists in fragments or patches. In the Joplin district a sand- 
stone, four to six feet thick, overlies black soil and coal. This is one mile 
southwest of Lone Elm. The sandstone is red, fine-grained and broken, 
the crevices being filled with red clay. According to Prof Broadhead it 
belongs to the Lower Coal-measures. 

Slate and coal occur in this region as local deposits or pockets of small 
extent, and often much disturbed. The slate is gray or black, in compact 
layers or thin shales, and sometimes becomes a kind of impure coal of a bitu- 
minous and slaty nature. I have been informed that these pockets are of 
frequent occurrence at Joplin and Oronogo. The following section was ob- 
served in a shaft one mile southwest of Lone Elm: ^o. 1. One foot to 
two feet of soil. No. 2. Four to six feet sandstone. No. 3. Four feet 
red and jellow sandy clay, with chert. No. 4. One foot to five feet black 
slate, with pockets of fire clay. No. 5. One foot to five feet coal. No. 6. 

*(1) The soil is alluvium; loose pieces of ore are found in great numbers. (2) These forma- 
tions belong' to the coal-measures, perhaps the Lower; more or less ore is found here. (3 and 
4) These form the upper part of the Keokuk group; they are sometimes known as the Ar- 
chemides limestone; in geological history they belong to the subcarboniferous rocks. The 
rocks grouped under (3) include the chief ore-bearing strata; those under (4) are called by 
miners "bed rock;" but little ore has been found in these. 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 



145 



One foot slate. No. 7. Limestone; thickness unknown. The coal is of 
a very inferior quality. 

Chert is amorphous quartz. It is also known as flint, hornstone, and jas- 
per. In composition it consists principally of silica. Small quantities of 
lime are frequently found in it. It is very hard and strikes fire with steel, 
and is quite brittle. Chert is one of the most prominent ore-bearing rocks 
in the mines of the southwest. In color it is mostly white, gray, or yellow; 
sometimes rose or flesh-colored. In many regions the solid chert undergoes 
a change and becomes soft and porous. With further alteration this soft 
chert becomes friable and is changed to very fine sand, which feels earthy to 
the touch, because of its fineness and of the presence of oxide of iron. 

In the sections representing the position of the rocks of the lead and zinc 
region of southwest Missouri, the lowest rocks were designated as " bed 
rock." They are so called because they underlie the ore deposits. They 
are of great thickness and form thick layers of limestone. At Granby this 
limestone has been penetrated to tlie depth of 136 feet without change and 
without reaching its lowest limits. In this county the Jasper Lead and 
Mining Company sank a shaft on the southern part of Swindle Hill, near 
Joplin, in this limestone to the depth of fifty feet without passing through it. 

The following analyses of three samples of limestone were made by Mr. 
Eegis Chauvenet, of St. Louis. The first sample came from Jasper No. 
3 Diggings, Joplin; the second, from Holman Diggings, Granby; the third, 
from Jopliu: 





1 


2 


3 


Unsoluble matter .... 

Carbonate of lime 

Carbonate of magnesia ... 

Carbonate of iron 


1.57 

96.43 

0.81 

0.75 

99.56 


0.23 

99.67 

0.67 

0.26 


2.98 
91.84 

2.83 
2.04 








100.83 


99.69 



The order of succession in the formation of the ore region of southwest 
Missouri, beginning with the oldest rocks, is, according to the conclusions 
reached by Prof Schmidt, as follows: 

Period of Deposition — First Period. — Original deposition of the vari- 
ous stratified rocks, to-wit: The " bed rock," the alterfiate layers of lime- 
stone and chert, the silico-calcite, the slates and coal and of the sandstone. 
These strata long remained undisturbed after their deposition, and became 
dry and hard before the beginning of the second period. The proof of this is 
10 



146 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

that the crystals of galena or blende are never fonnd wholly inclosed in 
masses of the chert, but in the cavities. In the lower Joplin valley galena 
has been found formed on all sides of angular chert. The galena must have 
been formed after the chert was broken up. 

Period of Dolomization — Second Period. — Local dolomization of some 
strata of limestone. As a result of the contraction of the limestone during the 
metamorphic action, great disturbances and ruptures took place in the chert. 
At this time occurred the principal deposition of the ores from watery solu- 
tions. This metamorphication affected only a part of the alternate layers 
of limestone and chert, and does not extend vertically more than twenty 
feet. During this period a portion of the limestone passed through a 
process of dolomization. Carbonate of magnesia replaces the carbonate of 
lime and this change gives rise to contraction. Fissures make their appear- 
ance in the mass and these are filled with crystallized dolomite. The change 
begins either in these openings or on the surface of the layers, and advances 
toward the interior of the limestone. This began prior to the formation 
of the ore and continued during its deposition. 

Period of' Dissolution — Third Period. — Dissolution and removal of a 
portion of the limestome from the silico-calcite, and from the alternate lay 
ers of limestone and chert. On account of this removal the layers of 
chert, and the strata which were above, began to break down. Ores still 
continued to be deposited, but in much ditninished quantity. 

The large accumulations of broken chert, which in many places overlie or 
accompany the deposits of ore, date from this period. The ore is nearly al- 
ways galena, sulphuret of lead. It was deposited, in many places, in the 
crevices of the broken chert, in sheets between the layers, in crystals adher- 
ing to fragments of chert, and oftentimes it may be seen on all sides of such 
fragments. The relation of the galena to the chert in such cases evidently 
proves that the galena was formed after the breaking of the chert. 

Period of Regeneration — Fourth Period. — Local regeneration of the 
partially dissolved and softened limestone bj' the renewed deposition of car- 
bonate of lime. Local infiltration of quartzite. Continued deposition of 
ores. 

Such conglomerates as consist of chert fragments, cemented by a silicious 
or calcareous mass, belong to this period. The cementing mass incloses 
crystals of galena or blende. 

Period of Oxidation— Fifth Period. — Oxidation of the metallic sul- 
phurets. This was followed by the alteration of these sulphurets into sili- 
cates and carbonates. 

In many deposits the galena was, in this period, more or less changed 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 147 

« 

into cerussite (carbonate of lead), and into pyromorphite (phosphate of lead); 
the blende (sulphuret of zinc) was changed into calamine (hjdrus silicate of 
zinc), and into sraithsonite (carbonate of zinc); the pyrites (bisulphret of 
iron) was changed into limonite (hydrated oxide of iron). Portions of these 
minerals were removed and afterward redeposited. 

The corrosion and partial dissolution of the chert, and its transformation 
into a somewhat friable mass, occurred after the ores were deposited. The 
absence of ores in the porons chert sustain this view. This corrosion con- 
sequently belongs to the two last periods, and perhaps continues to the pres- 
ent. 

The foregoing, though brief, includes the principal features of the geolog- 
ical history of this county. No claim is made that the record is complete. 
Future investigation will doubtless disclose many facts of great importance. 
All the work done in the past may be truly considered as only the begin- 
ning of what is yet to be accomplished. This part of the commonwealth 
has so much that is yet unknown that a society organized to study the nat- 
ural history of this county, or of southern Missouri, would have a broad and 
inviting field to investigate. 

Economical Geology — Building Stone. — The quarries opened in several 
parts of the county furnish most excellent foundation stone. The limestone 
is hard, durable, and takes a bright polish. Some has been in use nearly a 
score of years, and shows no signs of yielding to the influence of the 
weather. Its extreme hardness may prevent any extensive use of it at pres- 
ent, yet its superior quality should strongly commend it to all desiring dur- 
able material for building. In the northwestern part of the county large 
beds of sandstone occur. 

Lime. — In the vicinity of Carthage are several limekilns, in which Keo- 
kuk limestone is made into excellent lime. At some of these more than 
two hundred bushels of lime are made daily. 

Coal. — This topic has already been considered as fully as the present 
knowledge of the coal formation warrants. 

Lead. — Lead is one of the great mineral products of the county. In Mis- 
souri it occurs in the dii?erent formations from the third magnesian limestone 
of the Potsdam period to the coal-measures. In this county it is found in 
the Keokuk group of the Lower Carboniferous, and extends principally along 
the courses of several small creeks, which run in a northern or northwestern 
direction into Turkey Creek. This formation being somewhat extensive, 
several important towns are herein located, Joplin, Webbville, Carterville, 
and Oronogo being the principal ones. Here lead and zinc raining rank 
among the first of these minerals in the world. It would be interesting to 



148 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

trace the wonderful development of this industry, but as it will be done else- 
where it is onnitted here. Some mining has been done in the neighborhood 
of Carthage. As little is now done it is evident that the minerals have not 
been found in large quantities. The lead ores are galena, or sulphuret of 
lead, called by the minei'S "mineral"; cerussite, or carbonate of lead, also 
called "dry-bone"; pyromorphite, or phosphate of lead. Galena is the ore 
from which nine-tenths of the lead of southwest Missouri is obtained. In 
its crystallization it exhibits the monometric system. It possesses a perfect 
cleavage in cubes, and its specific gravity is about 7.4. The purest forms of 
galena consist of 86.6 per cent of lead and 13.4 per cent of sulphur. In 
southwest Missouri lead is found in the form of crystals, or in compact crys- 
talline masses. These crystals mostly have the form of a cube with the 
corners taken off. When imbedded in dolomite, or adhering to solid chert? 
the crystals mostly show a smooth, shining surface, but when associated 
with clay, sand, or decomposed rocks, thej' are water-worn and coaled. 
Cubic crystals of galena are often covered with cerussite or calamine. Pure 
cerussite consists of 83.5 per cent of oxide of lead, and 16.5 per cent of 
carbonic acid. Pyromorphite, in a pure state, contains about 60 per cent 
of pure metallic lead. 

Zinc. — The zinc ores are blende, calamine, smithsonite, and zinc bloom. 
Zinc blende is sulphuret of zinc. Among miners it is known as " black 
jack." It crystalizes in octohedral forms of the monometric system, and 
shows a distinct cleavage. Its specific gravity is 4. When pure its com- 
position is 67 per cent zinc, and 33 per cent of sulphur. In color it is 
usually of a dark brown, but often green, j^ellow, or bright red; all these 
colors are sometimes seen in the difllerent parts of the same specimen. Two 
varieties of blende are known in southwest Missouri: (1) A granular 
variety in which the small crystalline grains are translucent to transparent^ 
They are of a bright color, either red, brown, or light yellow. (2) A coarse 
crystalline variety, exhibiting broad faces of cleavage, and occurring mass- 
ive and of a yellowish brown color, sometimes black, or dark. Calamine 
is hydrous silicate of zinc. It consists, when pure, of 67.4 per cent of ox- 
ide of zinc, 25 per cent of silica, and V.6 per cent of water. Smithsonite 
is carbonate of zinc. It contains 64.8 per cent of oxide of zinc, and 32.2 
per cent of carbonic acid. Zinc bloom is hydrated carbonate of zinc. In 
a pure state its composition is 71.3 per cent of oxide of zinc, 12.9 per cent 
of carbonic acid, and 15.8 per cent of water. 

Land and Fresh Water Mollusks. — It is a matter of regret that no one 
has collected and classified the land and fresh water shells found in this 
county. The lists given below are the result of the writer's investigation 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 149 

and are very incomplete. Only partial lists can consequently be given. 
Most of the species are such as maybe found throusjliout the Northern 
states. A few are doubtless of a Southern character: Mesodon elevata, 
Say; M. clausa,^?iy\ If. albolaht'is,S-a.y\ ffyalina viridula; H. arborea^ 
Say ; H. ligera; H. fulva; Triodopsis injiecta^ Say ; Stenotrema hirsuta, 
Say; S.leaii; Pupa fallax. Say; P. contracta, Say ', P. Armifera, Sa,j', 
Patula solitaria, Say; P. alternata, Say. 

Of fresh water mollnsks the following species have been collected: Me- 
lajitho decisa, Say; Spherium sulcaiuri/ S. partumium,' Planorhis bicar- 
inatns, Say; P. trivolvis; jOymiima columella, Say; Phyra gyrine, Say ; P. 
heterostrophe ; Ancylus tardus, Say; Pisiduim variablle. 

Reptilia. — The only division of Reptilia that has been studied locally is 
the order of Festudinata, or turtles. There are doubtless other species and 
varieties in the country besides those here given : Cistudo Yirginea. This 
is the common box turtle of the United States; it is plenty, and is found in 
dry woods. Aromochelys odoratum, Gray; the musk turtle or stink-pot. 
Chelydra serpentina,' the common snapping-turtle; it is quite abundant. 
Aspidonectes spinifer; common soft-shelled turtle. 

Of the lizards, the genus Opliisaurus is represented by: Opliisaurus 
centralis, glass, or joint snake. This snake-shaped lizard inhabits dry 
places, and passes much of the time on the ground. The vertebrae of the 
tail are so easily separated that it is broken by a very slight blow. The 
popular belief that the parts thus separated can afterwards come together is, 
of course, an error. 

Of the tailed batrachian?, the genus Menohranclius is represented by: 
Menobranchus lateralis, the mud-puppy of the tributaries of the Mis- 
sissippi. 

Rodents. — Of the genus castor only two species are known. One of 
these, castor fiber, is found in Europe. 

Castor Canadensis, the American beaver, is found in many parts of North 
America. In this county many trees along Spring River, as far east as 
Ruffin & McDaniel's mill, show indications of having been gnawed by 
beavers. ' At Moore & Bittler's mill, seven miles west of Carthage, a 
large colony of beavers, several years ago, had their home in the mill-dam. 
Trees of considerable size were cut down by them. At some distance from 
the mill there was a corn field, to which they often resorted for food. Be- 
tween this field and the mill-dam they had made a well defined track. A 
circular hole which they had gnawed in the fence gave them access into the 
field. But few beavers are found here now. Nearly the entire colony was 
trapped by Gabriel Marrs. 



150 HISTORY OF JASrER COUNTY. 

At the Galesbnrg mill some beavers had their home. On one occasion 
they stopped a large leak in the dam. Most of them were trapped. 

Botany. — The following is a list of the principal trees and shrubs: Carya, 
alba, common hickory. Carya sulcata, thick shell hickory. Carya olivcB- 
formis, pecan nut. Juglans nigra, black walnut. Quercus alha, white 
oak. Quercus rubra, red oak. Quercus obtusiloba, post oak. Quercus 
tinctoria, black oak. jEscuIus glabra, buckeye. Celtis occidentalis, 
hackberry. Sassafras officinale, sassafras. Rhus typhhia, sumac. Zanth- 
oxylu7n Amej^icantom, prickly ash. Cornus Jlorida, dogwood. Acer dasy- 
carpum, white maple. Acer saGcharinum,sugsiv maple. Fraxinus Ameri- 
cana, white ash. Negundo aceroides, box elder. Populus monilifera, Cot- 
tonwood. Ulmus Americana, elm. JJlmus fulva, slippery elm. Tilia 
Americana, basswood. Carpinus Americana, ironwood. Gleditschia tria- 
canthos, honey wood. Platanus occidentalis, sycamore. Salix nigra, wil- 
low. Cercis Canadensis, vtidhxid. Corylus America7ia, haze]. Vitis cor- 
difolia, frost grape. Yitis oestivalis, summer-grape. Amelanchier Cana- 
densis, service berry. Rubus occidentalis, raspberry. Rubus Canadensis, 
blackberry. Morus rubra, vanVoQVYy. Sambucus Canadensis, elder berry. 
Ribes, currant. Prunus Americanus, red plum. Diospyros Vrginiana, 
persimmon. Asimina triloba, papaw. Virburmwi prunifolium, black 
haw. Pyrus coronaria, crabapple. Prunus serotina, wild black cherry. 



CHAPTER III.— EARLY SETTLEMENTS AND PIONEERS. 

Introduction — Habits and Characteristics of Pioneers — Hospitality and Trails 'Of Early 
Settlers — Country of the Six Bulls — First Permanent Settlements of Jasper County — 
First Settlements at Sarcoxie and Carthage — Many Interesting Scenes and Experiences 
— Biographies of Early Settlers — List of Aged Persons in Jasper County in 1876. 

" The early settlers — where are they? 
They are falling, one by one ; 
A few more years may pass away, • 

And leave but few, or none." 

Since the period when the early settlements were made within the limits 
of what is now called Jasper county, Time, the great monarch of all things 
perishable, has made various changes. The ranks of families have been 
thinned, and the surface of the earth materially changed. The slow and un- 
observed "old man with his sickle" has visited every dwelling, thrusting 
in his wiry blade regardless of nationality, home, or honor, so now numbers 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 151 

of the old pioneers sleep beneath the soil they once tilled. The writer is 
touched with the reverting thought of remembering many of the plain and 
hospitable men of the West, whose unsullied hearts and interminable enegyr 
of purpose gave to this country its birthright and its wholesome outlook in 
the dai'k days of hardships, who now rest from their labors. As long as the 
sands of time unceasingly roll, may the historian's pen incessantly recount 
the matchless worth of these pioneers who cleared the way for the follow- 
ing generations. After spending considerable time in gathering materials 
from ]'ecords and old settlers, we find it impossible in these pages to give a 
full detail of the early settlements and pioneers of Jasper county. Every 
nation does not possess an authentic account from which its origin may be 
traced. The old Latins said: '•'■ Forsan et hcec olim mem^inisse juvahit,'*'' — 
" Perhaps it will be pleasant hererafter to remember these things." Never- 
theless, to be interested in these things is characteristic of the human race, 
and it comes particularly within the province of the historian to deal with 
the first causes. If at times these facts be lost, as is often the case when 
drawing from traditions, and the chronicler invades the realm of the ideal 
world and paints the missing picture, it should be accepted as pertinent to 
the theme. The patriotic Roman was not content till he had found the 
"first settlers," although the story of the lineage was not so tasteful to the 
cultured patrician. One of the advantages of a new country, and the one 
usually least appreciated, is to be able to go to the beginning. Through 
this avenue the historian can trace results to their causes, and grasp facts 
which have contributed to bring about events and mould characters. 
When we observe that a county has attained a certain position in contrast 
with other counties, we cast about for the reasons of the present conditions 
by going to its early settlements and surroundings. In this way the 
changes which have produced the great enterprises of to-day may be accu- 
rately recorded. In the history of Jasper county we may trace, in some in- 
stances, the early settlers to their old homes in the older states, and to the 
countries of the Old World, from whence they came. The prejudices that 
once prompted different localities to become antagonistic have passed away. 
The custolns, dress, language, diet, and sundry things peculiarly western, 
are now quite difi'erent from those of the pioneers of Jasper county. Often 
the adventurer came to the West to " grow up" with the country, trusting 
only to his strong arm and willing heart to work his way on in the world. 
It was in this way many a penniless, ambitious young man secured a home 
in this county for his loving wife and a good maintenance for his children. 
Here, fifty years ago, the pioneer hunter chased the deer, elk, and bear, 
where now are broad and well-cultivated fields. It was by industry and 



152 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

economy that the pioneers left their children pleasant homes in many in- 
stances. Here we may see the path worn by the Missourian in his experi- 
ence in a land which to him was a country far more preferable than that 
southern and eastern soil where he made his former home. We may see 
here the growth which came with knowledge, and the progress which grew 
upon him with advancement, and how his better nature was developed. The 
vanishing pride of Kentucky, or the vain glory of other sections, brought 
here in an early day, have been modified since the advent of new measures 
in the crucible of democracy, forever eliminating servitude from the solu- 
tion, and establishing freedom and education in its stead. Others have been 
animated with the impulse to move on, after making themselves a part of 
the community, and left for the west, where civilization had not gone; some, 
becoming wealthy, returned to Jasper county, while many remained in their 
new home. 

In this county there were but few of the distinctive New England men 
and women or Yankees, a class of people with abundant brain and nerve 
force, which have poured into Western and Southern states, since the war, by 
thousands, swelling the population and wealth of those regions in excess of 
any other flow of immigration. This class brought with them a proclivity, in- 
herent and courteous, which has tended to smooth the angles of Western 
society, and deaden the exorable feeling that had so long drawn the lines of 
sectional division. The agile New Englander will soon be a perfect Mis- 
sourian, and his offspring will soon tell the story of the adventure, and feel 
ever thankful that they have a home in this favored spot of the West. 

During the decade which comprehends the period prior to 1830 the his- 
tory of this section was made up of the earliest stage of pioneer life. About 
all that we can gather from this time is drawn from tradition. 

The Country of the Six Bulls. — The earliest name known to have been 
affixed to this region, was that of the " Country of the Six Bulls." All the 
earliest settlers knew it by that title. The origin of the name is somewhat in- 
volved in mystery. It might naturally be supposed that it originated with 
the Indians, and the tradition has been handed down that the Indians, at_ an 
early period, killed somewhere in this region six lusty buffalo bulls, remark- 
able for their][strength and fierceness, and from this circumstance the scene 
of their valorous exploit was ever afterward known as the Country of the 
Six Bulls. It has been justly remarked, however, that this explanation 
would seem more plausible if we had the name in the Indian language in- 
stead of such plain and unmistakable Saxon. 

Several other versions are given, but we are indebted to Judge John C. 
Cox, of Joplin, for an explanation which, taking all things into considera- 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 153 

tion, seems more trustworthy than any other. According to Judge Cox the 
first while man who ever traversed this region was Edmund Jennings, a wild 
western adventurer whose character was largely similar to that of Daniel 
Boone, Simon Kenton, and other pioneers who first penetrated the wilder- 
ness and })repared for civilization. Jennings was born in North Caro- 
lina, and afterward removed to Jackson county, Tennessee. He was unmar- 
ried, possessed of means, and belonged to a family numbering among its 
members several prominent and distinguished men. He was adventurous 
and roving in his disposition, and struck out on a solitary journey through 
the vast unexplored regions west of the Mississippi. This was at a date, 
now some seventy-five years ago, when the presence of civilized man had 
never disturbed the solitudes of this far ofl' country. On foot and alone he 
found his way into this region, and for fifteen years lived on peaceable terms 
with the Indians, isolated from civilization, and spending his time in hunt- 
ing, trapping, and fishing. His friends in Tennessee gave him up for dead. 
Occasionally one of his former neighbors would surmise what unhappy fate 
had overtaken Edmund Jennings, but no word came of his whereabouts. 
One day, however, to the great surprise of the community among which he 
had formerly lived, he returned, dressed in skins and moccasins, and so un- 
used to the English tongue that it was with difficulty he could make himself 
understood. The people gathered for miles around to hear his wonderful 
stories of his life in the western solitudes. Judge Cox, who at that time 
was a mere lad, on one of these occasions heard him relate his adventures. 
His description of the face of the country was as accurate as could be given 
by any one at the time, and corresponded exactly with the physical charac- 
teristics of Jasper county. He stated that he had been in the far west in 
the "Country of the Six Boils," and while there had been principally en- 
gaged in trapping and fishing. His pronunciation of the word '• boils" was 
so corrupt that his listeners first conceived it to be " bulls," but the old pio. 
neer explained that he referred by the term to six boiling, bubbling streams 
of water that traversed his favorite region and along whose banks for long 
years he had trapped and hunted. He doubtless alluded to the Cow Skin, 
Indian Creek, Shoal Creek, Center Creek, Spring River, and JSTorth Fork. 
He spoke of the droves of buffalo, deer, and other game that inhabited the 
country, and his descriptions were so accurate and complete, and the marks 
of identification so clearly established, that no doubt remains but that Jen- 
nings' "Country of the Six Boils" was nothing else than the present Jasper 
and surrounding counties. 

The First Permanent Settlements. — The honor of having made the first 
permanent settlement in Jasper county belongs to Tliacker Yivion, an 



154 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

emigrant from Kentucky, who located at the spring, at the foot of the hill 
in Sarcoxie, about a stone's, throw southwest of the railroad depot at that 
place. Vivion is said to have been the first white man who settled perma- 
nent!}' in the region of country' west of the Turnback River in Lawrence 
country. He went to Texas about thirty years ago, and at a recent date was 
still living in that state. About the same time came John M. Fullerton, 
also from Kentucky, and settled near Sarcoxie where he died about the year 
1850. These settlers were undisturbed for a year or two, but other pioneers 
soon began to make their appearance and to occupy the beautiful and prom- 
ising country. Ephraim Beasely, Hiram Hanford, Ephraim Jenkins, and 
Thomas Boxly all came in the spring of 1833. Mr. Beasley settled on Cen- 
ter Creek, four miles west of Sarcoxie. Jenkins made his home on the 
creek which now bears his name a mile or two from Dr. Moss's. William 
and Tryon Gibson arrived a little later in the year 1833. Tryon settled on 
the present site of the High Hill School-house, five miles southwest of Car- 
thage. Abraham Onstott, the father of Judge John Onstott, arrived with 
his family from Indiana, and stopped where Sarcoxie is on the 13th of No- 
vember, 1833, a night made meuiorable by the " falling of the stars." On- 
stott remained there two or three weeks and then settled five miles south of 
Carthage. He lived there till 1860, and then removed to Texas and died 
there. Judge Onstott, his son, is now in all probability the oldest male 
settler in the county, and has lived within its limits longer than any other 
man. In the fall of 1838 David Lamas ters also came to the county, and 
made a location on Center Creek, on the farm five miles southwest of Car- 
thage. 

Allusion has been made to only a few pioneer settlers, and others will be 
mentioned in the histories of the various townships. The first settlers gen- 
erally chose locations in the immediate neighborhood of the beautiful springs 
of water so abundant in the " Country of the Six Bulls" (or Boils). They 
were called upon to endure the usual privations incident to pioneer life, and 
in their solitary and isolated situation knew little of the doings of the out- 
side world or of the comforts and luxuries of civilization. The nearest 
points of importance were St. Louis and Boonville on the Missouri River. 
Mail was a thing unknown, and in the early history of the settlements the 
nearest post-office was Little Finey, the county seat of old Crawford county, 
over one hundred and fifty miles east on the Gasconade River. A news- 
paper was a curiosity, and its columns were scanned in turn by members of 
successive families, who read with deep interest of the events which had 
transpired two or three months previously in the world which they had for- 
saken. Families livinff within a dozen miles of each other called them- 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 155 

selves neighbors, but circiiiustances were not favorable toward the promo- 
tion of those intimate social visits and the cultivation of that friendly gos- 
sip for which modern society is remarkable. 

New arrivals in the colony were welcomed with old-fashioned and practi- 
cal hospitality. People would go miles in order to see the new immigrants 
and form their acquaintance. No better material could be secured for 
houses than rough unhewn logs. Floors were a mark of aristocracy to 
which the earliest pioneers did not attain, and only became common after 
several families had made settlements. Roofs were made of clapboards 
kept in their places by heavy weight poles. Nails were only used when ab- 
solutely necessary. They were made by hand, and were too expensive to 
use on clapboards when the same end could be otherwise accomplished quite 
as easily. Stone could not be readily obtained for chimneys which in con- 
sequence were commonly built of mud and sticks. After a while puncheon 
floors grew into common use. Glass windows were unknown for several 
years. A tire-place was erected at one end of the house almost large enough 
to accommodate an ox team. Not only were the doors constructed with the 
purpose of affording an entrance and exit to the house, but.they served as 
windows and admitted light. They generally stood wide open in winter as 
well as in summer, and afforded the most perfect system of ventilation ever 
yet invented. Judge Onstott says that the first bed of which he was pos- 
sessor after going to housekeeping was constructed in the following manner: 
Two auger holes were bored in the logs at a proper distance apart, and in 
them were placed two stakes for the support of one side of the bed, the other 
end of the stakes resting on forks driven into the ground. Poles answered 
the purpose of slats; his wife sewed together two quilts for a bed tick; the 
Judge pulled grass to fill it, and he stated that amid such surroundings and 
in that primitive state of society, he passed some of the happiest days of his 
life. 

The early settlements were made in the timber and along the streams. 
The prairie was uninhabited and uncultivated. Up until about the years 
1838 or 1840 there was not a single settlement in the county a mile distant 
from the timber. Wild game, such as deer and turkey, was abundant. In 
a journey of five miles it was no uncommon thing to count as many as fifty 
deer. Wolves were plenty, and all the young pigs and sheep had to be care- 
fully looked after to prevent them from being carried off' or devoured. There 
were no methods of public conveyance, and the only way of transportation 
was by the slow-going ox-team and wagon, with occasionally a team of 
horses. All goods and freight were brought from St. Louis. It took from 
five to eight weeks to make the round trip. People traveled by horseback; 



156 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

of course buo-ories and carriaores were unknown. The conveniences of mod- 
em life were wanting, and until the erection of mills the pioneers pounded 
their corn into meal with a beetle in a hole burnt into a stump, or log, and 
separated the finer parts with a hand sieve for meal, while the coarser they 
made into hominy. Some of the early settlers state that instead of this 
process it was sometimes the custom to boil the ears of corn so as to make 
the kernels adhere to the cob and then grate them on a home-made grater 
manufactured out of sheet-iron, or tin, perforated with nail holes. Wheat 
was not grown for several years, and corn furnished the only kind of bread 
known. Tlie settlers were at first accustomed to go long distances to mill, 
and often journeyed as far as the neighborhood of Springfield, and also 
patronized a mill which stood on the James Kiver some eight miles south 
of the county seat of Greene county. 

The first mill was erected at Sarcoxie by Thacker Vivion in the year 1834. 
The mill was made of logs, and stood about a quarter of a mile east of the 
public square in Sarcoxie on the same site since occupied by Mr. Perry's 
mill. It was not celebrated for its capacity, nor for the fineness of its work, 
and in these reapects could not compare, we fear, with the modern mills of 
Jasper county; but it was a great improvement on hand-grinding, and the 
old settlers rallied to its support, and the mill was noted for thirty miles 
around. 

Prior to this time Dr. Jewett opened out a small stock of general mer- 
chandise somewhere near the present northwest corner of the public square 
in Sarcoxie. A blacksmith shop was also in operation previous to the date 
of the building of the mill. The erection of the mill rendered the place 
an important point. It was the center of business for the country of the 
Six Bulls. JSTeighbors living twenty and thirty miles distant from Sarcoxie 
would arrange to consolidate their grinding into one load and'one of the 
party would take it to the mill. As it was only a corn cracker, and a very 
slow one at that — its capacity being somewhere in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of zero — parties frequently had to wait a week for their grists to be 
ground. Meanwhile the patient "waiter" camped out, and hunted and 
fished along the mossy banks of Center Creek. The place became known 
as Centerville. Why it was so called we could not ascertain, unless it was 
because it was half way between Springfield and the end of the world. 

After the mill ground wheat there was no bolting apparatus connected 
with it, and folks sifted their unbolted flour ai home. But business in- 
creased, and the enterprising miller to keep up with the rapid strides of civili- 
zation purchased a hand bolt, and each patron could combine business with 
pleasure by turning the machine for his own grist. Mr, Yiviou also has 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 157 

the honor of buildino^ the first saw-mill in the county — ^an attachment sim- 
ply to his grist-mill. The more aristocratic settler conld then indulge in 
sawed doors and floors. 

About'the year 1836 Tingle and Massey settled at Centerville bringing 
with them quite a large stock of goods, and for several years they did a 
thriving business. The town aspired to a post-office about this time, and 
the post-office department granted it, but it was necessary to give the place 
a new name, as there was one Centerville in the state already. Who it was 
that suggested the name Sarcoxie we could not learn. The only light we 
have been able to obtain on the subject is as follows; In the early days of 
the occupancy of the country by the whites an Indian chief of that name fre- 
quented that place with a small tribe to hunt and fish. The name is said to, 
signify " Rising Sun." It was a happy suggestion to give the town that 
name, for it is easily pronounced, and has the credit of being original. Mr. 
Cabaniss says that he came across one of Sarcoxie's sons engaged in busi- 
ness in Kansas several years ago, and learned from him that his father was 
still alive, hale and hearty, on some Indian reservation in Kansas. Sarcoxie 
should secure his remains when he dies, and bury him on one of its sightly 
hills, and erect a monument to his memory. The town was laid out by 
William Tingle and Benjamin F. Massey on the 6th of August, 1840, but 
the plat was not filed for record until Februai-y 11, 1849, when it was en- 
acted by the legislature that D. Saunders and Andrew Wilson be authorized 
to record the town plat of Sarcoxie. 

The earlv settlers of this county had a great many advantages, notwith- 
standing they were separated by great distance. Game was plentiful; deer, 
prairie chickens, and turkeys were numerous, and easy to get. But with 
these advantages were coupled some disagreeable things that have since al- 
most wholly disappeared. The green fly was an intolerable nuisance, and 
people hardly dared to venture across the prairie with their teams in day- 
time. Many of the first settlers did their plowing and teaming by night, 
so as to leave their horses and oxen in the timber in the day-time, where 
the flies were not so bad. 

During the war the deer increased largely in numbers, as they were not 
hunted down so relentlessly, while the country was being depopulated, and 
the green flies seemed also to have thrived best at this time, as they were 
more troublesome a year or two after the war than for many years before. 

The names of several early settlers of Jasper county are given below: 

John Prigmore, born in east Tennessee in 1815; moved to Missouri in 
1832, to a place on White River, sixty-five miles southeast of Springfield. 
Moved to the present lin)its of Jasper county in 1834. 



/ 



158 HISTORY OF JASPER COUKTY. 

John Cabaniss, born at Springfield, Illinois, in 1827, came to this county 
in 1869, and settled at Bowers' Mills. 

John Onstott was born in Indiana in 1816; came to this county in 1833, 
and settled near Center Creek, four miles southwest of Carthage; is still a 
citizen of the county, and from appearances bids fair for several more years. 

Josiah P. Boyd was born in 1837, near Redding's Mills, above Grand 
Falls, Newton county, Missouri. His father re-located three miles west of 
Sarcoxie in the spring of 1838. 

Thomas Buck was born in Delaware in 1800. Thence was taken to Vir- 
ginia; afterwards to Ohio. From Ohio he moved to Tippecanoe county, In- 
diana, and from the latter place, in 1837, he journeyed overland in a wagon, 
drawn by a four-horse team, to tliis county. 

Samuel B. La Force was born in 1815, in Scott county, Illinois. Came 
to this county in 1843, and settled on a tract of land three miles northeast 
of Carthage. Has held the official positions of sheriff, representative, and 
clerk of the circuit and county courts of Jasper. At present he lives in 
Carthage and enjoys a green old age. 

Claborne Osborne, born in Tennessee in 1818, and came to this county in 
1838, and settled fourteen miles west of Carthage. Was dei3uty sheriff un- 
der his brother, John R., who was the first sheriff of the county. 

L. D. Osborne, born in Iowa in 1826; came to this county a year or two 
after his brother Claborne. 

William M. Wormington, born in Tennessee in 1832, and has lived in the 
vicinity of Sarcoxie since 1838. 

William Tingle, born in Delaware in 1810. Came to St. Louis in 1833, 
thence to New Madrid; after that to Independence; from there to St. Louis; 
from St. Louis to Fayette, from there back to St. Louis, and from St. Louis 
to Jasper county, in 1837, and engaged in business at Sarcoxie. Has seen 
a great many ups and downs in life, but has never had any official posi- 
tions and don't want any. 

John K. Gibson, born in Tennessee in 1823, came to Lawrence county 
with his father, George Moore Gibson, in 1831, and settled at the head of 
Spring River. 

Solomon Rothanbarger, born in Pennsylvania in 1841; went to Virginia, 
and when about twenty years old moved to North Carolina. Thence in a 
year or two to Georgia, spent a year there and moved to Tennessee. Finally, 
in the year 1839 reached a stopping place on Turkey Creek, about one 
mile northeast of Joplin. He went to California in 1850 and stayed eighteen 
months. Was married to Jane Archer in 1849. His wife was born in Cal- 
laway county, Missouri, in 1818. 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 159 

John ~D. Allen, born in Callaway county, Missouri, in 1818, and moved 
to Lawrence county in 1839; from there he moved to Jasper county. Was 
in command of several cavalry regiments in the late war. 

William Cooley, born in Indiana in 1836, came to this county in 1849, 
and settled near the mouth of Center Creek. 

Daniel Hunt, born in Kentucky in 1812. His father moved to Howard 
county, Missouri, in 1817; moved to Cooper county in 1824. Thence to 
neutral lands in Kansas in 1850. In 1854 settled in Jasper county, and 
laid out Sherwood. Had a good trade with the Indians prior to the war. 

Peter R. Johnson, born in North Carolina in 1822; moved to Illinois 
when five years of age; came to Jasper county in 1840. Mrs. Johnson was 
born in Kentucky in 1827. Came to Jasper connty in 1841; were married 
in 1842. 

John C. Cox, born in North Carolina in 1811; lived in Tennessee from 
1820 until 1838; then came to the countrj' of the Six Bulls and settled "hear 
Joplin. 

James Hornback was born in Kentucky in 1796, and came to this county 
in 1838 with his family. 

Martin W. Halskill, born in Kentucky in 1826; came to this county with 
his father in 1837, and settled at Diamond Grove, ten miles south of Car- 
thage. 

William Spencer came from Indiana in 1837, and settled seven miles 
southeast of Carthage. 

John M. Richardson, born in Loudoun county, Virginia, September 8, 
1820.' He lived in that county from birth until fifteen years old; he lived 
one year at Granville, Ohio, and one year at Gambia, in that state, going to 
school. He then returned to Virginia, and in the fall of 1837 immigrated 
with his father's family to Missouri, arriving in Audrain county in October, 
1837, and in the spring of 1838 moved to southwest Missouri, and settled 
with his father and his family on Spring River, two miles above Bowers' 
Mills, in what was then Barry county. The nearest post-office was Mount 
Pleasant, twelve miles distant, on Clear Creek, near the present site of 
Pierce City. Barry county at that time included about half of what is now 
Dade county, and all of Lawrence, Barry, McDonald, Newton, Jasper, and 
Barton counties. Mt. Pleasant had the county seat. H. Allen was cir- 
cuit judge, at a salary of one hundred dollars. J. Williams was circuit 
and county clerk. 

In August, 1838, Littlebury Mason was elected representative of Barry 
county, and he had the county divided into four counties: Newton, Jasper, 
Dade, and Barry. Jasper was attached to Newton for civil and military 



y 



160 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

purposes. In 1840 John Wilson was elected to represent Newton county 
and that year Jasper county was organized tor civil and military purposes; 
the county seat was temporarily established at Jasper, but afterwards, in 
the year 1841, permanently established at Carthage. In 1846 two miles 
was added to Jasper off the north end of Newton county, and the boundaries 
have not been changed since. In 185T Mr. Richardson, late representative, 
was appointed justice of the peace by the county court; held the position for 
three weeks, and resigned to accept the appointment of government agent 
for the Great and Little Osage Indians; he held the position two years, and 
then removed back to the state and located at Springfield, and in 1852 was 
elected Secretary of State, which office he held four years. In 1860 he was 
the elector of that district on the Lincoln ticket. During part of the war 
he was a colonel in the Federal army, and also the provost marshal under 
the enrollment call. 

Lt)renzo Dillender, born in the year 1836, in Giles county, Tennessee, 
came to Jasper county in 1841, and followed the occupation of farming. 

E.. K. Laxon, Ephraim Stout, and J. G. L. Carter were other early set- 
tlers in our vicinity, and among other items of interest recollect two col- 
ored persons being burned at the stake in 1855. 

John Furcell, born in July, 1818, in Hardin county, Kentucky, on the head 
waters of Hough Creek, forty miles southwest of Louisville, came to Jasper 
county, December 8, 1843, and located on the west line of section 16, town- 
ship 29, range 32. He has followed farming principally. Wlien he settled 
in that vicinity his neighbors were Tyron Gibson, Lloyd Vioty, Daniel 
Noland, Stephen Hare, James N. Langley, William F. Stith, Edwin Stith, 
Abner Gresham, John P. Orsborn, then the sheriff of Jasper county; W. 
W. Osborn, Wm. D. Brown, W. Coonrod, and John Shelton. Some four 
miles each way constituted the neighborhood. Money was very scarce in 
those times. The streams were full of fish and game was plenty. 

John Hornback, of Jackson township, Jasper county, Missouri, was born 
in Champaign county, Ohio, August 24, 1827; he came to Jasper county in 
1838, and settled on Center Creek; has followed the occupation of farming 
principally. The early settlers in his neighborhood were John W. Gibson, 
Wm. Gibson, Tyron Gibson, H. H. Zackery, Wm. Scott, Gabriel Endicott, 
David Lashasters, Abraham Onstott, John Onstott, and Frederick Cosmer. 
Mr. Hornback informs us that the first settlement made where the city of 
Carthage now stands was made by John Pennington, near the woolen mill 
George Hornback was the first town commissioner. He also built the first 
business house in Carthage. 

Jane Gibson, born October 28, 1837, in St. Charles county, Missouri, 



HISTORY OF JASi'EK COUNTY. 161 

came to Jasper county in the fall of 1833; she has always lived on a farm. 
Among the early settlers in the vicinity where Mrs. Gibson resided were 
Simon White, Jacob Fifer, Tyron Gibson, Isaac Gibson, and Abraham 
Onstott. Indians were plenty in this country in 1833, but had no disposi- 
tion to be hostile, although they would sometimes steal and kill the settlers' 
hogs. All the breadstuff that this family got the first six months after they 
came to this country they beat in a mortar with a pestle. Corn was worth 
sixty-two and one-half cents per bushel. There were but few roads at this 
time, and no mill nearer than Springfield. 

Rev. John Robinson, father of W. C. Robinson, Esq., was one of the first 
settlers and a large land owner of the county. He was born in Kentucky, 
but moved at an early day to Tennessee. From thence he moved to Mis- 
souri, and settled in Jasper county, forty-two years ago, and died here in 
August, 1860. 

M. H. Ritchey, who resides in Newton county, furnishes us the following 
statistics: Was born in Overton count}', Tennessee, February 7, 1813; 
came to Crawford county, Missouri, in October, 1832; Steelville, being the 
county seat, was the post-ofiice. Greene county was taken from Crawford 
county; from Greene, Barry county was taken, and from Barrj', Newton 
county was taken, so that Mr. Ritchey lived in four counties without mov- 
ing. After residing nineteen years on the farm where he first settled, he 
went to Oliver's prairie to raise stock. Newtonia, a pleasant village, grew 
up on his farm on the prairie. After the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad was 
built, and the town of Ritchey laid off, he moved back to his old home, never 
having sold it. Mr. Ritchey's principal occupation has been farming and 
raising stock, which has proved more profitable than anything else he has 
engaged in. He was in tlie mercantile business twenty-two years, and in 
politics thirty-five years. The latter he regards less profitable, in a pecuni- 
ary point of view, than any other business, and has more temptations to 
lead men from the path of rectitude than anything he has followed. 

L. J. Burch, born in New York, in 1831, and came to this county in 
1853; was a commissioned Union scout during a portion of the war, and in 
1865 was assigned to this post. Visited this country ofl' and on all through 
the war. Lost all his property in the Rebellion. Lives in Carthage at 
present. 

E. M. Burch, born in New York, in 1829, and came to this county in 
1853, Being a Union man he was early plundered and his house burned 
during the war. Represented this county in the legislature one term since 
the war. 
11 



162 HISTORY OF 'jasper COUNT!. 

Judge W. B. Hamilton, living near Bower's Mills, is an old and esteemed 
citizen, and has held the position of county judge. 

Stephen T. Vititow, near Sarcoxie, has lived in the county for many 
years. Was engaged in business in Sarcoxie prior to the war. After the 
war closed he held the office of county assessor one term. 

Gilbert Schooling came to this county from Indiana, with his father, in 
1837, and settled near Sarcoxie. 

Jonathan Eppright has been in Jasper county forty years. 

ISTelson Knight, born in Kentucky in 1809, came to this county in 1838. 
Was the first settler on the prairie north of Avilla, where he opened out the 
place known as the Hunter farm. He was a captain in the Federal army, 
and was in active service over two years. 

The following are the names of aged people residing in this county in 
1876: 

Mrs. Elzada Wheeler, aged seventy-five; south of Sherwood. 

Thomas Buck, White Oak, aged seventy-six, 

Abner Buck, four miles north of Sarcoxie, aged eighty-six years. 

Henry Farmer, three miles northeast of Avilla, seventy years old. 

Mary Hopkins, born in New Jersey, in 1798; moved to Osage county, 
Missouri, in 1838. Lived in Jasper county only a short time. Aged sev- 
enty-eight years. 

Mrs. Eliza McKee, aged sixty-six years, south of Sherwood. 

Stephen Bonn, Medoc, aged seventy-four. 

John Carr, Duval township, aged seventy-six. 

Mr. Gordon, of Joplin, was a soldier of 1812, eighty-five years of age. 
His wife eighty three. 

H. W. Slianks, living north of Carthage, about seventy-five years of age, 
and has resided in Jasper county a long time. 

James Horn back, aged eighty years. 

Thomas Alexander, born in Kentucky, in 1796, has lived in this county 
twenty five years. 

Banister Hickey, near Carthage, seventy-five years. 

Middleton Hickey, near Fidelity, seventy-seven years. 

A. Lansing, at Galesburg, seventy- three years old. 

C. S. Robinson, at Galesburg, about seventy-five years of age. 

David Monroe, at Galesburg, seventy years old. 

William T. Watson, Duval township, eighty-four years old. 

Jcsiah Earl, born December 22, 1814, Lycoming county, Pennsylvania, 
lived in Pennsylvania fifty years, in Illinois five years, and in Missouri 
seven years. 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 163 

Alden Besse, born February 31, 1795, in Wayne, county of Kennebec, 
state of Maine; resides in Madison township, Jasper county, Missouri. 

John jS". Hood, Samuel H. Caldwell, Milton Stephenson, B. W. W. Rich- 
ardson, Bill Pool, William Wilson, William Tingle, Moses Duncan, Widow 
Clark, Widow Griggs, Widow Fisher, Widow Fishbone, Mrs. Lncretia 
Thompson, Henry Martin, the Melugins, of Spring River; the Greshams, at 
Preston; the Prigmores, over the county; the Beasleys, Hoods, Rankins, 
and Whitlocks were, in 1876, among the older people. 

The Fountain boj'S had lived in the county with their father a number of 
years before the war, and were early burned out of house and home, and 
their father murdered by the rebels. They were in the United States ser- 
vice, and freqnentlj^ passed through the county during the Rebellion. 

History is but the unrolled scroll of prophecy, setting forth and recount- 
ing not only what is, but giving us gleams of what is soon to follow. The 
early settlers who bore the brunt through all the dark and trying times of 
the development of this county shall never lose claims to valor and noble 
deeds of charity. Whenever we read of the heroic and daring conduct of 
the hardy pioneer in procuring bread for loved ones, we can but reflect that 
his heart was more valiant than the soldiers who followed either a ITapoleon 
or a Hannibal. A few old settlers have lived to see the rough and crooked 
paths of pioneer life change to that of ease and comfort, with grandchil- 
dren around, enjoying a thousand fold of the luxuries which have resulted 
from former arduous toils. The iron-nerved pioneers stood bravely by their 
condition, through storm and calm, ever thinking of the good time com- 
ing— 

When the forest should, like a vision, 

And over the hillside and plain 
The orchard would spring into beauty. 

And the fields of golden grain. 

The simple fare of the inhabitants was alike conducive to health and 
economy. When boarding houses were first established ten cents was the 
bill for a meal. If the table was supplied with corn bread the boarders were 
satisfied. Flour was very scarce and an unknown commodity to many fam- 
ilies. But few of the young people of to-day know anything about making 
the delicious and digestible corn cake, the pride of our grandmothers' days. 

One of the peculiarities of pioneer life was a strange loneliness, which at 
first was a solitude of oppression to the young wife who had left her happy 
home in the states. Months would pass often without seeing a face, out- 
side of the family circle. The isolation of those days has wrought such ret- 
icence upon some families that generations cannot efface. The children of 



164 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

some families grew up quite rude. The girls of a few families were bash- 
ful and timid, and in their homes perfect prudes. The hoiden was un- 
known. However, the better classes brought up their children with great 
vigilance, training them in home etiquette, domestic econoui}^, and love for 
religion. When the rights of the pioneers were threatened or invaded their 
timidity, or bashful nature, vanished like a mist in a summer's sun, and 
their "muscles of iron and hearts of flint" were ready for any emergency. 
The hopsitality of the people was unbounded. During the camp-meeting 
season neighbors for miles around would gladly entertain those from a dis- 
tance. Rough and rude though the surroundings may have been, these 
people were none the less honest, sincere, hospitable, and kind in their rela- 
tions. It is true, as a rule, and of universal application, that there is a 
greater degree- of real humanity among the pioneers of any country than 
when the country becomes older and richer. Here exists a high regard for 
the sexes, and moral courage was one of the noble qualities of the woman, 
whose chastity was never questioned. If there was an absence of refinement 
that absence was more than compensated by generous hearts and truthful 
lives. In fine, the early settlers were themselves — men and women — bold, 
courageous, industrious, enterprising, and energetic, abounding with an eter- 
nal hate for cowards and shame of every kind, and above all falsehood and 
deception, cultivating a straight line of policy and integrity, which seldom 
permits them to be imposed upon, or lead a life of treachery themselves. 



CHAPTER IV.— ORGANIZATION. 

Date of OrfjanizatioH of Jasper County — Territory Early Emhraciny tvhat is now Jasper 
County — Laivs Relating to the Organization of Jasper County — First Meeting of the 
County Court — Preservation of the County Records and County Money — Organization of 
Townships and Various Changes. 

Jasper county was organized on the 29th day of January, 1841. Before 
proceeding to give the details of this organization, and formally presenting 
to the reader the actors who carried into efl:ect the will of the people, it will 
be well to consider the county system and its operations in general. No 
person, till he has investigated the subject, is aware of the unity which per- 
vades the plan or the principles of law and government involved. Jasper 
county is no exception to the rule, and what applies to county organization 
throughout the world, is pertinent more or less to one whose history we 
trace on these pages. Just as a student of law can better understand the 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 165 

statutes and codes of the youthful states of the American Union by a care- 
ful study of the ancient common law of Enofland and the civil law of Rome, 
so he can with greater pleasure and profit follow the practical workings of 
county affalri?, having first obtained a clear idea of what such an organiza- 
tion has been and is still considered to be. 

Counties are quasi corporations. The Latin word quasi signifies as if, 
or almost. A county, then, is almost a corporation, or has certain features 
of a corporation. A corporation, in the acceptance of the term, is a body 
formed and authorized by law to act as a single person, and endowed with per- 
petual succession, as an expressly chartered city government, a bank, or rail- 
road company. Counties, townships, parishes, school districts, and some 
other political divisions of a county, are ranked as quasi c )rporations. In 
Great Britain and most of her colonies, a county is a subdivision of territory 
corresponding to a province of Prussia, or a department of France. In the 
American Union, except in Louisiana, which is divided into parishes, 
counties are divisions next in size and importance to states. This division 
in England is synonymous with the shire, but not so in Ireland. This 
division is said to have originated in Eng'and, under the origin of the an- 
cient Saxon kings, though popularly attributed to Alfred the Great. 

The United States for local government and other purposes are divided 
into counties, townships, school-districts, and municipal corporations. 
In all the counties in the several states and territories, including the 
parishes of Louisiana, there are officers who superintend the financial 
affairs, a court of inferior jurisdiction, and, at stated times, the circuit court 
or the supreme court. As the state is subordinate to, and a part of, the fed- 
eral government, so the county is a part of the state, but possessing only 
such rights as are delegated to it by the statutory enactments. The people in 
each local division have entire control over the subjects in which they only 
are interested; and the whole works together like an extensive system ot 
machinery, wheel fitted to wheel. 

There is very little opportunity for the exercise of arbitrary power from 
the lowest to the highest. Executive power may be changed by election, 
or impeachment, if the officers are recreant to duty, or do not give satis- 
faction, and there are constitutional provisions for making improvements if 
the people think they should be made. Thus our country is secured asainst 
serious and protracted discontents for which there is no remedial law, as in 
some countries where the internal disturbances interrupt progress and de- 
stroy the resources of the nation. The value of any office, from that of a 
school director to county judge, governor, or president, is determined by 
the relation it bears to the public welfare; and when in the opinion of the 



166 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

people it ceases to be useful there are means of laying it aside according to 
law. This is true democracy. 

All southwest Missouri was formerly included in Crawford county, the 
county seat of which was Little Piney on the Gasconade. Greene county 
was subsequently formed, and originally extended from the Arkansas line 
on the south to the Osage River on the north, and from the line of Kansas 
and the Indian Territory on the west two-thirds of the way eastward across 
the state. Barry county was afterwards organized comprising the territory 
included in the present counties of Barry, Lawrence, Dade, Barton, Jasper, 
Newton, and McDonald. The county seat was at Mount Pleasant, near the 
present site of Pierce City. The counties of Barry, Dade, Jasper, and JSTew- 
ton were then erected; Lawrence was afterwards formed from parts of Barry 
and Dade; Jasper gave the northern part of her territory to form the county 
of Barton, and likewise McDonald was taken from the southern part of 
Newton, It was little expected that Jasper, one of the latest subdivisions 
of the immense region of country formerly comprised in "Old Crawford," 
should grow to surpass not only her parent in wealth, population, and im- 
portance, but rank first among her sister counties of the southwest. 

The first act of the legislature in reference to the government of the ter- 
ritory embraced at present in Jasper county, making provision for its func- 
tions as a part of Crawford county, bears date of January, 1831, and is as 
follows: 

" All that territory lying souLh and west of Crawford county, which is not 
included in the limits of any count}^ shall be attached to the said Crawford 
county for all civil and military purposes, until otherwise provided by law." 

On January 2d, 1833, the county of Greene embraced what is now Jasper, 
and the law was as follows: 

"All that part of territory lying south of the township line between 
townships thirty-four and thirty-five, extending in a direct line due west 
from the point where the said township line crosses the main Niaugua 
River to the western boundary of the state, and south and west of the county 
of Crawford, which is not included in the limits of any county, and which 
was attached to the said county of Crawford by joint resolution of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of the State of Missouri, approved on the eighteenth day of 
January, eighteen hundred and thirty, be and the same is hereby organized 
into a separate and distinct county, to be called and known by the name of 
Greene ounty, in honor of Nathaniel Greene of the Revolution. January 
■«, 1833." 

The first law relating to Jasper county was approved January 29, 1841, 
and reads as follows: " All that territory included within the following de- 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 167 

scribed limits, to-wit: Beginnins: at tlie southwest corner of section 1, in 
township 27, of range 29; thence running parallel with the line dividing 
townships 27 and 28, westward to the western boundary of the state; thence 
north on the line of the state to the line dividing townships 33 and 34; 
thence east on said line to the northwest corner of section 1, in township 
33, of range 29; thence south to the place of beginning, is hereby created a 
separate and distinct county, to be called and known by the name of Jas- 
per county, John Plummer, George Barker, and Abel Landers, all of the 
county of Newton, are hereby appointed commissioners to select the per- 
manent seat of justice for said county. Said commissioners shall make their 
location as near the center of the inhabitable part of said county as practi- 
cable, without making a survey, due regard being had to the situation. The 
circuit and county courts of said county shall be held at the dwelling-house 
of George Hornback, in said county, until the permanent seat of justice is 
established, or the county court shall otherwise direct. Approved January 
29, 1841." 

In 1845, the boundaries of Jasper county were changed and made to in- 
clude what is now Jasper, also Barton, and veads as follows: " Beginning at 
the southwest corner of section 1, in township 27, of range 29; thence west 
(with the subdivisional lines) to the western boundary line of this state; 
thence north on the state line to the line dividing townships 33 and 34; 
east on said line to the northwest corner of section 1, of township 33, of 
range 29; thence south (with the subdivisional lines) to the place of begin- 
ning." 

The first meeting of Jasper county court, preparatory to the organizing term 
was held February 25, a. d. 1841, and the following is the record: At a meet- 
ing of the justices of the county court of Jasper county, in the State of Mis- 
souri, (Present: Jeremiah Cravens, Esq., Samuel M. Grosbj'^, Esq., and 
Samuel B. Bright, Esq., who were appointed and commissioned by his Ex- 
cellency the Governor as justices aforesaid.) on Thursday the 25th day of 
February, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and forty-one, and of 
this state the twenty-first, at the house of George Hornback, Esq., on Spring 
River, it being the place designated by law for holding the courts of said 
county, until there shall be a permanent seat of justice located, Elwood B. 
James was appointed clerk of said county court of Jasper county, who 
was sworn into office, gave bond to the State of Missouri for the faithful 
discharge of the duties of his office, for five thousand dollars, with Dubart 

Murphy, Jno. F. Mills, and E. V , as his securities, which bond was 

approved of by said court. Also, present: John P. Osborn, sheriff of said 
ounty of Jasper. On motion it was ordered that the sheriff give public 



168 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

notice that the county court of Jasper county meet on Monday the 8th day 
of March next, at the house of George Hornback, Esq., on Spring River, 
the place designated by law for holding the courts of said county of Jasper, 
until the permanent seat of justice shall be located. Oti motion it was 
ordered that the court do now adjourn to meet on the 8th day of March, 
next. Samuel M. Cooly, Elwood B. James, Jeremiah Craven, S. B. Bright, 
justices of Jasper county court. 

The county was fortunate during the late war in having her records pre- 
served intact, though her court-house was burned, and nearly every other 
prominent building in the county. When the rebels left her in 1861, Judge 
John Chenualt ordered the clerk, Mr. Stanfield Ross, to take the records into 
the Confederate lines for safe-keeping. He first took them down to Cow 
Skin, in McDonald county, and afterwards brought them back and put 
them in the vault of the jail at Neosho. Judge Onstott learned that they 
were at Neosho, and was apprehensive that they might be destroyed. He 
one day saw Mr. JMorris C. Hood, an old resident of Carthage, and a man 
of energy and character, and told him where the records were and that the 
rebels were cutting out the blank pages to print their shinplasters on, and 
that he had better get some Federal soldiers and get the records and take 
care of them. Mr. Hood procured an escort and went after the records, 
and took them to Fort Scott, Kansas, where they were safely kept during 
the war, and on the return of peace Mr. Hood got a wagon and brought 
them back without the loss of one. The loose papers that were left in the 
court-house when Mr. Chenault took the records out were scattered by the 
soldiers all over town. A sixty-eight thousand dollar note was found on 
the public square by a citizen, which was returned to the proper authori- 
ties. 

At the outbreak of the war there was a small sum of money in the county 
treasury, and for a wonder it was not picked up. After the battle of Car- 
thage, while Jackson's troops occupied the country, Archibald McCoy, the 
treasurer, told Judge John Onstott, who was one of his bondsmen, that the 
rebels were threatening to take the deposits from him, and that the securi- 
ties had better get them and hide them. Judge Onstott and five others 
went to the treasurer and got the money, and receipted for it, upon the un- 
derstanding that as fast as it would be needed to pay outstanding warrants 
it would be refunded. From August to October the treasurer drew from Mr. 
Scott, one of the bondsmen, about two hundred dollars. Scott left the 
county in October and turned the deposits over to Judge Onstott. There 
was about one thousand and fifty-five dollars in gold coin, and two hundred 
dollars in Missouri paper. The judge told us he huried the gold under a 



HISTORY OK JASPER COUNTY. 169 

cherry tree near his house, and Mrs. Onstott carried the paper money. The 
ofold was not disturbed, but tlie Indians came and robbed Judge Onstott's 
house and took the two hundred dollars paper money that Mrs. Onstott 
carried. Judge Onstott was not at home when this occurred, and thus es- 
caped being captured, as many others were, who were afterwards murdered. 
When he returned the money to the county court they would not allow him 
anything for keeping it, but he had to sell his last team to replace the two 
hundred dollars. 

The Christie survey, embracing all the county lying east of the western 
line of range thirty (three miles east of Carthage), was completed in the 
year 1836. The portion lying west of that line was not surveyed until 1844. 
Mauy old citizens still remember seeing the surveying parties at work, and 
a few are still living who assisted in carrying the chains. 

There is an old saying in circulation that when Carthage was being sur- 
veyed John Pennington came along and talked awhile with the party, and 
before leaving them he pulled up one of their corner stakes and poured some 
whisky into the hole from a bottle he carried with him, at the same time 
remarking "Now it will stick." The orchard in what is now known as 
Holman's and Bulgen's Addition to Carthage was set out in 1847. The or- 
chard on the Wilbur place was set out a year or so earlier by Hannibal 
James. 

North Fork Townshi]). — In the records of Jasper count}' court organ- 
izing term, March 8, a. d. 1841, appears the following order: On motion 
it is ordered that all that territory situated north of the North Fork and the 
Dry Fork of Spring River, including the settlements on said streams within 
the limits of Jasper county is hereby declared a separate and distinct town- 
ship for civil, judicial, and military purposes, which shall bekno"wn and desig- 
nated by the name of North Fork township. The elections for said town- 
ship shall be held at the home of John Mann, on the north fork of Spring 
River in said township, and the following persons are hereby appointed 
judges of the election for said North Fork township; viz., Allen Petty, 
Enoch Estep, and Joseph Smith, Esquires. 

/Spring River Township. — It is ordered that all the territory situated 
within the following described territory situated within the following lira- 
its is hereby declared a separate and distinct township for civil, judicial, and 
military purposes, which shall be known and designated by the name of 
Spring River township, and bounded as follows; viz., beginning on the line 
dividing the counties of Jasper and Dade at the intersection of the south- 
ern line of North Fork township; thence west with said township line to 
the center of Jasper county (east and west); thence due south to the line 



l'?0 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

dividing the counties of Jasper and Newton; and thence due east to the 
southeastern corner of Jasper count}', and from thence to tlie beginning. 
The election for said township shall be held at the house of Jesse Danow on 
Spring River, and the following persons are hereby appointed judges of the 
elections for said Spring River township; viz., Samuel P. Benny, Jesse Da- 
now, and Samuel Mulgin, Esquires. 

Center Ci'eek Township. — It is ordered^ that all that territory situated 
within the following described limits is hereby declared a separate and dis- 
tinct township for civil, judicial, and military purposes, which shall be 
known and designated by the name of Center Creek township, and bounded 
as follows; viz., beginning at the northwestern corner of Spring River town- 
ship, on the southern line of North Fork township; thence west along the 
southern line of said North Fork township to the western boundary of the 
state; thence south along the western boundary of the state to the north- 
western corner of Newton county; thence along the line dividing Newton 
and Jasper counties to the intersection of the western line at Spring River 
townsnip; thence due north along the western boundary line of Spring 
River township. The elections for said township shall be held at the house 
of Andrew Kerr, Esq., on Center Creek, and the following persons are 
hereby appointed judges of the elections for Center Creek township; viz., 
Thacker Vivion, Clisby Roberson, and James G. Ennis, Esquires. August 
23, A. D. 1847, ordered by the court that the elections for Center Creek 
township shall hereafter be held at the store of Andrew M. McKee in said 
Center Creek township. 

Marion Township. — Jasper county court record, November 3, a. d. 
1841: It is ordei'ed, ihdii k\\ that territory situated within the following 
described limits, which is stricken oif from the townships of Spring River 
and Center Creek, is hereby declared a separate and distinct township for 
civil, judicial, and military purposes, which shall be known and designated 
by the name of Marion township, and bounded as follows; viz., beginning 
on the line two miles east of the range line dividing ranges number thirty 
and thirty-one, and on the line dividing the townships of North Fork and 
Spring River; thence running west on said line to the intersection of the 
line dividing Center Creek and Spring River townships; thence continuing 
west along the line dividing North Fork and Center Creek townships to a 
point on said line due north of Abner Gresham's; thence south, leaving said 
Gresham's on the west, continuing south to Netting's Point, leaving said 
point on the west, continuing south to James G. Ennis's, Esq., leaving said 
Ennis on the east of said line, continuing south to James Sims's; thence 
south, leaving said Sims on the west of said line, to the county line divid- 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 171 

ing the counties of Jasper and Newton; thence along the said line dividing 
the said counties of Jasper and Newton to a point two miles east of the 
range line dividing ranges thirty and thirty-one; thence north by the sec- 
tional divisions to the beginning. The elections for said Marion township 
shall be held at the place of holding the circuit and county courts in said 
township. The following persons are hereby appointed judges of the elec- 
tions for said Marion township; viz., William S. McGinnis, John Pennino-. 
ton, and Marmaduke Osborn, Esq'rs. 

Sarcoxie TownsJiip. — Ordered^ by the court, November 25, 1847: That 
the township line dividing Spring River and Marion townships be and it is 
hereby extended and continued due south to the county line dividing New- 
ton and Jasper counties, and the eastern line of said Spring River township 
is hereby extended to the northeastern corner of Newton county, and that 
said Spring River township shall hereafter be known and designated by the 
name of Sarcoxie township, and that the elections for said township shall 
hereafter be held at the store-house belonging to Elwood B. James and 
James H. McPhalridge in the town of Sarcoxie, in said Sarcoxie township, 
and that Frederick E. Nichols, Jesse Danow, and Alexander M. Dawson 
be and they are hereby appointed judges of elections for said Sarcoxie 
township. 

Jasper Township. — Jasper county court record, August 23, a. d. 1847: 
Ordered, by the court, that all the territory within the following described 
limits, to be stricken off from the townships of Center Creek and North 
Fork, is hereby declared a separate and distinct municipal township for civil 
and judicial purposes, and shall be known and designated by the name of 
Jasper township, commencing at a point on the western boundary line of 
this state, at a point due west of a farm formerly owned by Newmon Clan- 
ton, now occupied, or in the possession of M. Manor; thence due east to 
said M. Manor's, leaving M. Manor in Jasper township, continuing east 
until said line strikes the divide between Center Creek and Spring River, 
to the western boundary line of Marion township; thence north along said 
line to John Lemmons's, thence on a straight line in a northern direction 
to William M, Osborn's, so as to leave the residence of William M. Osborn 
in Jasper township; and thence due north to the northern line of Jasper 
county, thence west along said line to the western boundary of the state; 
thence south along the western boundary line of the state to the place of 
beginning; and that the elections for said township shall be held at the place 
on Spring River owned by George Douglas, more familiarly known as the 
Clemmens place. November 23, 1847, the boundaries wen again changed. 



172 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY, 

Robinson ToionsJiij). — Jasper county conrt, August 23, 1847, lias the 
following order: Ordered, That all the territory described within the fol- 
lowing described limits to be stricken off from the township of Marion is 
hereby declared a separate and distinct municipal township, which shall be 
known and designated by the name of Robinson towmship, bounded as fol- 
lows: commencing on the western line of said Marion township, at the cen- 
ter of the divide between Center Creek and Spring River; thence, in an 
easterly direction, along the center of the divide aforesaid to the eastern line 
of said Marion township; thence south along the western line of Sarcoxie 
township to the northern line of Newton county; thence along the north- 
ern line of Newton county to the southeastern corner of Center Creek 
township; thence north to the place of beginning; and that the elections 
for said Robinson township shall be lield at the dwelling-house of Abraham 
Onstott, in said township, and that Michael B. Hickey, Washington Robin- 
son, and Thomas J. Mills are hereby appointed judges of the elections for 
Robinson township. 

Robinson township was changed to Jackson township March 29, a. d. 
1848. 

McDonald Township. — Jasper county court, July 18, a. d. 1854, has 
the following: Ordered hy the court. That all that portion of Sarcoxie 
township that is situated on the north side of Spring River be, and the 
same is hereby declared a separate and distinct municipal township for 
civil, judicial, and military purposes, which shall be known and designated 
by the name of McDonald township, and that the elections for said town- 
ship shall be held at the dwelling-house of Lilburn Q. Arthiers, in said 
township, and that Moses G. Meador, Patrick Raney, and Lilburn Q. Ar- 
thiers be, and they are hereby appointed judges of the elections for said 
township. May 29, 1860, elections in this township were ordered held at 
the store-house of Thomas A. Cotter & Co., in the town of Avilla. 

Neioton Township. — From Jasper county court record, March 14, a. d. 
1842: It is orderded, That all that territory situated within the follow- 
ing described limits is hereby declared a separate and distinct township, for 
civil, judicial, and military purposes, which shall be known and designated 
by the name of Newton township; to-wit. Commencing at the mouth of 
Petty's Creek, where the same empties into the north fork of Spring River, 
thence due north to the northern line of Jasper county; thence east, along 
the said line to the northeastern corner of Jasper county; thence south, 
along the eastern line of Jasper county to a point on the eastern line, so as 
to include the head timbers of North Fork and settlements; thence west- 
ward to the beginning. The elections for said township shall be held at 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 173 

the bouse of John Mellhollen, in said township. Allen Petty, Clarke P, 
Lavalley, and Joseph Smith are hereby appointed judges of the elections of 
said Newton township. 

Under date of July 18, 1854, the court ordered that the elections for 
Newton township shonld be held at the dwelling-house of Branch T. Mor- 
gan, in said township, and that T. J. Lindley, John Tacket, and William 
Walker be appointed judges of elections for said township. 

Lamar township was organized July 18, 1854. During the May term 
of 1868 the limits of many of the townships were changed. 



CHAPTER Y.— RAILROADS. 

Introduction — First Railroad Project — Spring River Railroad — Order for Election to Vote 
Tax — The Memphis, Carthage (& 'Northivestern Railroad — The Frisco and its Branches 
— The Missouri Pacific — K. C, Ft. S. d: Gulf Railroad — Bonded Railroad Indebted- 
ness. 

In this age of gj-eat, unprecedented progress and advancement in all that 
pertains to the elevation and enlightenment of mankind, nothing in all the 
domains of science and art has been more effective in bringing about these 
results than the invention of railroads. The imagination of men, stimu- 
lated by the most gorgeous scenes of beauty and grandeur, could never have 
conceived the marvelous and unparalleled changes that have been wrought 
in this country by the introduction of railroads. Men living in the present 
generation can distinctly remember when the iron horse first breatiied from 
bis nostrils the dark, wavy columns of smoke that hailed his appearance in 
the world. Nothing; in all the realms of truth or fiction has ever before 
surpassed the rapid strides the world has made in every department of lit- 
erature, in every field of art, and in all the ramifications of science, since 
the year 1830, when steam locomotion, for the first time in the history of 
the world, was made a veritable fact. It need not be claimed that this de- 
gree of advancement is due alone to the great advantages brought on by 
railroads, but it may be shown that they have contributed to these results 
more than any other factor; nay, perhaps more than all other factors that 
make up the civilization, refinement, and prosperity of the present day. 
All nations have become neighbors. The wealthy merchant of New York 
can spend his summer vacations with his reiativ-es or friends on the distant 
shores of the Pacific, surrounded by all the beauties and delicacies of a 



174 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

tropical clime. The Northern citizen may spend the day with his Southern 
neighbor, and return to his home in the same length of time. All civilized 
nations are brought into close connection with one another in the various re- 
lations of business and pleasure. Time is almost annihilated, and space 
made as naught, by the grand and mighty railroad and the attendant lumi- 
nary, or satellite, the telegraph. 

"Within the last few years the telephone has added new and cheaper 
means of communication of thought, especially in cities. By these rapid 
means of inter communication and exchange of products all the learning, 
discoveries, and inventions of the world are brought together, as one vast 
motive power to lift up the world and make it what it is. It has been by 
the united effort of mankind, brought on by our grand system of railroads 
and telegraphs, that such an impetus has been given to every department 
of human activity, destined, perhaps, to continue to elevate and ennoble the 
human race for coming ages, until they shall have risen to a height so grand, 
so lofty, and so transcendent in all its aspects, as would cast in the dark 
shades of barbarism the boasted civilization of to-day. As early as 1G02 
railways are mentioned in history, and are thus described: "The manner 
of the carriage is by laying rails of timber from the colliery to the river, ex- 
actly straight and parallel; and bulky carts are made witl> four rollers fitting 
those rails, whereby the carriage is so easy that one horse will draw down 
four or five caldron of coal, and is an immense benefit to the coal mer- 
chants." The first iron railway was laid down near Sheffield, England, by 
John Ourr, in 1776, but was destroyed by the colliers. In 1786 considera- 
ble railway was laid at Colebrook Dale, England; however the railway sys- 
tem was not sanctioned till 1801. Up to this time the cars were drawn by 
horses. In 1802 a patent was applied for and granted by the government 
for high pressure locomotive engines to Trevrethick and Vivian. In 1813 
William Hedley built the first traveling engine or substitute for animal 
power. It was not till George Stephenson, in 1814, constructed his locomo- 
tive that speed amounted to much, and that was only six miles per hour, 
but by 1829 the speed was accelerated to twenty-five and thirty -five miles 
per hour, and by 1830 received attention in the CJnited States of America. 
It may be truly said that George Stephenson, an ingenious engineer, who 
invented the locomotive, was one of the greatest benefactors of the human 
race. His experiments covered several years, beginning with 1814. The first 
railroad in the United States, built in 1826, was used in cari-ying granite 
at Qnincy, Massachusetts; the first locomotive was imported in 1829. 
The following year a locomotive, the first successful one ever constructed 
in this country, was produced at Baltimore, and was used for the iranspor- 



HISTORY OJ< JASPER COUNTY. 175 

tation of passengers on what is now the Baltimore & Ohio Eailroad. The 
same jear the Mohawk & Hudson Railroad was begun between Albany 
and Schenectady, and in 1832 a load was drawn over it at the rate of thirty 
miles an hour. From this time railroads multiplied rapidly; and when the 
revulsion of 1837 occurred, more miles of railroad were in operation in the 
United States than in any other country. Since then the improvements 
have been quite rapid, and the simple engine and plain carriage originally 
used do not look much like the powerful locomotives and costly cushioned 
and elegantly furnished coaches of the present day. 

The first railroad project in Jasper county was in 1869. The Tebo & 
Neosho Railroad Company, asked the count}' to subscribe stock in behalf of 
their road. Railroad meetings were held and considerable interest shown, and 
in March, 1871, the county court agreed to take $250,000 stock in said Toad 
upon the condition that the road be completed through the county by Jnlv, 
1872. The road was not built and the bonds were not issued. The first 
railroad project for which bonds were issued in this county was known as 
the Spring River Railroad Company. As before stated the county was 
wanting a railroad, consequently much enthusiasm was manifested and in 
the records of the county court appear the following order: 

"Jasper County Court, Special Term 1870, Friday, April 8, 1870: 

"Now, this day comes G. A. Cassil and presents to the court a petition, 
signed by thirty-one tax-payers and residents of Marion township, Jasper 
county, Missouri, setting forth their desire as a township to subscribe 
$100,000 to the capital stock of the Spring River Railroad Company, to aid 
in the construction of a railroad proposing to be built through said town- 
ship and upon the terms and conditions set forth in the following order, and 
the whole being seen, heard, and fully understood by the court, it is there- 
fore ordered by the court of Jasper county, Missouri : That a special elec- 
tion be held at the usual place of voting in Marion township, Jasper county, 
Missouri, on Tuesday the tenth day of May next, for the purpose of obtain- 
ing the sense of the qualified voters of said township, on the following pro- 
position: For the county court of said county, for and on behalf of said 
township, to subscribe to the capital stock of Spring River Railroad Com- 
pany the sum of $100,000, to be paid for in the bonds of said township, is- 
sued by said court on behalf of said township, in such sums as the county 
court may see proper, payable twenty years from date of delivery, and re- 
deemable any time after five years from the delivery of the bonds, at the 
option of said township, with seven per cent semi-annual interest thereon 
per annum, provided, that no amount whatsoever of said bonds shall be 
delivered until the said road shall be in operation, and cars running regularly 



176 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

int ) Carthage, into a freight and passenger depot, to be erected and main- 
tained not more than one-half mile from where the court-house in Carthage 
no'v stands, from some other railroad on which the cars run regularly; at 
which time there shall be delivered to such company the said sum of 
$100,000 of said bonds, which shall be received by said company in full 
payment for said $100,000 of the stock of said company; and provided 
further, that if said railroad shall not be completed to the town of Carthage 
from such other railroad as herein before provided, within two years from 
the day of this election, then this proposition shall be void and no bonds 
shall be issued. The ballots used at said election by voters, shall be for 
those in favor of said proposition. ' For Railroad. Yes.' For those op- 
posed to such proposition, ' Railroad. No.' And the sheriff of Jasper 
county shall give public notice of such election by advertistnent in the 
Carthage Iia7iner i'or at \ea.si twenty days, and by at least twenty liaud-bills, 
put up in twenty different places in said township. S. B, La Force, clerk; 
Clinton E. Spencer, sheriff." 

The result of the election was as follows: Full number of votes polled 619; 
for the proposition 524; against the J^roposition 95; 191 favorable votes were 
required to overbalance the 95 votes against it; the proposition then had 
333 more votes than was necessary to carry it. We clip the following from 
the Carthage Banner: " The Spring River Railroad Company is composed 
of 94 stockholders, 31 of whom live in Lawrence county and the remaining 
63 live in Marion township. Our citizens subscribed $31,000 and paid in 
cash $1,550 to aid in a railroad, wliich shows some little earnestness in the 
matter. The directory are not the company, they are only the servants of 
the company." The road was not built and the bonds were burned. 

Memphis, Carthage cfe Northwestern. — This was the first road built in the 
county. The principal projectors of this road and leading officers were L. 
P. Cunningham, president; C P. Cunningham, treasurer; and E. H. 
Brown, secretary. They proposed to build a road through the county en- 
tering it at the southeastern corner, and running northwest through Sar- 
coxie township to Carthage, thence westward through Marion and Mineral 
townships, if the county would subscribe a certain amount of capital stock 
in favor of the said townships, and to issue the bonds of said townships re- 
spectively, bearing interest at the rate of eight per cent per annum, interest 
payable semi-annually, with principal and interest payable in New York 
City, said bonds to be due and payable in twenty years. In the year 1871 
Marion township subscribed fifty thousand dollars, Sarcoxie township forty 
thousand dollars, and Mineral township thirty thousand dollars. The road 
was completed to Carthage on the 4th day of July, 1872. It was then ex- 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 177 

tended westward a short distance into Kansas, and in January, 1875, was 
sold out under a foreclosure of mortgage and purchased by parties in New 
York who held tlie purchase bonds. It was then reorganized under the 
name of the Missouri & Western Railroad Company, with the following 
leading officers: Joseph Seligman, president; Edward Livingston, secretary 
and treasurer. This company completed it to Oswego, Kansas, in 1876, and 
sold it to the St. Louis & San Francisco R. R. Co. in 1879. By this com- 
pany it was extended to Wichita, Kansas, in 1880, and is now a part of the 
main line. The leading officers at present are as follows: Edward F. Wins- 
low, president; C. W. Rogers, first vice-president and general manager; 
James D. Fish, second vice-president; T. W. Lillie, secretary and treasurer; 
A. Douglass, auditor; D. Wishart, general passenger agent; CI. W. Cale, 
general freight agent; D. H. Nichols, master of transportation. 

The stock is owned by Jay Gould, C. P. Huntington, Seligmans, and 
Macys of New York, with some little Boston stock. The road is sup- 
posed to be worth about $25,000,000. This road has two branches in this 
county, Joplin Branch and Girard Branch. The Joplin Branch connects 
Oronogo, Missouri, and Galena, Kansas. This branch road is only twenty 
miles long, and was completed from Joplin to Oronogo a few years 
ago. The Girard Branch connects Joplin and Girard, Kansas. It was built 
b}' the Joplin R. R. Co., of which Moffett and Sargent were the main 
stockholders, in the year 1876, and was sold to the St. Louis & S. F. R. R. 
Co. in 1879 for two hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars. This branch 
contains thirty-seven miles of road. 

Many other points concerning the changes in the companies connected 
with these roads, and in the different transfers, might here be spoken of, but 
the limited space forbids, so we pass to another road of great importance to 
Jasper county; viz., the Missouri Pacific. This is a branch of the main 
line leaving it at Pleasant Hill, Cass county, Missouri, and extends south- 
ward to Joplin. This branch was chartered as the Lexington & Southern, 
but as it belongs to the Missouri Pacific it usually bears that name. There 
were no bonds voted on this road ; the citizens of the county gave the right 
of way and subscribed fifteen thousand dollars, a cash donation, as an in- 
ducement to secure the road in this county. It was extended into this 
county in 1881. The leading officers are as follows: Jay Gould, president; 
R. S. Hayes, first vice-president; A. L. Hopkins, second vice-president; H. 
M. Hoxie, third vice-president; A. H Calef, secretary and treasurer; A. A. 
Talraage, general manager; F. Chandler, general passenger agent; George 
Olds, general freight agent; C. G. Warner, auditor; D. S. H. Smith, local 
12 



178 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

treasurer; T. J. Portis, general attorney. This road now runs four passen- 
ger trains and four freight trains daily, and is apparently doing a good 
business. 

Kansas City, Fort Scott <& Gulf R. R. — This road enters the county 
about five miles west of Joplin. It passes through Joplin and thence to 
"Webb City. It was built to Joplin in 1880 and finished to Webb City in 
1882. It is owned almost entirely by Boston capitalists. The leading offi- 
cers are as follows: H. H. Hunnewell, president; C. Merrin, secretary and 
treasurer; George H. Nettleton, general manager; L. W. Towne, superin- 
tendent; J. S. Ford, auditor; J. E. Lockwood, general passenger agent; M. 
L. Sargent, general freight agent. General office at Kansas City, Missouri. 
It is the supposition and earnest desire of many that this road w^ill be ex- 
tended farther eastward, and at no very distant day it will be completed 
through our countr3\ The bonded railroad indebtedness of Jasper county 
is $120,000, being the amount of the bonds originally subscribed to the St. 
Louis & San Francisco Railroad Company. Up to the present time no tax 
has been levied to pay the interest on these bonds, and none has been paid 
except when judgment from the United States Supreme Court has been 
obtained against them. There has been much litigation concerning this 
point, and the Supreme Court of this state and the Supreme Court of the 
United States do not agree as to the legality of the same. 



CHAPTER YL— COURTS AND BAR. 

BY EDWARD C. CROW. 

Poise the cause in Justice's equal scales, 

Whose beam stands sure, whose rightful cause prevails. 

— Shakespeare. 

Law is the supreme authority, and in this country throws around each 
and all alike its garb of protection and safety. It guards with equal watch- 
fulness the home of the millionaire and that of the humblest workingraao, 
and gives to each the same rights of power and property. The best system 
of laws is that which gives to man the most rights and privileges. The 
more rights the laws give individuals, then the more those laws should be 
respected and the better enforced. The lawyer's duty is to see that all the 
legal and equitable rights of his client are protected and enforced. This be- 
ing the fact, then the more rights of person and property the law vouchsafes, 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 179 

the more important become the lawyer and his duties. Therefore, I say, 
that here in the United States, where man has more freedom than in any 
land where the sun shines, the professional duties of the lawyer are more 
important and greater than in any other country, and hence the qualifica- 
tions of the American lawyer should be greater, and his attainments of le- 
gal as well as of general knowledge should be higher than that of lawyers 
of other lands. The laws of any people will indicate truly their civiliza- 
tion, and as the lawyers to a great extent mould and form the laws they, 
then, themselves well represent the civilization of their age and country. 

The true lawyer is ever abreast of the thought of his time, and when en- 
gaged in active practice there is no man who pays more incessant atten- 
tion to his business than a good lawyer. To be able to meet every oppo- 
nent on his own ground is an art all lawyers should try to learn. It is an 
art that has been and can be acquired and used to advantage. It has been 
said by one well known as an able and learned lawyer, that the bar of the 
"West is the ablest and strongest bar in the world, and I say that no blush 
of shame need mantle a Missourian's brow for the position Missouri's bar 
does and will hold among the bar, not only of the West, but also of the East. 
It takes years and years of labor to make a good lawyer, as the older mem- 
bers of the bar well know. And the younger ones can see that work will 
win by looking at England's greatest chancellor, Lord Eldon, who was the 
son of a Newcastle coal dealer, and his contemporary, Erskine, who passed 
from a mere subsistence on "cow-heel and tripe" to the highest round in 
the profession, where he stands without an equal in ancient or modern times 
as an advocate. 

The Jasper county bar is known at home and abroad as one that ranks 
above the average Missouri county bar in legal attainments, and when this 
is said the Jasper county bar are thereby honored. Having a wise system 
of laws, as we have, there must be, in order that they may be enforced, ca- 
pable and learned courts, and of course, qualified judges. And the courts 
of our state, both lower and appellate, stand well in comparison with the cor- 
responding courts of surrounding states. There must be a combination of 
many worthy qualities to form the perfect judicial character. Lord Bacon, 
speaking of judges and the judicial character, says: " Patience and gravity 
of hearing is an essential part of justice, and an over-speaking judge is no 
well tuned cymbal. Judges ought to be more learned than witty, more 
reverend than plausible, and more advised than confident." When we look 
back down the ages of the past and see their judicial systems and tribunals, 
trace their workings and effects on the people of the times, and when 
we follow the history of the nation from which we sprang and pursue the 



180 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

course of their judicial system and see it growing more and more like what 
it should be, and finally see parts and portions of it come across the rolling 
ocean's waves, and see it shaped to suit the ideas of a republican govern- 
ment, and then glance at the beautiful structure, complete and perfect in its 
parts, yet capable of adjusting itself to the varying needs of the progressive 
people it controls, we cannot help but praise and admire our courts and 
laws. 

The Circuit Court. — The circuit court of Jasper county was first con- 
vened by Judge (3harles S. Yancey, who was appointed judge of the then 
thirteenth judicial circuit by Governor Thomas Reynolds on February 8, 
1841. Court convened February 25, 1841, at the house of George Horn" 
back, about two and one-half miles from the city of Carthage, down Spring 
River. The first term of the circuit court was held in Carthage in 1842. Judge 
Yancey was judge of this court up to 1856. He was succeeded by 
W. C. Price, who went upon the bench November 1, 1856, and served until 
May, 1857, when John R. Chenault became judge of the circuit court. 
Judge Chenault served until 1861, and on the 11th day of May, 1861, the 
circuit court of Jasper county was adjourned, and there was no more court 
held here until the storm of war had ceased and peace had brought the na- 
tion joy. On the 10th day of October, 1865, amid the autumn-tinted for- 
ests that surrounded the brick school-house situated fourteen miles eastward 
from Carthage, and near by the clear, murmuring waters of Spring River, 
Judge John C. Price again convened the circuit court of Jasper county. 
On the second Monday of April, 1866, court was again convened at the 
same place. September 24, 1866, circuit court convened in Carthage for 
the first time after the war. 

In 1877 the legislature passed an act establishing a circuit court at Joplin 
each year in June and December, and two at Carthage, in September and 
March. The circuit clerk has a deputj' at Joplin and keeps an ofiice there. 
Price was succeeded in 1870 by Hendricks; he died in November, 1874, 
and Joseph Craven, who, at the election in that year, had been elected judge, 
was appointed to servo until January 1, 1875, when the term for which he 
had been elected commenced, and he served until 1880, and was succeeded 
by M. G. McGregor, who is the present judge. The circuit is now composed 
of the counties of Newton, Lawrence, McDonald, and Jasper. 

Court of Common Pleas. — The Jasper county court of common pleas 
was established by act of the legislature passed on the 4th day of March, 
1869. This court, called the Jasper county court of common pleas, had 
the following jurisdiction: First, exclusive jurisdiction of the probate 
business of the county; second, exclusive appellate jurisdiction in all cases, 



HISTORY OF JASPEK COUNTY. 181 

civil or criminal (except in matters of recognizance for felonies, or other of- 
fenses made indictable by law), tried before justices of tlie peace, mayors of 
incorporated towns and cities, and all courts of inferior jurisdiction; third, 
original concurrent jurisdiction with justices of the peace wherein the 
amount claimed exceeds twenty dollars, exclusive of interest, and does not 
exceed one hundred dollars; exclusive original jurisdiction in cases of bonds, 
bills, and notes or other written evidences of debt where the amount ex- 
ceeds one hundred dollars and does not exceed live hundred dollars; fourth, 
concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit court where the amount exceeds 
three hundred dollars and does not exceed one thousand dollars, and in all 
actions for the partition of real estate and the assignment of dower; fifth, 
original jurisdiction in all cases of misdemeanor triable upon information 
and not cognizable in justices' courts. O. H. Picher was appointed judge, 
and in 1870 he was elected for a term of four years. In 18T3 he resigned, 
and E. O, Brown was appointed to fill the vacancy, and in 1874 he was 
elected judge of the court of common pleas for four years; he served until 
January 1, 1879, when he retired from the bench, the court being then 
abolished. By act of the legislature passed February 5, 1871:, a court of 
common pleas was established in the city of Joplin, Jasper county, Mis- 
souri. This court had the following jurisdiction within the limits of Jop- 
lin and Galena townships: First, original and concurrent jurisdiction in 
all cases, both law and equity, witii the circuit court of Jasper county, Mis- 
souri (except where the title to real estate was involved), and concurrent 
jurisdiction with justices of the peace, except where they have exclusive 
jurisdiction; second, power to issue injunctions, above named exceptions ap- 
plying, and to hear and determine matters of habeas corpus the same as cir- 
cuit courts; also exclusive appellate jurisdiction from Joplin police court, 
and in case of appeals from justices of Joplin and Galena township. At 
this time there were four terms of the Jasper county common pleas court 
held at Carthage, and three extra terms for the transaction of probate busi- 
ness. Mr. Galen Spencer was elected judge of the court and served until 
January 26, 1875, when the legislature passed an act abolishing the court 
and providing that three terms a year of the common pleas court which 
was called at Oarthage should be held at Joplin, and three terms of said 
court at Carthage, making six terms a year in the county. This act, abol- 
ishing the Joplin court, also ordered the clerk (the judge of this court was 
by the act creating the court made ex officio clerk of his court) of the Jop- 
lin court to transfer to the clerk of the Jasper county common pleas court 
the records ot the Joplin court. Both the Joplin court and the Jasper 
county courts of common pleas were courts of record. 



182 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

The County Court. — The first term of the Jasper county court was held 
March 8, 1841, at the house of George Hornback. The judges of the court 
were appointed, and their names were Samuel M. Cooloy, Jeremiah Cra- 
vens, and Samuel B. Bright. The court appointed E. James county clerk. 
They also divided the county into three townships, called Spring River, 
Center Creek, and North Fork. At the same term of court three commis- 
sioners were appointed to locate the county seat. The names of the com- 
missioners were C. Barker, Abel Landers, and John Plummer. April 12, 
1841, they assembled at the house of George Hornback and proceeded to 
locate a county seat. They selected a site on a tract of land belonging to 
the United States, and located the site on this land by virtue of an act 
of Congress giving new counties formed in our states and territories the 
right to pre-empt a tract of land belonging to the United States for the pur- 
pose of locating a county seat thereon. On March 28th, 1842, the county 
court christened the county seat Carthage. On April 10th, 1842, the county 
court instructed the superintendent of public buildings to contract for 
building a court-house in Carthage. July 21, 1849, the court approved 
plans for building another court-house, and appropriated four thousand 
dollars for the purpose of building it. This court-house was built of 
brick and stone, and was erected in the public square in Carthage. This 
was destroyed during the war, and since its destruction there has been 
no court-house erected, but the county court purchased a building erected 
by the Baptist Church, situated two blocks east from the square, and this 
building is now used for a court room. .At Joplin there is a room in the 
second story of a brick building rented for a court room. The circuit clerk 
also has an office in the same building. The number of justices of the 
county court was reduced from three to one by act of the legislature, passed 
Februar3' 24, 1875, and the offices of the then judges were declared vacant, 
and the Governor authorized to appoint some one judge of the county court, 
who should hold his office until the general election occurred in 1876, when 
a judge should be elected, who should serve for two years. The number of 
county court justices was again changed by act of the legislature, passed in 

1877, which act provides that there should be three judges, and also that 
the county court should divide the county into two equal portions, as near 
as practicable, without dividing up a township, and that each of these dis- 
tricts should elect a judge of the county court, and that they should serve 
for two years, and also that there shall be elected at the general election in 

1878, and every four years thereafter, a judge from the whole county at 
large, who shall be the presiding judge of the court, and who shall hold his 
office for four years. 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 183 

Probate Court. — In parsnaiice of article VI, section 34 of the Constitu- 
tion of the State of Missouri, adopted in 1875, the legislature in 1877 passed 
an act establishing probate courts throughout the state, and providing that a 
judge thereof should be elected in every county in the state at the general 
election of 1878. In the act of 1877 it is also provided that the judge shall 
be clerk of his court. The court of common pleas went out of existence 
January 1, 1879, and the probate records and business were transferred to 
the probate court that was by the aforesaid act established. The county 
court also at one time transacted the probate business. The probate court 
has general jurisdiction of probate business, and co-answers to the orphans' 
courts in some states and the surrogate courts in others. 

The following is a list of the persons who have held the following oflSces 
in Jasper county, Missouri, with the date of holding thereof: Circuit judges, 
county court justice, probate judges, and judges of the court of common 
pleas; circuit clerks, county clerks, and clerks of the court of common pleas, 
and sheriffs. 

Circuit Judges. — Charles S. Yancey, appointed February 8, 1841; he 
retired from the bench in 1856. W. C. Price, appointed November 1, 1856; 
served until May, 1857. John R. Chenault, elected in 1857; held the courts 
up to 1861. John C. Price, elected in 1865; served until 1869. B. L. 
Hendrick, served from 1869 to 1874; Joseph Craven, served from 1874 to 
1880; M. G. McGregor, elected in 1880. 

Circuit Clerk. — E. James, served from 1841 to 1860; Stanfield Ross, 
1860 to 1861; William Bulgin, 1865 to 1867; S. B. La Force, 1867 to 1870; 
Joseph Lane, 1870 to 1874; M. Taylor, 1874 to 1878; W. A. Williams, 
1878 to 1882; J. C. Hodson, elected in 1882. 

Judge of Court of Common Pleas.— O. H. Richer, served from 1869 
to 1873; E. O. Brown, 1874 to 1879. Judge of Joplin Court of Common 
Pleas, Galen Spencer, served from 1874 to 1875. 

Clerk of Common Pleas Court. — W. C. Betts served from 1870 to 1874, 
and from 1874 to 1879. 

Sheriffs. — John Osborn, served from 1842 to 1846; L. B. LaForce, 1846 to 
1852; Thomas F.Thompson, 1852 to 1856; Norris C. Hood, 1856 to 1860; P. 
H. Halsell, 1860 to 1861; L. Caldwell, 1865 to 1868; C. E. Spencer, 1868 
to 1872; J. S. Zane, 1872 to 1874; U. Hendrickson, 1874 to 1876; J. C. 
Beamer, 1876 to 1878; J. S. McBride, 1878 to 1880; R. M. Roberts, 1880 to 
1882; R. M. Roberts. 1882 to 1884. 

Probate Judge. — W. H. Kilgore, has served from 1878 to the present. 

County Clerks. — E. James served from 1841 to 1859; Stanfield Ross, 
1859 to 1861; W. W. Bulgin, 1865 to 1867; S. B. LaForce, 1867 to 1871; 



184: HISTORY OF JASPEK COUKTY. 

A. E. Gregory, 1871 to 1874; G. Blakeney, 1874 to 1878, and 1878 to 1882; 
J. A. Wilson, 1882. 

The Jasper County Court. — The present county judges are: Presiding 
judge, W. S. Bowers; associate judge, eastern district, W. Haggard; asso- 
ciate judge, western district, J. S. Cook. 

The Jasper County Bar. — The following is a sketch of the professional 
life of the members of the Jasper county bar: 

E. O. Brown, educated at Norwich College, Isew York, being a graduate 
of that institution. He was admitted to the bar in Buffalo, New York, in 
1870, and immediately afterwards came to Missouri, and located at Lamar, 
in Barton county. He practiced law there a few years, during which time 
he was in partnership with Mr. Robinson. In 1872 he came to Carthage. 
In January, 1 874, Mr. Brown was appointed to fill the vacancy created by the 
O. H. Picher resignation as judge of the court of common pleas. At the 
general election in 1874 he was elected for a term of four years, and served 
until 1879, when he retired from the bench and formed a partnership with 
W. H. Phelps, in the city of Carthage, where he is still engaged in the 
practice of law. 

D. W. Brown was born in Iowa, in 1854, and was educated at the high 
school of Ft. Dodge in that state. He came to Carthage in 1871. He first 
began to read law in March, 1874, in the office of Judge Montague, and after- 
ward in the office of the late James Hardin. But he completed his course 
of reading under Judge Montague, and was examined and admitted to the bar 
in 1876. One j^ear later he began to practice with W. C. Robinson, and re- 
mained one year with him, and then went to Joplin and staid with L. P. 
Cunningham for a while, but soon returned to Carthage, and in November, 

1878, was elected justice of the peace, and served for four years. In April, 

1879, he was elected police judge of Carthage, and one year later was re- 
elected. He is now in partnership with R. G. Blair. 

Samuel McReynolds was born in Missouri, and was educated at the North 
Missouri Normal School, where he graduated in 1873. He then studied 
law one and one-half years with Ellwin Bros., Kirksville, Missouri, and 
was admitted to the bar; came to Carthage in 1875, in February, and 
opened an office by himself. In October, 1875, he formed a partnership with 
S. D. McPherson, and remained with him until 1877, when he and J. W. 
Halliburton formed a partnership, and the partnership then formed still ex- 
ists. 

F. S. Yager was born in Jefferson county, Kentucky, and raised at Camp- 
bellville, Kentucky, where he received his education. He studied law with 



HISTORY Ob JASPER COUNTY. 185 

t 

the firm of Parrett & Wood, in Evaiisville, Indiana. After studying a few 
years he was admitted to the bar, in May, 1873. He remained in Evans- 
ville until February, 1875, when he came to Missotiri, arriving in Carthage 
February 10, 1875. Mr. Yager opened a law office in Carthage at once, and 
in the spring of 1879 he was elected city attorney, and held the position 
one year. On February 8t]i, 1881, he was appointed county land commis- 
sioner for Jasper county, and held that position for two years. When- 
ever Mr. Yager has held a public position his duties have been properly 
and promptly performed. 

E. C. Devore was educated at Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio. 
He studied law in the office of D. G. Devore, and was admitted to the bar 
in Columbus, Ohio, in 1864, and began to practice in Georgetown, Ohio. 
He was the prosecuting attorney of Brown county for four years, and he 
also represented Brown county in the Ohio legislature in 1860 and 1861. 
He left Ohio in 1868 and removed to Seymour, Indiana. After mov- 
ing there he became one of the attornej^s for the O. & M. R. R., and 
held that position from 1870 up to 1882. In 1875 he became the attorney 
for the Adams Express Co. for the states of Illinois and Indiana, and acted 
as such up to 1882, at which time he came to Carthage and formed a partner- 
ship with D. A. Harrison, and later with L. L. Wittich. 

J. W. Sennet was born in Granville, Licking county, Ohio, and educated 
at Granville College. He began, to study law in 1850 with E. B.Curtis, 
in Mt. Yernon, Ohio, and completed his legal studies with Edward Wells, 
Westchester county, New York, and was admitted to the bar in Newburg, 
New York, in 1852, and in the fall of that year he came to Davenport, 
Iowa, and remained there until 1856, then he went to Newton, in Jasper 
county, Iowa, where he resided until 1868, when he came to Carthage, where 
he is engaged in the practice, being in partnership with Mr. Shields. 

S.*G. Williams was born in Bedford county, Yirginia, June 26, 1828. 
He was educated at Yalley Union Seminary, Botetourt Springs, Roanoake 
county, Yirginia. He studied law in the office of W. R. Staples, in Chris- 
tiansburg, Montgomery county, Yirginia. After studying two years he 
was admitted to the bar, and began to practice law at Floyd Court House, 
Yirginia, in 1852. He remained there five years, and in 1858 came to Mis- 
souri, and settled where Rolla now stands. He was county attorney of 
Phelps county in 1859, and represented that county in the legislature in 
.MML He remained at Rolla until 1877, then came to Carthage, Mis- 
souri. He was elected judge of the police court in 1882, which position he 
still holds. 

J. W. Halliburton was born in the State of Missouri, December 30, 1846, 



186 HISTOKY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

and educated at Mt. Pleasant College, Huntsville, Missouri. He began 
studying law in the office of J. D. Defranc, in Kirksviile, Missouri, in 1867, 
and during the winter of 1868-69 he attended the St. Louis Law School. In 
18T0 he received a license to practice law, being examined in the St. Louis 
circuit court. He then returned to Kirksviile and officed with Defranc & 
Hooper until 1871, when he formed a partnership with Defranc, and re- 
mained there until 1874, when he went to Milan, Sullivan county, Missouri, 
where he formed a partnership with his father, Senator Wesley Halliburton, 
and remained there until April, 1877, when he came to Carthage, and 
he and McReynolds opened a law office. He was elected city attorney 
of Carthage in 1882. 

A. L. Thomas was educated at the Wisconsin University, Madison, Wis- 
consin. He studied law in Madison with E. W. Keyes, and was admitted 
in that city in 1868. He came to Carthage in July, 1869, and opened a law 
office. He was appointed circuit attorney for the thirteenth judicial cir- 
cuit, in the spring of 1871, by Governor B. Gratz Brown. He held the of- 
fice until January 1, 1873, when the office was abolished. In the fall of 
1874 he was elected prosecuting attorney of Jasper county and served two 
years. He is still residing in Carthage and practicing law. 

Robert J. Stickney was born in Morrow county, Ohio, October 10, 1854. 
He went to Lecompton, Kansas, in 1863, and in 1865 he came to Carthage. 
He was educated at Carthage, and began to study law in the office of Judge 
Montague, at the same time carrying on the abstract business. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1881, and is now practicing law in this city, and also 
doing an abstract business. 

R. G. Blair was born January 1, 1856. He is a native of the state, and 
was educated at Christian University in Canton, Missouri. He read law in 
his father's office at Monticello, Missouri, and was admitted to the bar in 
1879. He has been engaged in the practice of law in this state and Ar- 
kansas since he was admitted, and is now practicing in Carthage in part- 
nership with D. W. Brown. 

J. R. Shields graduated at the Louisville Law School in 1855, and then 
came to Missouri and began to practice law. He practiced in St. Louis for 
some time, but was practicing in Columbia, Missouri, a greater portion of 
the time, until he removed to Carthage in 1877. Soon after his arrival he 
formed a partnership with the lamented W. C. Robinson, which only lasted 
about one year, when he became associated with J. W. Sennet in the prac- 
tice of law, and with whom he is still in partnership. 

J. H. Flanagan was born in Michigan, July 3, 1857. He attended Hills- 
dale College, Michigan, during 1877-78. He came to Carthage with his 



'history ok jasper county. 187 

father in 1866. He began to study law in tlie office of T. B. Haughawout in 
1880, and was admitted to the bar in 1881. He remained with Mr. 
Haughawout until January 1, 1883, when he formed a partnership with 
George T. Parry. • 

J, Morris Young was born in 1835, in Gosport, Indiana, and was edu- 
cated at Foughkeepsie and Newbui-g, New York. He finished his educa- 
tion at High Academy, New York. His father being a lawyer he read law 
in his office for some time, and afterward studied law in New York City, 
finishing his studies in Scott Howell's office in Keokuk, Iowa, in 1859-60. 
He was admitted to the bar in the summer of 1860, and in the winter of 
1861 commenced practicing in Page county, Iowa. He came to Carthage 
in 1865 and remained here a short time, and then went to Newton county, 
but soon returned to Jasper county. He became interested in mining, and 
followed it for several years, during which time he became a resident of 
Oronogo. In 1878 he was enrolled as a member of the Jasper county bar, 
and has ever since been engaged in the practice of law in this county, still 
residing at Oronogo. 

George T. Parry was born in Lamar, Barton county, Missouri, January 
13, 1856. He attended the Christian Brothers' College at St. Louis, Mis- 
souri. He studied law with the late W. C. Robinson and Judge Cravens, 
and after reading one and one-half years he was admitted to the bar in 
1882. He remained with Judge Cravens until January 1, 1883, when he 
and J. H. Flanagan formed a partnership. 

C. B. Stickney was born in Morrow county, Ohio, July 7, 1852, and was 
educated at Lane University, Kansas, and in the schools of Carthage, Mis- 
souri. He studied law for four years, and was admitted to the bar in De- 
cember, 1875. He and his brother afterwards went into the abstract busi- 
ness, and in April, 1881, he was elected judge of the police court in this 
city, which office he held for one year. He then went into- Mr. Montague's 
office, and is still with that gentleman. 

Joseph Cravens was born in Johnson county, Arkansas, three miles from 
the mouth of Hardshell Creek, on the 28th day of April, 1830. He was 
educated at a private school in Fayetteville, Arkansas. He began to study 
law in that place with "W. D. Reagan in 1854, and was admitted to the bar 
in Fayetteville, Arkansas; he went at o"ce to Currville, in Barry county, 
Missouri, where he opened a law office, and remained until 1872. In 1858 
he was elected prosecuting attorney for what was then the thirteenth judi- 
cial circuit, comprising eight counties. In 1872 he moved to Neosho, 
Newton county, Missouri, and in 1874 he was elected judge of the fifteenth 



188 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

judicial circuit, serving six years. He removed from Neosho to Carthage 
in 1881, and resumed the practice of his profession. 

E. J. Montague was born in Scott county, near Georgetown, Kentucky, 
March 9, 1834. He was raised on the border of Perry and Randolph coun- 
ties, Illinois, and was educated at Sparta Academy, where he graduated in 
1851. He studied law with George Trumbull rn Belleville, Illinois, begin- 
ning in 1860, and was admitted to the bar March 5, 1862. He went to St. 
Joseph, Missouri, in 1864, and began to practice law. In 1866 he was 
elected judge of the Buchanan county court of common pleas, and held this 
office for four years. In 1871 he came to Carthage and opened a law office, 
and has been engaged in the practice ever since. He was one of the at- 
torneys in the bond litigation in this county, and was retained in the cases 
until their termination. 

William H. Phelps was born at Hinsdale, Cattaraugus county, New 
York, October 16, 1845; was educated at the Glean Academy, Glean, New 
York; began reading law with Hon. M. B. Champlain, Attornej' -general of 
that State, in the fall of 1865, and after reading law one year attended the 
law school at Albany; was admitted to the bar by the Supreme Court in 
January, 1867, and located in Carthage in March, 1867, where he has since 
resided and practiced his profession. 

D, A. Harrison was born in Fairfax county, Ghio, March 21, 1823, and 
was educated at the Ghio Conference High School at Springfield, Ghio, 
and at Greenfield Academy and Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ghio. He 
studied law at Lancaster, Ghio, and was admitted to the bar at Newark 
in 1848, and began practicing law in that state. He was elected prose- 
cuting attorney of Clark county, Ghio, and held that position in 1868, 
when he resigned and came to Carthage. He is now in partnership in this 
city with E. C. Devore and has been since the fall of 1882. 

G. W, Crow was born in 1820 on the 25th day of November, in the State 
of Kentucky. He was educated in an Indiana college and was admitted to 
the bar in Holt county, Missouri. He remained in the town of 
Gregon and practiced law for twenty-one years and then moved to St. 
Joseph; and, after the war closed, he came to Carthage in 1867 and opened 
an office, and was engaged in the practice of his profession in this county 
until the summer of 1883, when he returned to Gregon, Holt county. 

Edward C. Crow was born in Gregon, Holt county, on the 19th of De- 
cember, 1860. He was almost entirely raised in Carthage, having resided 
here since 1867. He was educated in the schools of this city and graduated at 
the high school in 1878. In the fall of 1878 he went to St. Louis and en- 



HISTORY or JASPER CODNTY. 189 

tered the law department of Washington University and remained there for 
two years, graduating in 1880. He then returned to Carthage and formed 
a partnership with his father, Judge Crow, and has been associated with 
him in the practice since that time, 

L. L. Wittich was born in Madison, Morgan county, Georgia, July 4, 
1842. He was educated at Emory College, Oxford, Georgia, and graduated 
at the Law School University of Georgia, March, 1861. The war interven- 
ing he did not practice until 1869 when he began the practice at Ozark, 
Arkansas. He remained there until February, 1883, when he removed to 
Carthage where he now resides and is practicing law. 

W. T. Green was born in Illinois. He was educated in the schools of 
this state and attended the State University one year. He began to study 
law after his marriage and was admitted to the bar in September, 1881. He 
soon after entered the office of A. L. Thomas with whom he still remains, 
being engaged in the practice in this county. 

W. C. Eobinson was born in Jasper county, Missouri, in 1854. He was 
educated at Liberty, Missouri, and read law at Pleasant Hill, Missouri, and 
after being admitted to the bar came to Carthage in 1875 and formed a 
partnership with the well known and able lawyer James F. Hardin. Mr. 
Robinson remained with him until 1876 when Mr. Hardin's death occurred. 
Mr. Robinson afterwards was associated with Mr. Shields and at the time 
ot* his death, in March, 1882, he was in partnership with Mr. Cravens. He 
was taken with that dreaded disease small-pox and though a strong and ro- 
bust man he yielded to the scourge's power. He had paid special attention 
to the criminal law and in that branch of his profession had already attained 
an enviable reputation. He was a man of ability and though he was taken 
away before he had attained that eminence which his prospects showed so 
plainly he would have gained, he nevertheless lived long enough to sur- 
round himself with a host of friends who knew him as a noble-hearted and 
generous man. Having been raised in southwestern Missouri he died near 
his boyhood's home before the glory of life's high-noon had been passed, 
just in early manhood's rosy morn when hope was ardent and ambition 
strong. But there lingers around his memory sweet recollections of many 
deeds of kindness and acts of love though he has passed out upon the ocean 
of eternity "where lulled to slumber, Grief forgets to mourn." 

M. G. McGregor was born January 15, 1843, at Wadsworth, Medina 
county, Ohio. He was educated at Canton, Ohio, and was admitted to the 
bar in Kansas City in February, 1866, and came immediately to Carthage 
and began the practice of law. In 1880 he was elected judge of the fifteenth 
judicial circuit, which position he now holds. It is but justice to say of Mr. 



190 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

McGregor that he is a good judge and does credit to the position he occu- 
pies. 

T. B. Haughawout was born October 15, 1845, and educated in Lafayette 
county, Wisconsin. He began to study law while farming, and after being 
admitted to the bar he opened an ofMce in Carthage. He was, in 1880, 
elected prosecuting attorney of Jasper county, and in 1882 was re-elected 
for two more years. Mr. Haughawout has alone, unaided, and by his own 
brain and nerve, brought himself to the position he now occupies. 

Stephen H. Claycorab was educated at the Illinois College and Michigan 
Stale University. In the fall of 1867 he entered the law department of 
the Virginia State University, and graduated from that institution in the 
summer of 1869, and was admitted to the bar at Marshall, Saline county, 
Missouri, in the fall of 1869, and was enrolled as a member of the Jasper 
county bar in 1873. He resides at Joplin, where he is engaged in practic- 
ing law and carrying on a real estate agency. 

Clark Craycroft was educated at Missouri State University. He afterward 
studied law in Columbia, and while studying law he was appointed deputy 
clerk of the Linn county court of common pleas, and while there situated he 
pursued his studies and was admitted to the bar in Linn county, in 1875. 
He came to Joplin and was enrolled in Jasper county circuit court in Sep- 
tember, 1875, and is still practicing in Joplin. 

J. H. Taylor studied law at Inde2:»endence, Missouri, with Chrissmau & 
Cummings and was admitted to the bar in 1857, and enrolled in Jasper 
county in 1872. He is resident of Joplin, and has retired from the practice. 
J. H. Trembley studied law in St. Louis with Edward L. Gottschalk, and 
was admitted to the bar in St. Louis in December, 1882. He came to Joplin 
and is now located there and engaged in the practice. 

J. W. McAntire was educated at Memphis High School, Memphis, Mis- 
souri, and Lagrange College. He studied law at Memphis and was admit- 
ted to the bar at that place in September, 1872, when he immediately came 
to Joplin and began the practice, and in 1873 he was elected city attorney of 
Joplin, and in 1878 was elected prosecuting attorney of Jasper county. He 
is still residing at Joplin. 

W. B. McAntire was educated at Memphis, Missouri, and at the Lagrange 
College. He studied law in Memphis and was admitted in September, 1872, 
and came to Joplin in the spring of 1873, and in 1875 was elected police 
judge of the city of Joplin, and held that position six years. He resides 
in Joplin, practicing his profession. 

Galein Spencer was educated at Evansville, Indiania High School, and at 
Evanston, Illinois. He studied law at Brownsville, Missouri, and was admit- 



HISTORY OK JASPEK COUNTY. 191 

ted to the bar in "Worth county, Missouri in 1868. He came to Joplin in 
1873, and was elected judge of the Joplin court of common pleas in the fall of 
18Y4, and served until February, 1875, when the court was abolished. In 
1876 he was elected prosecuting attorney of Jasper county and served two 
years. 

C. H. Montgomery was educated at the High School of Chillicothe, Mis- 
souri. He studied law in that place a while and in the fall of 1872 entered 
the law department of the State University and graduated therefrom in the 
spring of 1873. He came to Joplin in 1875, and in 1876 was elected city 
attorney of Joplin. 

F. M. Kedbnrn was educated in the schools of this state, and studied law 
at Princeton, Missouri, and was admitted to the bar at Keytesville, Charition 
county, Missouri, in June, 1865. In 1866 he was elected clerk of the Linn 
county circuit court. He came to Jasper county in 1878, and began to 
practice law, and in the fall of 1879 was elected city attorney of Joplin, 
and he was elected police judge in that city in 1881. 

Thomas Dolan was educated in the schools of Joplin, studied law with 
L. P. Cunningham, and was admitted to the bar in the city of Carthage in 
March, 1880. He at once began to practice in Joplin, and was in 1881 
elected city attorney of that place, and in 1882 was re-elected. 

John C. Trigg was educated in the common schools and in a private high 
school in Pettis county, Missouri. He studied law at Boonville, Missouri, 
and was admitted to the bar in September, 1865. He came to Joplin in 
1873, and began to practice and is still so engaged at that place. 

L, P. Cunningham was educated in the common schools of Illinois. He 
'studied law at Kockport, Atchison county, Missouri, and was admitted to 
the bar June 8, 1864, by Hon. W, Hevon, judge of the twelfth judicial 
circuit of Missouri. He came to Carthage in August, 1866, where he resided 
for seven years and then moved to Joplin, and has been ever since a resi- 
dent of that city. 

George Orear was educated at Transylvania College, Lexington, Kentucky. 
He studied law in Lexington and was admitted there in June, 1850, then 
went to Joplin and entered the practice in that city in 1873, and is still 
residing there. 

J. C. Mason was educated in the higher schools of New England. He 
studied law three years in Petersboro, New Hampshire, and then took a 
course in the Albany, New York, law school, and was admitted to the bar 
in Petersboro, New Hampshire in September, 1864. He was enrolled in the 
Jasper county circuit court in March, 1880, and is now residing in Joplin 
and practicing his profession. 



192 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

O. H. Piclier was educated at Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois. He 
studied law at Springfield, Missouri, and was admitted to the bar in 1867, 
and at once came to Carthage. In April, 1869, he was appointed judge of 
the Jasper county court of common pleas, and in the fall of 1870 was 
elected for a term of four years. He resigned in 1873, and has retired 
from the practice. 



CHAPTER VII.— THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. 

Jasper County Medical Society. — This society was organized June 4, 
1872. The objects of its organization are thns clearly set forth in its consti- 
tution: "The objects of this society shall be the improvement of all con- 
nected with it, in medicine, surgery, obstetrics, and the collateral sciences, 
the cultivation of a nearer and more intimate intercourse of medical views 
and acquirements, and to render ourselves more worthy of the support of 
our patrons." 

The following physicians participated in the organization of this society: 
J. F. Scott, Sarcoxie; Dr. McPheeters, Medoc; W". A. Stokes, Galesburg; A. 
J. Goodwin, Preston; William M. Whitworth, Union City; Dr. Titus, 
Union City; James Brock, Jackson township; Dr. Board, Minersville; R. 
F. Brooks, Carthage; Dr. Dun, Georgia City; J. A. Carter, Carthage; II. C. 
Hollingsworth, Carthage; Dr. Hostetter, Carthage; Dr. Crocker, Carthage; 
Dr. Wilson, Carthage; Amos H. Caffee, Carthage. Dr. H. C. Hollings- 
worth was chosen temporary chairman, and a regular constitution and by- 
laws were adopted. Any member of the regular profession in good stand- 
ing is eligible to membership in this society. Dr. H. H. Wale, of Preston, 
was elected the first president, with Dr. Scott, of Sarcoxie, as vice-presi- 
dent, and Dr. Caffee as secretary. The ofiicers hold their positions for one 
year. 

It was at first thought expedient to hold the regular meetings of the so- 
ciety monthly, bnt upon trial it was found impossible to hold them so often, 
as those who lived in various parts of the county were unable to attend reg- 
ularly if the meetings were held this often. Hence the meetings were 
changed from monthly to quarterly meetings. At a regular session of the 
society held September 2, 1872, a regular fee bill was reported by an appro- 
priate committee, and duly adopted by the society. This fee bill is still in 
force at the present time. 





-o 7\J 




ox^-W' 



M^ 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 193 

Aside 'from miscellaneous and routine business the time of the regular 
sessions is taken up in th.e reading of ])apers upon medical and scientific 
subjects, the discussion of such papers as may be presented, and the report 
of special cases thought to be of interest occurring in the practice of any 
member. Since the society's organization many very practical and able pa- 
pers have, from time to time, been read by different members belonging to 
the society. Great freedom and perfect good feeling always characterizes 
the criticisms and discussions which follow the presentation of all papers. 
It has often been asked why it is that physicians can go through different 
epidemics of contagious diseases and not fall victims to their attacks, 
as do the people, and these questions are generally answered by the ig- 
norant that doctors know how to ward off disease when it is liable to attack 
them, but will not thus prevent it in others. Tlie idea, however, that the 
physician can prevent the summons of the grim monster, death, when he 
calls, is not thought of. All recognize the fact that death is a conimon lev- 
eler, and that no one can fail to obey the summons when it comes. This 
truth came to the society with all of its force when the sad news of the 
death (if its oldest and most honored member, and its first regular presi- 
dent, came to be known. The following resolutions were unaniraousl}' 
adopted at a meeting of the society held in Carthage February 5, 1878: 

"Whereas, It has pleased Almighty God in his wise providence to re- 
move from our midst and a field of professional usefulness our highly es- 
teemed friend and co-laborer in the science and profession of medicine, Dr. 
H. H. Wale, who died at his residence on January 34th, 1878 — 

'■'■ Resolved^ That we deeply feel the loss of our deceased friend and brother, 
who, by his upright, moral conduct and gentlemanly deportment, has en- 
deared himself to all with whom he became associated. 

^''Resolved, That in his death the profession is deprived of one of its most 
zealous and devoted members, and the community of a good physician and 
one of her best and most patriotic citizens. 

^''Resolved, That we feel a sincere sympathy for his widow and family in 
their great affliction. 

''''Resolved, That the foregoing preamble and resolutions be spread upon 
the records of the society, and an attested copy be sent to the family of the 
deceased and one to each of the Carthage newspapers." 

Just a short time before the death of Dr. Wale, Dr. Board was called by 

death from the field of his professional labor and usefulness. The records 

of the society bear no notice of this sad event, most likely for the reason 

that it was overlooked. Dr. Board resided at Oronogo and was in full sym- 

13 



194 HJSTOB-S OF JASPER COUNTY. 

pathy with the aims and objects of the society, and was a regular attendant 
and always contributed to its support. He was a good physician, enjoying 
the confidence of his pati-ons, and was highly esteemed by all the members 
of the society. He was born in Jefferson county, in this state, May 10, 
1855, received his education at Arcadia, Missouri, and studied medicine 
with Dr. White, in Greenville, Wayne county, Missouri, and attended Mc- 
Dowel College, in St. Louis in 1858 and 1859. After leaving college he 
was married, February, 14, 1859, and practiced his profession in Greenville. 
He afterwards located at Rockwoods, Washington county, Missouri, and 
practiced medicine at that place until July, 1868, when he moved to Oron- 
ogo, Missouri, where he resided about ten years. He died January T, 1879. 

With these two exceptions the old members of the society still reside and 
pursue their labors in the county, or have removed to other locations. The 
society is now in its twelfth year, meets regularly, is in a flourishing condi- 
tion, and it is to be hoped that as it grows in age it mhII grow in strength 
and greater usefulness. Its present secretary and treasurer is L. I. Mat- 
thews. 

The following is a short professional record of many of the present phy- 
sicians of Jasper county, all from whom data could be obtained: 

Amos H. Caffee, born in 1834 at Newark, Ohio; attended lectures at Cin- 
cinnati; has been a resident of this county since 1859, and at present is car- 
rying on a large drug business in Carthage. 

L. E. Whitney, born at Bainbridge, New York, in 1853, was a graduate 
of the Homeopathic Medical College of Missouri in 1878, and in 1879, 
from the College of Homeopathic Physicians and Surgeons; has been en- 
gaged in the practice eight years, and has been at Carthage since 1879, 
where he now follows his profession. 

W. H. Swander, born May 2, 1835, at Tiffin, Ohio; graduated at Cincin- 
nati College of Medicine and Surgery in 1859; has been engaged in the 
practice twenty-six years, and has been in Carthage since October, 1882; 
was three vears a surgeon in the Union army, and was three years exam- 
ining surgeon for pensions. 

James W. Brock, born in Barren county, Kentucky, May 22, 1827, a 
graduate of the Joplin Medical College and of the Eclectic School; has been 
engaged in the practice twenty-three years, and in this county since 1866; 
was a surgeon in the Union army three years; is now at Diainond Grove, 
Scotland Post-office, Jasper county. 

R. L. Galbreath, born in Butler county, Pennsylvania, May 17, 1837, a 
graduate of the Eclectic Medical Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio; has been en- 
gaged in the practice eight years; commenced in Carthage in August, 1881. 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 195 

Herbert L. Beam, born January 1, 1851, at Jersey, Licking county, Ohio, 
was a graduate of the Eclectic Medical Institute at Cincinnati; has been en- 
gaged in the practice ten years, and has been at Carthage since September 
11, 1882. 

John E. Sombart, born April 16, 1859, at Booneville, Missouri, is a 
graduate of the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; 
has been in the practice two years, and has been at Carthage since Septem- 
ber, 1881. 

W. M. Gates, born in Miami county, Ohio, a graduate from Cincin- 
nati Eclectic Medical Institute in 1853; has been engaged in the practice 
thirty -five years; has been in Jasper county since 1877, 

J. C. PeTit, born in Lincoln county, Missouri, in 1841, is a graduate of 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Keokuk, Iowa, of the regular 
school of physicians; has been engaged in the practice twenty-three years, 
and has been in Joplin since 1878. 

E. C. H. Squire, born at St. Louis, Missouri, in 1851, is a graduate of the 
St. Louis Medical College; a regular in practice; has been practicing four 
years, and has been in Joplin since March 1, 1882. 

J. A, Jacks, born December 26, 1852, in McMinn county, Tennessee, is a 
graduate of Joplin College of Physicians and Surgeons, and has recently 
commenced the practice at Joplin according to the Allopathic school. 

B. F. Wolfe, born in Indiana; he graduated at Keokuk, Iowa; has been 
a practitioner in the Allopathic school for twenty-five years; has been in 
Jasper county since 1870, and is now at Carthage. 

M. E. Johnson, born December 9, 1853, at Fayette, Boone county, Indi- 
ana; graduated at Miami Medical College, Cincinnati, Ohio; is a regular, 
and has been practicing in this county since March 1, 1878, located at 
Brest. 

J. W. Filler, born at Mt. Yernon, Lawrence county, Missouri, who gradu- 
ated at the St. Louis Medical College, is of the Allopathic schojl; has prac- 
ticed since 1874, and in this county since September, 1875, located at Sar- 
coxie. 

W. H. Roper, born June 27, 1853, in Donelson, Illinois; graduated at the 
American Medical College of St. Louis, of the Eclectic school; has been en- 
gaged in the practice five years; since 1878 he has been in Jasper county, 
located at Sarcoxie. 

J. II. Shoot, born at Richmond, Madison county, Kentucky; graduated 
at the Eclectic Medical Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio; has been in the prac- 
tice thirty-seven years, and in Joplin since 1873; he was city physician 
three years, and has since treated small-pox with remarkable success. 



196 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 



D. Y. "Wale, born in Breckenridge county, Kentucky'', June 10, 1846; 
he graduated at theUniversity of Louisville, and is of the Allopathic school; 
has been practicing ten years in Jasper county, and is now located at Jasper. 

Miss Fannie E. Williams, born in Delaware county, Ohio, graduated 
from the medical department of the Iowa State University; she has been 
practicing twelve years, and since 1873 has been stopping in Joplin. 

T. W. Horton, born January 22, 1837, in Cayuga county, New York; 
graduated from the Medical College at Ke'okuk, Iowa, of the Allopathic 
school; has been engaged in the practice twenty-five years, and has been in 
this county since December, 1868, located at Avilla. 

D. M. Whitworth, born September 24, 1826, in Overton county, Ten- 
nessee; graduated from the medical department of the University of Ten- 
nessee, at Nashville, belonging to the Allopathic school; he has been prac- 
ticing since 1855, and has been in this county since 1867, located at Webb 
City. 

D. F. Moss, born in Indiana, October 6, 1814; graduated at Cincinnati; 
of the Eclectic school; has been practicing since 1840, and in Jasper county 
thirty-one years; he lives eight miles south of Carthage. 



CHAPTER YIIl.— POLITICAL HISTORY. 

Political History — Whigs and Democrats — Definitions of Parties — Know-nothing Party — 
Parties in 1860 — Missouri Prefers to Remain Loyal — Test Oath of 1865 — Names of Super- 
intendents of Registration— -Names of Early Whigs and Democrats in Jasper County — 
War Notes — Extracts from Party Papers — First Greenback Campaign — Abstracts of Elec- 
tions — Official Returns of 1882 — Official Directory. 

When Jasper count}' became a member of the Commonwealth of Mis- 
souri, in 1843, there were two active distinctly defined political parties, 
known as Whigs and Democrats. Yirtually, the Democrats held the power 
in this government for about sixty years, and although Republicans have 
had almost complete control ever since the year 1860, the Democrats have 
never given up their principles nor have they ceased to strive for victories. 

Political parties are divisions of the people differing as to how the gov- 
ernment shall be administered. A party, then, in its strictest sense, is any 
number of persons confederated by a similarity of objects and opinions in 
opposition to others. 

Soon after the death of the Whig party the Know-nothing party sprang 
into existence. This was sometimes called the American party on account 
of its principles, being opposed to foreigners having anything to do in the 



HISTORX" OF JASPER COUNTY. 197 

making and administering of the laws of the Union, In 1855 this party 
was throughly organized in Missouri. 

Our fathers, in establishing this government, admitted the superior rights 
of no man or class. It was carefully arranged to exclude all titles of nobil- 
ity, and, with a single exception, placed all men on the same level. This 
one exception, negro slavery, was swept away during the tempest of the 
civil war which broke out in 1861 and closed in the spring of 1865. 

At the introduction of the Know-nothing party in 1852 it unsettled both 
the old parties receiving most of its strength from the Whigs. 

In 1860 party lines were completely broken up. The two national Demo- 
cratic tickets in field were the Douglas and Breckenridge parties. The 
Constitution-Union party nominated Bell and Everett for President and 
Yice-president. The Republicans put in nomination Abraham Lincoln. 
Consequently the Democratic party was divided; however the Douglas party 
carried the day in Jasper county, with the Breckenridge next. Abraham 
Lincoln received only seventeen votes in the county. When the war 
commenced in 1861 all former party lines were obliterated; many men who 
had been staunch Democrats and ultra pro-slavery became open and avowed 
Union men, while others who had been born, reared, and educated north, 
and had been looked upon suspiciously, as perhaps not " sound on the 
goose," immediately espoused the cause of the young Confederacy, and be- 
came the most outspoken advocates of the South. 

The first election held, after the election of Lincoln, was for the purpose 
of choosing delegates to a Constitutional Convention, to declare the status 
of Missouri to the Union, and determine whether or not Missouri should 
co-operate with the Union or the South. John R. Chenault, of Jasper 
county, and JN'elson McDowel of Dade county, were elected, both belonging 
to this sectional district, as then constituted. McDowel was an avowed 
Union man; while Chenault was a policy man, who afterwards gave his 
influence to the Confederate cause. 

It is but proper that we should remark in this connection that the two 
parties afterwards known as Union and Secessionist had, at that time, no 
settled organization. Many men who were open and avowed [Jnionists, and 
went to the polls in February and voted for the Union candidates for dele- 
gates to the Constitutonal Convention, after the capture of Camp Jackson 
in May, 1861, became most rampant advocates of the Southern Confederacy, 
while others who voted for delegates in favor of the South, at the same 
election, after having read President Lincoln's inaugural address, espoused 
the Union cause with equal zeal. 

Former party atfiliation and associations had nothing whatever to do in 



198 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

determining to which of the new parties a man would attach himself. Dem- 
ocrats, old line Whigs, and Know-nothings went side by side into both parties 
and both armies. 

By the act of the Constitutional Convention of 1861 and 1862, those 
sympathizing with the Rebellion were prohibited from exercising the elective 
franchise. By this means the electors were all Unionists, and that Unionists 
were uniformly elected to fill the oflSces of the county followed as a matter 
of course. It must not be understood, however, that there was but one polit- 
ical party. The difference of opinion even among the Unionists was quite 
as marked and distinctive as is usually found in two contending parties. 
The two parties that then existed were locally known as " radical " and " con- 
servative," their chief difl'erence being in their ideas as to the manner in 
which the war should be conducted. The radical element of the Union 
party constituted those who voted the Republican ticket, while the conser- 
vative element constituted what might be termed War Democrats, and voted 
the Democratic or conservative ticket. The latter party was largely in the 
minority for some time after the close of the M^ar, the Republicans filling all 
the county offices. 

The revised Constitution of the State of Missouri, which went into ope- 
ration on and after July 4, 1865, contained the " test oath " or " iron clad 
oath," as it was popularly termed, by which many, though not having taken 
an active part against the Union during the war, could not well establish 
their loyalty, hence were denied any right at the polls. 

Under the operation of this test oath, ministers, lawyers, and teachers 
were restrained from exercising the functions of their professions in this 
county, except such as had taken and subscribed to a copy of the same and 
filed it with the county clerk. The taking of this oath was also a condition 
precedent to holding office, serving on juries, and exercising the elective 
franchise. To enforce this oath, as applied to voters, a registration law was 
enacted, creating the office of registrar. Samuel B. LaForce was first ap- 
pointed supervisor of registration for this county. The supervisor of regis- 
tration appointed a registering officer for each township. LaForce's term 
expired in 1868 and Thomas Buckbee was appointed to fill the office. A 
registration board was then appointed, which sat three days in each town- 
ship, giving those who wished to take the oath an opportunity of so doing. 
After the liberal Republicans carried the state and county, in the fall of 
1870, all restrictions were removed. 

Among the old line Whigs in Jasper county we find the following names: 
Elwood B. James, John R. Chenault, William M. Chenault, John J. Sil- 
cott, John Fitzgerald, Beleg Spencer, Samuel Sanders, B. F. McCurdy, Rice 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 199 

Challis, Samuel B. Briglit, Edmund R. Griffith, Judge James Haggard, 
and Sinnet Rankin. Among the Jacksonian Democrats were Samuel Mel- 
iigin, John M. Richardson, Jeremiah Cravens, Judson Keith, Andrew M. 
McKee, Samuel M. Cooley, Mark Richardson, Nelson Knight, Joseph 
Dangherty, Archibald McCoy, Jonathan Rush, and Milton Stevenson. The 
last two .mentioned, while they were in the Union service, were imprisoned 
in Little Rock, Arkansas. They were permitted to return home, but the se- 
vere treatment which they received rendered their remaining days short. 

We have procured a list of the names of some of the persons killed in the 
war, which we will insert here. 

The following is an alphabetical list of residents of Jasper county who 
were killed in the civil war, on both sides. We suppose the list is far from 
complete, but enough names are here given to show that Jasper county was 
bloody ground. Recounting these terrible deeds, even during the present 
generation, while the recollection of them is still fresh in the memory, it 
seems almost beyond belief. But it has always been thus in civil wars, and 
will always remain so, because the human heart is desperately wicked: 

The first man killed in the county after the beginning of the war was 
George W. Brown, in August, 1861. He was extensively engaged in trading 
at his farm near the present site of Georgia City, and was killed in day- 
light, and his premises plundered, and forty head of horses and ponies run 
off into Kansas. The men who did this dastardly act afterwards divided 
into both armies. 

The first man hung was John Ireland, near Medoc, sometime in Septem- 
ber following. It was thougiit he had participated in the killing of George 
W. Brown. 

Abraham Matthews, living on Opossum Creek, was the third man killed, 
sometime in the fall of 1861. 

Arthur was wounded in the night-time, near where John Cowen 

lives, from which wonnds he died. 

John Bishop was killed by the Federals, near Sherwood, at the Rader 
place. His body was cast into the house and burned with a lot of negro 
troops which the rebels had killed the day before. 

Moses J. Baker took an active part in the war. Was with Livingston; 
was captured by the Federals at Sherwood; taken to Ft. Scott, and then 
killed by some parties who had ridden out with him. 

Dr. Beck and son, living between Bower's Mills and Mt. Vernon, were 
killed in their door-yard by the rebels and the house burned. There was 
considerable of a skirmish before they were captured, and a rebel lieutenant 
was wounded in the head. 



200 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Richard Burris was killed on the streets in Sarcoxie by the Union army, 
in daylight. 

Littleberry Bedford was killed at the old Neosho ford on Center Creek, 
by the Federals. 

George W. Broome, living near the present site of Georgia City, was 
killed in his own door by some marauders from Kansas, about the com- 
mencement of the war, and his premises plundered. 

Peter Baker was killed by the rebels in a skirmish one mile east of Car- 
thage, in 1864. 

Reece Crabtree, living in Newton county, was wounded at Moses Arch- 
er's, near Pilot Grove, by the rebels. He was taken to Solomon Rothen- 
berger's, and kept therefor a day or so, and then an escort started with him 
for Neosho; while on the way he died. Just after he died a partj^ of bush- 
whackers overtook the train for the purpose of killing Crabtree. 

Orange Clark, killtd by the rebels in a skirmish a mile east of Carthage 
in 1864. He lived on White Oak near the Lawrence county line. 

Edward Cagle, living vhere Mossville now is, was killed by the state 
militia in his own yard. 

Latham Duncan, killed at the same time that J. M. Stemmons was killed, 
and by the same party. 

James G. Ennis, killed by Colonel Ritchie's Indians near Shirley's ford, 
just south of where Georgia City is now situated. Quite a number were 
killed at the same time. 

Capt. Henry Fisher and John De Graffenried were killed one night in the 
road, near Furnass Fisher's house, ten miles east of Carthage. They were 
on their way to see their families, and were apprehended by a squad of reb- 
els who shot them. 

Capt. Fisher had a son captured by the rebels, and killed in daylight 
about two miles from Oregon. 

Thomas Fountain was captured at his own house near Minersville, by the 
rebels, in the fall of 1862, and a few days thereafter was killed on Pool's 
prairie, south of Neosho. 

Finney, killed at Moses Archer's, near Pilot Grove, by Federals. 

Dr. E. R. Griffith was shot by the Federals, a little east of where McCar- 
thy's lumber yard now is, in August, 1864. He boarded with T. B. Heusted. 

Brice Henry, a lieutenant in the Union army was killed in the skirmish 
east of Carthage, in 1864. 

Titus B. Heusted, living in the brick house, near the woolen mill, occu- 
pied by William Meyers was killed by the Federals, near McDaniel's mill, 
in August, 1864. 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 201 

Thomas R. Hazelwood was killed in his own door-yard in day-time by 
some troops that came down from Cedar county shortly after the skirmish 
east of Carthage, in 1864. 

Dick Hall was killed by state militia in Newton conntj. He lived on 
Center Creek. 

Jabez T. F. Hatcher, killed by Federals, sometime in 1863. He lived 
near where Webbville now is. 

Channcey Jackson was an old resident of the county. Had been with 
Livingston awhile, and afterwards came to the Union army in Carthage. 
He was shot by some unknown party, in the road, in front of Mr. L. J. 
Bnrch's house on Grant Street, in Carthage. The party who shot him was 
hid behind one of the blackjack trees in the Presbyterian church lot. 

Oliver Johnson was killed by Colonel Ritchey's Indians, at Labette Creek, 
Kansas. 

Alfred Lawrence, one of Captain Stott's men, was killed in a ten mile run- 
ning fight with the rebels which commenced near the Hunter House. 

Thomas R. Livingston, a noted rebel captain, was killed at Stockton, Ce- 
dar count}'. Was engaged in mining in this county prior to the war, near 
Minersville. 

Moses Lake, killed by Colonel Ritchey's Indians near Georgia City, 

Abraham Matthews, living on Opossum Branch, ten miles north of Car- 
thage, was killed by rebels in the summer of 1861, near his house in daytime. 

John Meadors, killed bv the Federals in Driver's field at the mouth of 
White Oak, in 1863. 

Jonas Meadors, killed in day-time by the Federals, near the Melugin farm 
on Spring River ten miles east of Carthage. 

William Montgomery, a Union man, was murdered south of Petefish's 
house, eight miles west of Carthage, by Colonel Ritchey's Indians. He pre- 
tended to be a rebel to the Indians. 

Joshua Martin, living between Kendrick's place and where Jacob Jack- 
son's house now stands, a mile north of Carthage, was killed by the Feder- 
als in August, 1864. 

Moses Meador, bushwhacker, got into a quarrel with one of his own party 
and was killed. 

John McKinney, living on North Fork, near Nashville, was killed at his 
own house one night in 1864. Supposed to be by the Federals. 

Thomas Martin, living near Sherwood on Turkey Creek, killed at his own 
gate in day-time, by the Federals. 

James McBride, living at the head of Turkey Creek, was killed by the 
Federals in 1863, on the prairie near James Webb's. 



202 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Thomas McBride, killed in Newton county by tlie Federals. 

James Petty, killed by the Federals, in Carthage, near Yonng & Caffee's 
drug store. 

Win. Parkinson, a citizen of this county, and a companion of Thomas K. 
Livingston, was wounded in Saline county and died there. 

Umphrey Robinson, living on White Oak, near the Jasper county line, 
was taken prisoner by the rebels while in the Held plowing and was never 
heard from after that. 

Wm. Rader, killed by Federals. Lived near Sherwood; was killed at 
Turkey Creek. 

John Snodgrass, killed by Indians, at Shirley's ford on Spring River. 

Levi Sly, was taken prisoner at Thomas Buck's on White Oak, by the 
rebels and killed. 

George Sly, was taken from his bed sick and carried into the door-yard 
and shot by the rebels, sometime in 1863, only a short distance from Mr. 
Buck's house on White Oak. 

William B. Southard, a Union man living west of Minersville (now Oro- 
nogo), was captured near Fort Scott, Kansas, by the rebels, and it is sup- 
posed he was hung near Smithfield. 

Dan Stith, killed by Ritchey's Indians, at Willow Springs, three miles 
north of Oronogo. 

Peter Storms, killed by Federals at his house near Galesburg. 

Jaquilian M. Stemmons, killed by the rebels, two and a half miles north- 
east of Avilla in 1862. 

Wm. Storms, son of Peter Storms, living at Galesburg, was killed near 
the Center Creek Mines, in 1864, by the Federals. 

Jack Sparlin, killed at the Georgia City massacre by the Indians. 

James Saunders, killed by the Federals in Mr. Wilson's yard, just this 
side of Center Creek, on the road to Sarcoxie. 

Fliram Thompson, living on Turkey Creek, was killed near the Franklin 
school-house, about a mile east of Joplin, December 23, 1863, by the Federals. 

Thoznas Thompson, lived on Turkey Creek, was killed in Newton county 
by state militia. 

Thomas G. Walton, living near the lower bridge, one mile northwest of 
Carthage, where the county fairs have since been held, was killed by the 
Federals in August. 1864, and his house burned. 

Beverly Windsor, killed at Willow Springs, three miles north of Miners- 
ville, by Ritchey's Indians. 

James Walker, living three and a half miles northwest of Carthage, was 
shot on his own porch by the Federals, one morning about daylight. 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 203 

Burns Walker, killed by Federals, on Turkey Creek, near Sherwood. 

Thomas Webb and son were captured at their house near Pilot Grove, 
and taken out about a mile south of there and killed by the Federals, in 1864. 

Wm. Wilkerson, livin;^ about a mile north of Joplin, near Pilot Grove, 
was killed in Newton county, by the state militia, 

John Wilson was killed by the Federals in his own door-yard at the Cen- 
ter Creek ford on the road leading from Carthage to Sarcoxie. 

Joseph Zoph, killed at Shirley's ford near Georgia City, by Colonel 
Eitchey's Indians. 

It is said that the public press of a county furnish the most reliable and 
full annals of the history of that county which can be gathered; to a greater 
extent, perhaps, it may be said that the same organs of passing events and 
popular sentiment are the most authentic indication of political manifesta- 
tions at any particular time, A few extracts from the different party organs 
at various times are given below. 

We clip the following from the salutatory of the Carthage Banner of 
December 15, 1866, at this time pnblished by Garland & Cunningham, 
the first paper advocating Republican principles in this town since the late 
war: "Believing there is no more half-way ground in politics than in war, 
the Banner will advocate radical doctrines, and indorse the policy that the 
party which saved the nation should rule it. The elections held recently 
were glorious in their results, and in our beloved state the great and lasting 
benefits arising therefrom can scarcely be estimated. Thousands of good 
and loyal citizens will now come among us, and assist in making this por- 
tion of the state fulfill the glorious destin}' marked out by the hand of her 
Creator. True, the election is over, and the victory w^on; but the work 
does not stop here." * -x^ * 

We also take the radical state platform, passed at the state convention at 
Jefferson City, on the sixteenth and seventeenth of July, 1868, with some of 
the Banner'' n comments on the same: 

"1. Indorsement of the national platform; 2. Expression of thanks to 
the Democratic party for placing in nomination a man who openly sympa- 
thized with the rebels; 3. Acknowledgment of our just debts, and deter- 
mination to pay them honestly, just like a man of his word, or an honest, re- 
liable people would do; 4. Recommendation of impartial suftVage; 5. State- 
ment of state finances under Radical rule as compared with the financial 
condition of the state at the close of the last Democratic administration; 
6. Encouragement of strict economy and request for nomination for office 
of men of established character and honesty," 

"These are our declaration of principles, and with the exception of the fourth 



204 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

one, no Republican will hesitate a moment to say amen to every one. We 
expect a few of the least radical of the Republican party will require more 
or less argument, and proof of the absolute justice and necessit}^ of this res- 
olution, before they will indorse it fully, but we have no doubt when the 
issue is presented between the enfranchisement of a disloyal white man and 
the disfranchisement of the loyal black man, they will see the issue in its 
proper light. We indorse the platform and shall give it our support." 

We here give some resolutions passed by the Jasper county convention 
held September 23, 1880, which show the mind of the Republican party 
at that time: 

'•''Resolved^ Ist. That we, the Republicans of Jasper county, in convention 
assembled, take this opportunity to again declare our unwavering faith in 
Republican principles, our unalterable devotion to the party, and the vindi- 
cation of those principles in the nation. 2d. That we affirm as a declaration 
of our principles the platform adopted at the state Republican convention 
at St. Louis." 

We find the following: in the address of the Democratic executive com- 
mittee of Jasper county, as it appeared in the Carthage Patriot of June 13, 
1878, edited by S. D. Carpenter: 

" Most sincerely desiring to promote the interests of the masses, not only 
of our common country, but especially of Jasper county, and believing 
that the success of the principles of the Democratic party, especially in ref- 
erence to reforming the abuses that are rife in the administration of public 
afi"air8, and the bad management of the fiscal concerns of the government, 
including the derangement of the currency, we address you, in behalf of the 
principles and purposes of that f^arty, and ask your attention to the follow- 
ing facts and considerations." 

The following facts and considerations compose a lengthy address. We 
will give five propositions through which the party propose to work this 
reformation : 

"1. Repeal of the resumption act; 2. The free coinage of silver, and silver 
certificates, issued on silver bullion, the same in principle as are issued on 
gold bullion; 3. Repeal in toto of the national banking law; 4. Substitu- 
tion of greenbacks for national currency, with full legal tender power for all 
public and private debts, except where otherwise expressly stipulated; 
6. The issue of greenbacks in sufficient volume to meet all the wants of 
trade and commerce, so that our combined currenc}' shall equal at least an 
equivalent per capita with that of Great Britain or Fz'ance." 

In 1882 the Democratic fight was ostensibly made on the tariff question, 
but really in opposition to that portion relating to railroads. It might be 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 205 

supposed that this county, with so many miners, would be strongly in favor 
of a protective tariff, but we are informed that Judge Fyan, at that time a 
candidate on the county ticket, thoroughly canvassed Joplin and some 
other mining points, making speeches in favor of "a tariff for revenue 
only," and run ahead of his ticket, while his opponent was an outspoken ad- 
vocate of a " protective tariff." 

The Greenback party made their first canvass on strictly Greenback 
principles in 1876, supporting Peter Cooper as their candidate for Presi- 
dent of the United States; his votes in the county amounted to 520, which 
was the largest number of votes cast for him in any county in Missouri. 
The Press, edited by Messrs. Bodenhamer & St. John, is a Greenback ad- 
vocate, and to it we are indebted for the following declaration, issued during 
the canvass of 1882: 

"1. We favor township organization; 2. Weoppose the issue of bonds for 
current city or county expenditures; 3. We demand the pronjpt payment 
of all public debts; 4. We demand an economical expenditure of the pub- 
lic moneys; 5. We favor the unlimited coinage of gold and silver, and the 
substitution of legal tender currency issued by the government, in lieu of 
national bank notes, with provisions that will keep its volume uniform and 
at par; 6, We demand the overthrow of corruption at the polls and in rep- 
resentative bodies; 7. We demand a free ballot and a fair count; 8. To 
control by law and bring into subjection to the interests of the people all 
corporations and monopolies which have corrupted the public service, and 
by combination and extortion have established absolute dominion over 
money, over transportation, over invention, and over land and labor." 

The following votes will show something of the strength of the different 
political parties of the county since 1868: 

For President: U. S. Grant, Kep., 1,199; H. Seymour, Dem., 444. 

For Governor: McClurg, Rep., 1,067; Phelps, Dem., 470. 

1870— For Governor: J. W. McClurg, Rep., 1,006; B. Gratz Brown, 
Dem., 716. 

1872— For President: U. S. Grant, Rep., 2,092; Horace Greeley, Dem., 
1,333. 

1874— For Governor: Chas. H. Hardin, Dem., 1,493; Wm. Gentry, 
Granger, 1,686. 

1876— For President: R. B. Hayes, Rep., 3,139; S. J. Tilden, Dem., 2,- 
905; Peter Cooper, Greenback, 520. 

1878— For Congress: J. R. Waddell, 2,285; 0. G. Burton, 2,096; M. H. 
Ritchey, 1,722. 

1880- -For President: Jas. A. Garfield, Rep., 2,875; W infield S. Han- 
cock, Dem., 2,533; J. B. Weaver, Greenback, 1,111. 



206 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 



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HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 207 

In giving the official directory of Jasper county we find no little trouble 
in arranging the names and dates, from the fact that no record of the elec- 
tions have been preserved. It has been extremely difficult to determine 
when some of the county officers commenced the functions of their offices. 
The records have been carefully consulted, and with the aid of those remem- 
bering, a few of whom held the offices to which their names are attached, 
the roster can be relied upon as substantially correct. Every clerk of the 
county court should be required, by law, to keep an election book and offi- 
cial directory, which would greatly aid in the transaction of business, and 
which would grow more and more valuable in years to come. It should be 
remembered, in consulting this directory, that the dates indicate the begin- 
ning and close of the term of office. It may also show the election of some 
who did not serve. 

Sher'iffs. 

John P. Osborn .... 1841-1846 C. E. Spencer 1868-1872 

Sam'l B. LaForce . . 1846-1850 J . S. Zane 1872-1874 

John Potts 1850-1852 U. Hendrickson. . . .1874-1876 

T. F. Thompson.. ..1852-1856 J. C. Beamer 1876-1878 

N. 0. Hood 1856-1860 J. S. McBride 1878-1880 

Thomas J. Haskell . 1860-1861 R M. Roberts 1880-1884 

S. H. Caldwell 1865-1868 

County Court. 

Jeremiah Cravens. .1841-1842 Rice Challes 1855-1858 

Samuel M. Cooley . . 1841-1846 John Onstott 1856-1858 

Samuel B. Bright. . 1841-1842 Josiah Boyd 1858-1861 

Henry M. Zachery. . 1841-1842 John B. Higdon .... 1858-1861 

Moses Anglin 1842-1845 Daniel Hunt 1858-1860 

Wm. S. McGinnis . . 1842-1846 John B. Martin .... 1860-1861 

Jetson M. Keith . . . 1842-1846 Wm. B. Hamilton. . 1865-1867 

Jeremiah Cravens. . 1846-1849 F. B. Nichols 1865-1867 

Andrew M. McKee . 1846-1850 Thomas Caldwell. . . 1 865-1867 

J. H. McPhatredge . 1846-1849 John Hornback. . . . 1867-1868 

A. M. Dawson 1849-1850 John Percell 1857-1872 

Joseph Daugherty . . 1849-1850 W. J. Cameron .... 1867-1868 

Thomas G. Walton . 1850-1858 W. B. Hamilton . . . 1868-1868 

John M. Fullerton. . 1850-1855 Isaac E. Koontz ... 1868-1873 

Milton Stevenson. . . 1850-1855 J. T. Willoughby.. . . 1868-1871 

George E. Ward . . . 1855-1856 R. S. Merwiu 1871-1873 



208 



HISTOKY OF JASPER COUNTY. 



County Court- 

S. M. Williams.... 1872-1873 

C. C. Conard 1873-1873 

Wra. H. Rusk 1873-1873 

M. G. McGregor. . . 1873-1873 

John C. Cox 1873-1874 

Leander Green 1873-1875 

David Hopkins 1874-1875 

Wm. Bjers 1875-1876 

Josiab Lane 1876-1878 



—Continued. 

Wm. Byers 1878-1880 

G. W. Scott 1878-1880 

Isaac Schooler 1878-1880 

Isaac C. Hodson . . . 1880-188 2 

J. I. Hall 1880-1882 

Wm. Byers 1880-1882 

W. S. Bower 1882— 

James Haggard. . . .1882 — 
J. H.Cook 1882— 



A. Ferris (died). . 
Elwood B. James. 
Stan field Ross, . . 
Wm. G. Biilgin . . . 



County Clerks. 

.1841-1841 Sam. B. LaForce.. ..1867-1871 

1841-1859 A. E. Gregory 1871-1874 

. 1859-1861 George Blakeney. . . 1874-1882 



1865-1867 



John K Wilson.. .1882— 



Prior to 1871 the county clerk was also circuit clerk and ex officio re- 
corder. 

Circuit Clerks. 

Circuit clerk same as county clerk until 1871. 

Josiah Lane 1871-1875 W. A. Williams. ..1878-1882 

Meredith Taylor 1875-1878 Isaac C. Hodson . . 1882— 

Recorders. 
Previous to 1874 the circuit clerk was recorder. 

James A. Bolen 1874-1878 J. P. Newell 1882— 

John W. Burch 1878-82 



George Hornback (resigned 

tember 4) 1841- 

John J. Scott 1841- 

Henry H. Zachery . . . 1843- 
Lewis H. Scruggs. . .1846- 
Wm. M. Chenault...l852- 
Archibald McCoy ... 1860- 
Jessc H. Fullerton (served 
three months).. . .1865- 



Treasurers. 

Sep: Jas. F. Spencer. . .1865-1866 

1841 George Rader 1866-1867 

1843 Norris C. Hood . . . 1867-1868 

1846 Josiah Lane 1868-1870 

1852 Richard Griffith.. .1870-1874 

1860 John Onstott 1874-1880 

1861 A. H. Caffee 1880-1882 

only Wm. S. Carson . . . 1882— 
■1865 



HISTORY Oij JASPER COUNTY. 209 

Judge of Comm.on Pleas Court. 

This court was established in 1867 and abolished by the legislature iu 
1877, the act taking effect in 1878. 

Oliver H. Picher (resigned in 1873) 1867-1873 

E. O. Brown 1873-1878 

Judge of Pr oh ate Court. 

The presiding judge of the county court had probate jurisdiction until 
1878. 

Willis H. Kilgore (was elected) 1878-1882 

Willis H. Kilgore (re-elected) 1882— 

Term of office four years. 

Clerk of Common Pleas Court. 

The judge of this court acted as clerk from 1867 to 1870. 

Josiah Lane (by appointment) 1870-1870 

W. C. Betts (elected) 1870-1878 

Collectors. 

Sheriffs were collectors until 1877. 

Thomas Wakefield . . 1877-1878 Harry Hubbart .... 1880-1882 
W. E. Hall 1878-1880 J. F. Daugherty, . . . 1882— 

Prosecuting Attorneys. 

James McBride 1811-181:1: James Allison. .. . .1867-1868 

Wm. C. Jones .... 1844-1845 G. W. Randolph . . .1868-1869 

John T. Coffee 1845-1854 John Q. Page 1869-1871 

E. B. Boone 1854-1857 A. L. Thomas 1871-1872 

Andrew T. Hann . . . 1857-1860 H. H.Woodmansee. 1872-1874 

Joseph Cravens .... 1 860-1861 A. L. Thomas 1874-1876 

Wm. M. Cravens... 1861-1861 G-alen Spencer 1876-1878 

Joseph Estes 1865-1866 J. W. Mc Antire . . . 1878-1880 

James Allison 1866-1867 T. B. Haughawout.. . 1880-1884 

Geo. W. Randolph. .1867-1867 

Judges of Circuit Court. 

Charles S. Yancey. . 1841-1856 B. L. Hendrick (died in fall of 

Wm. C. Price 1856-1857 1874) 1868-1874 

John R. Chenault. 1857-1861 Joseph Cravens. .. .1874-1880 

John C. Price . . . .1865-1868 M. G. McGregor. . .1880— 
U 



210 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 



Representatives. 

Samuel Melugin 1842-1844 Unrepresented from 1862-1864 

J. M. Kichardson . . . 1844-1846 James McFarland . . 1864-1866 

Thomas Mansfield. . 1846-1848 Edmund Bnrch , . . 1866-1868 

Samuel Melugin. . .1848-1850 J. M. Young 1868-1870 

Samuel B.LaForce.. 1850-1852 Wm. F. Cloud ... .1870-1872 

Archibald McCoy. .1852-1854 J. M. Cravens 1872-1874 

David Norris 1854-1856 Wm. H. Phelps. . . .1874-1876 

James Cravens 1856-1858 Alonzo Cameron . . . 1876-1878 

Wm. N. Warren . . . 1858-1860 J. Schooler, E. D. . . 1882— 

John B. Dale 1860-1862 J. F. Martin, W. D.. 1882— 



CHAPTER IX.— RELIGIOUS HISTORY. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church — Eev. Anthony Bewley — Carthage Circuit — Medoc Circuit 
— Sarcoxie Circuit — History of Presbyterianism — Congregationalism in Jasper County — 
Jasper County Sunday-schools. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church. — Of all the churches in Jasper county 
it is not probable that any other vs^as called to pass through the same event- 
ful and dismembering scenes of trial as did the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
The dicussion of the slavery question in the general conference, the disap- 
proval of slavery as an institution by those who remained in the old church, 
and the natural suspicions visited upon those born and educated in the 
Northern and Eastern states caused the members, and especially the minis- 
ters of the M. E. Church, very often to stand in a most unfavorable light 
among many of the Southern people. As the people, the whole county in- 
deed, became agitated, this quiet atmosphere of suspicion became more and 
more disturbed until at length the storm clouds of revolution, mingling 
with false rumors, impassioned prejudices, and lightning flashes of perse- 
cution, swept with relentless fury over the field, desolating homes, devasta- 
ting the churches, leaving little save the burning embers of passion and 
ashes of ruin everywhere in the Southwest. Yet upon this desolated, and 
once terror-stricken field, where the very founders and chief pastors of the 
church, by fierce persecution, not only "suffered the loss of all things," but 
even death itself; upon this very field has been raised up a harvest for this 
church that exceeds in organization and numbers that of any other county 
outside the city of St. Louis. 



HISTORY OF .JASPER COUNTY. 211 

This eventful history began as early, perhaps, as 1830. But no official 
record is at hand concerning this county until ISii, when Rev. Anthony 
Bewley was appointed by the Missouri Conference, held in St. Louis, to the 
Sarcoxie circuit. It is, at least, very probable that he organized the church 
here during tlie previous year while he was pastor of Neosho circuit. It is 
stated by some of the original settlers that Rev. Anthony Bewley organized 
the first Methodist Episcopal Church in Jasper county, at Cave Springs, at 
or near the date already indicated. 

If this sweet-spirited man of God had become a great missionary or an 
honored bishop in the church, a brief reference to the fact would be all that 
would be written, but when the name of Anthony Bewley has become al- 
most as familiar throughout the Methodist Episcopal Church as the name 
of the first Christian martyr, when all impartial historians must with one 
voice say that Anthony Bewley was intensely devoted to his own work of 
preaching the gospel of Christ, that he did this with great meekness and 
fidelity, with a single purpose and a holy aim, with a warm heart and a 
blameless, even a beautiful life, and when it must be said he died a martyr 
at the hands of a cruel mob which dragged him away from his family and 
hastened him far frona friends to die by wicked hands without trial, defense, 
or any show of justice, and this for no other crime than his relation to the 
prejudice and suspicions arising from his faithful adherence to the church 
of his birth and his choice, it is therefore proper to give a brief account of 
his life and innocent death. 

Rev. Anthony Bewley was born in Tennessee, May 22, 1804. His father, 
John Bewley, was a local minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
When seventeen years of age Anthony joined the church, and made a pro- 
fession of religion the year following. At the Holsten Conference held at 
Abingdon, Virginia, December 24, 1829, he was admitted into the itinerant 
ministry. In 1837 he immigrated to Missouri and settled in Polk county 
and did tlie work of a local preacher for several years. At the Missouri 
Conference held at Lexington, Missouri, October 4, 1843, he was again 
united with the traveling ministry and appointed to Neosho circuit. He 
was appointed to Washington, Missouri, in 1848; to Sarcoxie in 1849; to 
Springfield district as presiding elder in 1850; to Texas Mission District as 
presiding elder in 1854. He was elected to the general conference which 
assembled at Indianapolis in 1856. His labors in Texas were continued 
until 1860. During this year the excitements preceding the war became un- 
restrained in Texas. The legislature, by its spirit and declarations, encour- 
aged the people to drive out any and every one upon whom the hated preju- 
dices of inflamed passion might chance to fall. This gave loose reign to 



212 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

false rumors and worse passions and brought to the active front a class 
of society hitherto restrained by a vigorous execution of law. Bad men 
were unscrupulous as to the means employed to rid the country of imagi- 
nary foes. When false rumors were not sufficient other means were not 
wanting. To reach the case of Mr. Bewley a forged letter purporting to be 
written by W. H. Baily (a person never identified and, no doubt, one who 
never existed), containing references to escaping slaves and the burning of 
Southern towns, was said to be found addressed to "Rev. Wm. Bully." This 
forged letter was published in many papers as genuine, and cruel comments 
freely given. Many believed, finally, that the letter was not only found ad- 
dressed to Mr. Bewley, but also signed, and hence written by him. These, 
and other more contradictory rumors, so hedged up the way of usefulness 
that a return to Missouri was thought wise and necessary. But a wicked 
plot against an innocent minister of the gospel had already done its work. 
During that time of ceaseless agitation and fanatical condemnation the logic 
seemed to be "if any man, with or without his consent, has addressed to him 
an incendiary letter, either genuine or forged, he deserves to die." While 
in Barry county, Missouri, yet on his way homeward with his family, he 
was surrounded by a mob, torn away from his loved ones, and carried back 
to Fort Worth, and there, suddenly, without friends, jury, trial, or any show 
of justice, yet calm, innocent, hoary-headed, and helpless, he was hung and 
hastily buried. The following aifectionate letter written to his family while 
in the hands of his captors and hastening to his merciless fate, indicates the 
innocent, heroic, and Christian spirit of this great and good man: 

"Fayetteville, Arkansas, September 5, 1860. 
'■'Dear Wife and Children — I never took up my pen under such circum- 
stances before. I shall never, in this life, expect to see you, but I shall look 
to meet you all with our little babe that has already gone * * *. 
The reason why I so speak, in these times of heated excitement, mole hills 
are raised mountains high, and when there are none it is frequently imag- 
ined they see something. That being the case, it seems to me enough to 
know that we are "ISTorthern Methodists," as they are called, and from what 
we learned in Texas of that Fort Worth committee, thev have sworn ven- 
geance against all such. But dear wife and children (who are large enough 
to know about these things), know, that so far as 1 am concerned, all these 
things are false. You know, as well as I do, that none of these things have 
ever been countenanced about our house, but that we have repudiated such 
to the last. You, ray love, will have the lasting satisfaction to know that 
your liusband was innocent, for yon have been with me for twenty-six years 
and your constitution is emaciated and gone down to feebleness. You will 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY, 213 

have to spend the remaining part of your life a bereaved widow, with your 
orphan children, with one blind daughter. As I was taken away and not 
permitted to see you that I might bid you and the children farewell, I have 
to do it this way * * *. I would say to all, try to continue your 
way onward to heaven. Tell George and baby when they get old enough 
they must seek religion and meet Pa in Heaven. Do what you can with 
your scant means. I have feelings; I can't tell you how I feel for you, there 
on the road in your wagons * * but I can only leave you in the 
hands of Him in whom I put my trust * * *. I now subscribe 
myself your affectionate husband and father "Anthony Bewley." 

Rev. Mark Robinson was the co-laborer of Mr. Bewley and traveled the 
Sarcoxie circuit for three successive years from 1845 to 1848. Mr. Bewley 
was appointed to Sarcoxie circuit by Bishop James, August 29, 1849. Rev. 
W, J. Markman became his colleague on the same work, but during the year 
he sickened and died. Rev. J. K. Alderman became pastor during 1851; 
December of the same year, Rev. S. H. Carlisle was appointed to the same 
field, now called Carthage Mission; he was succeeded by Rev. J. M. Pape, 
and in 1853 by Rev. D. W. Wise. January 21, 1854, Rev. J. Doughty be- 
came pastor, and Rev. A. Bewley, presiding elder. Rev. C. C. Arrington was 
preacher in charge in 1855; Rev. S. H. Carlisle again in 1856; Rev. James 
Hanan, 1857; Rev. Benjamin Hall, 1860, and the later part of the same 
year, Rev. Henry Hubbard. During the civil war no records were kept 
and but few services held. In 1865, or early in 1866, Rev. L. M. Yernon, 
D. D,, as presiding elder of the Springfield district, reorganized the work in 
Jasper county. 

Carthage Circuit was the first form of the organization with Rev. J. 0. 
Willoughby as pastor in 1866-67. At the close of this year the pastor re- 
ported two hundred and seventy members, and eighteen local preachers. 

The organization of Carthage Station in 1868, and additional charges 
from time to time, frequently changed the boundaries of the circuit, but the 
following constitutes a correct list of pastors: Rev. E. P. F. Wells, 1868-69; 
Rev. W. A. Stephens, 1870; and Rev. I. Entwistle, 1871. As the town of 
Avilla contained the parsonage, the residence of the pastor, the formation 
of a new circuit called Avilla changed very much the strength and character 
of the Carthage circuit. The remaining portion with additional, newly de- 
veloped appointments, was served in 1872 by Rev. A. Y. Grayham; 1873-74, 
by Rev. J, M. Stone, yet an honored citizen of this county. The work was 
then blended with other new pastorates formed within the county and Car- 
thage Circuit does not appear upon the records until 1878, when Rev. A. 



214 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Barber was assigned the pastorate. It again disappears until 1881, when 
Rev. E. H. Hopkins became preacher in charge for two years. Rev. E. J. 
King, the present incumbent, was appointed March 19, 1883; his residence 
is in Carthage, and thus he occupies the center of a large list of appoint- 
ments in a well developed agricultural community. 

Medoc Circuit was organized in 1868, with Rev. II. H. Ashbaugh as pas- 
tor; in 1869, Rev. F. S. Haughawout; 1870, Rev. G. W. Dunn; 1871-72, 
Rev. J. W. D. Endsy. The numerous preaching places were then blended 
into newly formed fields of labor. 

Diainond Grove Circuit was formed in 1870 with Rev. H. H. Ashbaugh 
as pastor; in 1871, Rev. M. II. Smith; and 1872, Rev. R. W. F. Smith. 
This field was not wholly in Jasper county, and like Medoc Circuit was ab- 
sorbed in the more extensive and convenient formation of new charcjes. 

Sarcoxie Circuit. — This, although the original field of earliest history, 
was not reorganized as such after the war until 1872, when Rev. R. W. 
McMaster remained in charge for three successive years. In 1875 Rev. H. 
H. Ashbaugh became pastor for the full itinerant term of three years. In 
1878 Rev. E. H. Hopkins also followed in a full three years pastorate. 
Rev. R. W. McMaster again became pastor during the year 1881. Rev. 
W. Buck, the present pastor, was appointed in March, 1882, and also re-ap- 
pointed in 1883. 

Avilla Circuit was organized mostly from various appointments belong- 
ing to other charges. In 1872 Rev. J. Garner became pastor for three suc- 
cessive years. This full term was followed by a similar one of three years 
by Rev. E. H. Hopkins. In 1877 it was merged into adjoining fields, but 
restored again in 1879, and Rev. A. Barber became pastor for two years. 
In 1881 Rev. J. A. Smith was assigned the pastoral oversight. In 1882 
and 1883 Rev. J. J. Martin, the present pastor, perpetuates the itinerant 
succession. 

Jojplin Charge was organized in 1873, and Rev. R. W. F. Smith became 
pastor for one year. During this time a church w^as built and dedicated. 
In 1874 Rev. A. N. Field was appointed and remained in charge two years. 
The spring of 1876 Rev. H. Dal ton was assigned the charge. In 1877 Rev. 
S. Alexander; 1878 Rev. J. B. Lee; 1879 Rev. J. B. Daniel. The work 
was then supplied irregularly until 1882, when Rev. O. M. Martin was ap- 
pointed. March, 1883, by the St. Louis Conference, assembled at Clinton, 
Missouri, Rev. J. R. Wolf, the present preacher in charge, was assigned 
this promising, yet laborious, field of duty. During 1882 a new brick 
church was projected and involved in debt, but under a more judicious 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 215 

management will soon be found unembarrassed and most favorably sur- 
rounded. 

Oronogo Circuit was organized in 1875, Rev. J. Welsh became pastor 
until tlie spring of 1877, when Rev. Jasper A. Smith was appointed. In 
1878 Rev. J. Miller and Rev. C. S. Reville were pastors. Also Rev. J. 
Miller in 1879. Rev. J. J. Martin became pastor for two years, when the 
work was left to be supplied by the conference of 1883. 

Carterville and Webb City was organized into a separate work in the 
spring of 1883, and Rev. J. N. Moore was appointed in charge. During 
he terrible cyclone of May 14, 1883, the new church at Carterville, costing 
upwards of three thousand dollars, was laid in ruins. 

These, including Carthage Station, are the present charges within Jasper 
county. In addition to these there are numerous preaching appointments 
kept up within and beyond these regular charges by local preachers that 
bring forth abundant fruit. In March, 1883, a new district was formed for 
the Southwest, called the Carthage district, with Rev. I. J. K. Lunbeck as 
presiding elder, with headquarters in Carthage. We have not taken the 
space assigned us to enumerate statistics, or to detail the local history of 
church and parsonage building. To summarize very briefly: in addition to 
the local preachers not regularly employed there are now within the county 
seven charges, with a's many regular pastors, four parsonages, nine church 
buildings, a membership of thirteen hundred and sixteen, and church and 
parsonage property definitely estimated at thirty-five thousand dollars. 

It is just and well to say that those Methodist intinerants, having either 
previous to the civil war or in more modern times labored within Jasper 
county, speak most kindly of these fields of labor. Preceding and following 
the war there prevailed a more cordial, public-spirited feeling among all 
churches than is usually' found. No doubt this friendly feeling among the 
churches, and for the churches, had more to do with the quantity and char- 
acter of the immigration and the subsequent development and prosperity in 
Jasper county than can in any way be known, excepting in contrast with 
those towns and counties which had it not. 

History of Presbyterianism. — The religious history of Jasper county, so 
far as concerns the organization of churches and the erection of houses of 
worship, may properly be said to have begun at the close of the war. 

Existing organizations had become so scattered that reorganization be- 
came necessary. Without attempting any statement as to the order of time 
in which the various denominations entered upon their work, this account 
necessarily has to do with the special work of the Presbyterian Church, in 



216 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

meeting the spiritual needs of the rapidly increasing population that began 
to enter Jasper county at the close of the war. 

Churches. — The first Presbyterian organization was effected in Car- 
thage, the county seat, August 4, 1867, with a membership of eleven, which 
was soon after placed under the pastoral care of Rev, John W. Finkerton, a 
man of earnest Christian character and public spirit. His labors in Car- 
thage and elsewhere throughout the county continued for five years, and 
left a decided impress on the moral and religious interests of a rapidly 
growing population. Following this was the organization, in 1871, of the 
Presbyterian Church of Preston, with ten members. This was in one of 
the oldest communities of the county. 

Salem Church, eight miles north of Carthage, was organized in 1872, by 
Rev. W. L. Miller, who also, in 1873, organized the Shiloh Church, in the 
northeastern part of the county. These two churches were planted in the 
midst of as fine an agricultural region as can be found in the Southwest, 
and they are composed of an intelligent and enterprising people. 

In the meantime, the town of Joplin had been rapidl}' growing in impor- 
tance, and the request was made that a Presbyterian Church should be or- 
ganized there, and the Rev. Benjamin F. Powelson, of JSTeosho, Missouri, 
was authorized to effect the orgaization. which was accomplished April 24, 
1874, with a membership of thirteen. 

Rev. W. L. Miller, in 1875, organized Grace Presbyterian Church, in the 
east end of the county, not far from Avilla, with a membership of nineteen. 
In 1877 Rev. W. S. Knight and Rev. L. K. Campbell organized the 
church of Webb City, with nine members, and in the same year Revs. W. 
S. Knight and Thos. H. Allen organized the Center Presbyterian Church, 
five miles south of Carthage, with a membership of ten. Trinity Church, 
at Medoc, and Madison Church, eight miles northeast of Carthage, were or- 
ganized by Rev. Thos. H. Allen in 1878, which completes the roll of Pres- 
byterian Churches at present in Jasper county, ten in number. These 
churches have grown from a membership of 140 to 391. Five of them 
have houses of worship, and two others are making arrangements to build at 
once. To aid in the erection of these buildings the Presbyterian Board of 
Church Erection has expended $3,500, in addition to the amount contrib- 
uted by the churches themselves, thus securing property to the amount of 
at least $15,000. And to aid these churches in meeting their financial obli- 
gations while yet weak the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions has 
granted probably $12,000. These amounts have come from the benevolent 
funds of the church at large, to contribute directly to the moral and religious 
interests of a new region. 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 217 

Sj^ecial mention is made of these facts in this connection as an evidence 
of that community of interest that binds all sections together, bringing the 
older and wealthier portions of country to the aid of the newer and feebler 
ones; showing, too, the wisdom of those systematic and large-hearted 
schemes of Christian benevolence, by which the hands of the strong are 
reached out to the assistance of the weak. 

Ministers. — Having treated more especially of the organizations that 
have been planted as centers of moral and religious influence for all the 
futnre, it remains to speak of the men who have done or are doing their 
work and are to pass away. 

The Kev. John McFarland and Eev. W. E,. Fulton, both of Greenfield, 
Missouri, did effective ])ioneer work in Jasper county in its early history, 
and both have *one to their reward. 

Rev. John W, Pinkerton, the first pastor of the Presbyterian Church at 
Carthage, was the next in the point of time, and, being a man of decided 
missionary spirit, he did good service in the county for the period of five, 
years, after which he removed to lola, Kansas, continuing there in the ac- 
tive work of the ministry until his death. 

Rev. W. L. Miller labored in the northern and eastern part of the county, 
planting and serving churches, which give high promise of future efficiency, 
in the midst of intelligent and enterprising farming communities, and 
which, after an absence of three years in Texas, he has returned to serve. 
He was efficiently aided by Rev. Thos. H. Allen, who labored for a time in 
the same field, and organized other churches, but who removed from the 
county in 1880. 

Rev. Squire Glascock labored for two or three years in Joplin, and was 
followed by Rev. D. K. Campbell, under whose ministry and efforts a good 
brick building was erected free from debt. Revs. Henry Wood and George 
H. Williamson each served the Joplin church one year. Rev. Clark 
Salmon of Illinois came to Webb City in 1880 and served that church for 
more than two years, when he was laid aside by failing health. 

Rev. W. A. Cravens came from Danville, Kentucky, to begin his minis- 
try in the churches of Salem aad Shiloh, and spent three years of active 
service, which was attended with practical and permanent results, after 
which he removed from the county to Knob Noster, Missouri. 

Rev. Hiram Hill succeeded Rev. J. W, Pinkerton in the Carthage church, 
but after a year and a half had to relinquish his work on account of im- 
paired health. Rev. T. O. Rice, of Des Moines, Iowa, succeeded him; who 
likewise after a year and a half of labor had to retire on account of his 



218 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

health. In the summer of 1875 Rev. W, S. Knight entered on the pas- 
torate of this church, in which he continues at the present writing. 

This is a brief summary of the work that has been accomplished so far as 
ontward results show in organizing churches, erection of buildings, and 
gathering in of numbers. And yet this is the smallest part of a history — 
that includes the laying of foundations for all the future, of these moral and 
religious' influences that are moulding and blessing society. The material 
resources in the midst of which these influences are to be felt, and the 
attractiveness of this favored region over which they are to wield their power, 
are almost unlimited; and the sacrifices that have, been made of effort and 
means in these early days are but the sowing which will yet wave in abun- 
dant harvests. And it'js said, with no narrow spirit", that the Presbyterian 
Church, in its systematized work, and its conservative influehce, and its lib- 
eral spirit of cooperation with every evangelical church of Christ, is here to 
perform its mission for God, a»d every interest dear to man for all the 
/uture. 

Congregationalism in Jasper County. — Congregationalism is true de- 
mocracy applied to church affairs. The principles of Congregationalism 
are those upon which our government is based. The Revolutionary strug- 
gle for freedom and the Declaration of Independence, were the necessary re- 
sults of the fierce and prolonged intellectual contests in the early colonial 
days, led principally by prominent Congregationalists in opposition to mon- 
archy. 

These Eastern colonies were first planted under the direction and leader- 
ship of Congregational ministers. They preached and put in force in 
America the principles that Milton had avowed and defended in England. 
Congregational churches suggested New England town organization, from 
whence emanated "Instructions" to representatives, which formed so large 
a part of the history of those times. They rebuked and modified the influ- 
ence of that infidel school of license headed by Tom Paine, and inducted 
into the newly forming government a rational and religious liberty founded 
upon the Bible. They most prominently sustained the patriotic cause by 
sermons and chaplain services, and as soldiers and legislators. 

The great John Adams, in testifying to these facts, mentioned by name a 
few of these prominent Congregationalists, among whom were Mahen, 
Cooper, Chauncey, Dwight, Brooks, and Samuel Adams. 

The Baptists and Presbyterians, then much weaker in America, shared in 
these labors, notably the Providence Colony founded by Baptists. In fact 
the Baptists and Congregationalists are identical in polity and principle, 
and only differ in one article in their creed. 



« 
HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 219 

Congregationalism pushed westward with the tide of immigration but 
never increased its church membership like most other denominations. Its 
local and constitutional independence and absence of centralized power, are 
little understood in church matters, requiring more study and knowledge of 
them than people generallv are apt to acquire. Every Congrecjational 
Church is an independent republic, whose government is vested in the body 
of believers composing it, everj' member being a voter with equal rights, 
controlled by the majority. It recognizes the Lord Jesus Christ only, as its 
Head; it receives the Holy Scriptures as its only infallible guide in faith, 
order, and discipline, and is amenable to no ecclesiastical body. It recog- 
nizes the privilege and obligation of the communion and fellowship of 
churches, extending and receiving sympathy, advice, and co-operation. 

Its mission is of the Christian moulding and educating type. Christian 
missionaries. Christian colleges, and Christian citizens, in all the higher forms 
of education are more prominently among the results of the onward march of 
Congregationalism, than rapid increase of church membership. These disr 
tinctive features of Congregationalism are more fully apparent in the fact that 
its American Home Missionary Society continued its missionaries, and annu- 
ally poured its money into the South and West, but made almost no progress 
in church membership south of Mason's and Dixon's line, so long as the 
cause for that line existed, but as soon as that cause was a " lost cause " Con- 
gregational churches began to flourish. 

In the year 1832 this society first began its missionary labors in the State 
of Missouri and at one time, just previous to the war, had u)ore than thirty 
missionaries in the field, and yet there were only three Congregational 
churches in the state previous to the war. The first organized was the 
First Trinity Church of St. Louis, in 1852. In the year 1865 there were 
fifteen additional organizations. The total number at this time, 1883, is 
about ninety-five. 

In 1865 the Congregational Conference of the State of Missouri was first 
organized. The name "Conference," was two years afterwards changed to 
'"Association." 

The first Congregational Church organized in the Southwest was at Neo- 
sho, Newton county, in 1866. The next was at Lamar, Barton county, in 
1869. January 1, 1870, the Congregational Church of Carthage was organ- 
ized. 

In August, 1870, a district association was formed, composed of the ten 
churches then located in the Southwest. In 1873 this association having 
increased to seventeen churches, at their annual meeting unanimously car- 
ried a resolution proposed from the Carthage church: That " Whereas a 



220 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Christian college is needed in the great and growing Southwest; therefore, 
Resolved, That we build a Congregational college." 

The result of this action was the immediate establishment of "Drury 
College " at Springfield, Missouri. In a very few months its donations had 
reached the value of $100,000. Beautiful buildings were soon erected, and 
its valuation now reaches $350,000. 

This great institution of learning should have been located at Carthage, 
and would have been, if the Congregational Church had been successful in 
their efforts to induce Carthage citizens to see its value and donate grounds 
and subscriptions sufficient to secure it, as it vras located to the highest bid- 
der, Carthage, Springfield, and Neosho being the bidders, and its founders 
looking with the most favor towards Carthage. 

Through the encouragement and assistance of this association, there was 
a Congregational Church organized at Joplin in 1877. 

Jasper County Sunday-schools. — In the fall of 1868, Rev. G. W. Qainu, 
of St. Louis, an agent of the State Sunday-school Association, which held 
its first convention in 1865, came to Carthage for the purpose of assisting 
in the inauguration of the convention system of Sunday-school work in Jas- 
per county. E. P. Searle who is to-day first and foremost in this great 
work, was the first and present county president of this work. The second 
annual meeting M'as held in May, 1869, in Carthage. Rev. G. W. Quinn, 
by special request, was again present. Revs. Pinkerton, Budlong, Quinn, 
and others, made addresses. At this meeting twenty-two Sunday-schools 
were reported as in operation in the county. E. ]*. Searle was again chosen 
president, and appropriate resolutions were drawn for the use of the Presby-' 
try. 

From 1869 till date all the townships have sent delegates to the conven- 
tion; also, giving a report of schools. 

In 1872 we find the first report. Total officers and teachers in the county, 
410; number in attendaiice, 310; scholars and teachers, 2,016; average at- 
tendance, 1,524; number of conversions during the year, 73; money raised 
for the work, $615; union Sunday-schools, 30; number of Methodist Epis- 
copal Sunday-schools, 3; Presbyterian, 1; Cumberland Presbyterian, 1; 
Baptist, 1; Quakers, 1. 

In 1873 the Carthage Advance was published in the interest of the Sun- 
day-school and temperance work. 

In 1875 a constitution was formulated for the guide of the convention. 
The convention has been held at Oronogo, A villa, Webb City, Sarcoxie, 
Carthage, and other towns. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 221 

In 1879 the eleventh Snnday-school district of Missouri was organized, 
comprising Lawrence, Newton, Barry, McDonald, and Jasper counties. 

In 1880 there was held a centennial celebration, at Carthage, in honor of 
the founding of Sunday-schools by Kobert Raikes. 

In 1880 there were the following number of scholars and schools in the 
Sunday-school district: Jasper county— l^wmher of Sunday-schools, 95; 
number of scholars, 5,195. Newton county — Number of Sunday-schools, 
53; number of scholars, 2,378. Lawrence county — Number of Sunday- 
schools, 42; number of scholars, 2,270. Barry county — Number of Sun- 
day-schools, 14; number of scholars, 818. McDonald county — Number of 
Sunday-schools, 13; number of scholars, 635. 



CHAPTER X.— EARLY HISTORY OF CARTHAGE. * 

Site first Chosen for the Town — The first Court-house — The first Residences and Stores — 
First Sale of Lots — First School-house — The Town Plat tvith Additions — Appearance 
of the Town at the Breaking out of the War — The Battle of Carthage, July 5, 1861 — 
The Burning of tivo Negroes — Miscellaneous. 

The site of Carthage was chosen by two commissioners, Abel Landers 
and George Barker, who were appointed by the county court in the spring 
of 1842 for that purpose. They engaged the county surveyor, James 
Nichols, to run the lines for them. They started at the half-mile corner in 
the center of section six, township twenty-eight, range thirty, and ran di 
rectly west three miles, and set their stakes at the northeast corner of the 
square in Carthage, at the northwest corner of lot number one. From that 
point they laid off the original town of Carthage. The public square was 
laid off just as it is to-day, and for two streets east, west and south of the 
square, while north of the square it only extended one street. Mr. Landers 
was paid twenty dollars for his services in locating the count}' seat, Mr. 
Barker fifteen dollars, and the surveyor, Mr. James Nichols, ten dollars. 

The government survey was made two years after, when the half-mile 
corner was located about three hundred feet south and fifty feet east of the 
corner selected by Mr. Nichols. This threw Carthage a little to one side of 
the intended location, and it is claimed, accounts for the jog at the intersec- 
tion of Howard and Grand avenues; and, also, the jog in Fourth Street, at 
the foundry. 

The surface of the ground on which the city is located, excepting in a few 
spots, is covered with prairie rock, but the soil is well adapted for raising 



222 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

fruit and vegetables, after the rock has been removed. By digging eight or 
ten feet the limestone formation appears, rendering it somewhat difficult to 
obtain water, except at a great depth. Excellent water, however, has been 
found in a number of localities in the city, at a depth of six feet. Coal has 
been discovered in close proximity to Carthage, while lead has been found 
by persons digging wells on their city lots, in sufficient quantities, and 
purity, as to lead to the belief that the whole of the site on which Carthage 
is built is underlaid with deposits of mineral, which only await the skill of 
the miner, aided by capital, to develop. 

The land upon which the city of Carthage is built was public domain and 
unsurveyed at the time of the organization of Jasper county, and locating 
of the seat of justice, on the present site, in 1841. After the United States 
survey was made, in 1844, the county court appointed George Hornback, 
commissioner of the county to purchase the land on her behalf, consisting 
of one hundred and sixty acres; the government price at that time being 
$1.25 per acre. 

" At a special meeting of the Jasper county court, held March 28, a. d. 
1842, it was held that the seat of justice in and for Jasper county, shall be 
known and designated by the name of Carthage." 

The above order is the earliest record we have of Carthage, Missouri, and 
at the time this order was made, prairie grass was growing on what is now 
the public square, and a thick growth of underbrush and forest trees, in 
their original wildness, covered the whole site. 

The first commissioner of the seat of justice for Jasper county was Peleg 
Spencer, who was appointed April 10, a. d. 1842, who was also appointed 
on the same day superintendent of public buildings, and was ordered to con- 
tract for the building of a court-house, agreeable to the plan by him here 
furnished, on the best terms he can, the payment for which he is authorized 
to make, as follows: " One hundred dollars in cash when the house is com- 
pleted, the balance to be paid in the bonds received in payment for the lots 
sold at the first sale of lots in said seat of justice." 

Tlie commissioner was also ordered to employ, on the best terms he could, 
a surveyor, to lay off the said seat of justice, and that he lay off on the 
southeast and west two blocks deep, and on the north one block deep 
from the square. A plat of the seat of justice was furnished the count}'' 
court, May 15, 1842, by the commissioner, and approved by them, and 
ordered placed on record. 

On June 29th, a. d. 1842, Levi Hv Jenkins, projector of the building 
of the court-house, appeared before the county court of Jasper county, in 
vacation, and produced satisfactory proof that the said court-house had been 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 223 

received by the superintendent of public buildings, and that the first install- 
ment for building the same was then due, and it is, therefore, ordered by 
the court that the treasurer of Jasper county be authorized to pay the said 
Levi K. Jenkins the sum of one hundred dollars, it being the amonr\t of the 
first installment for building said court-house. According to the record the 
whole cost of the building of the first court-house in Jasper county, 
amounted to $398.50. The chimney, being a separate item, a plan had to 
be furnished the court by the commissioner, and he was ordered to get the 
same built by private contract, at a cost not to exceed the estimate made by 
the superintendent; the chimney to be built on a good foundation, and to 
be paid for out of the sale of lots in the town of Carthage. 

The coiirt-house was a one story frame building of one large room, had a 
door in the end fronting the public square, with fire-place at the other end, 
and brick chimney built on the outside. The building was erected on the 
north side of the square, about the center. 

The first house built within the present city limits was in 1833, by Henry 
Piercy, near the site of the woolen mill, at the big spring. It was a small, 
unhewn log-house; this pioneer, as soon as neighbors commenced to settle 
up the country, sold out to John Pennington, and moved to Texas. 

The first residence erected in Carthage, after it became the county seat, 
was put up by Dr. Gabe Johnson, in 1842, on the lot now owned by Mr. 
McElhaney, east of the Harrington House. George Hornback built the 
next house on the north side of the square; it was a two-story frame, and it 
was a store and residence combined. The store contained a general stock of 
merchandise, hardware, drugs, and medicines. It was erected in the spring 
of 1842. Mr. Hornback had two silent partners in business with him, I. 
H. B. Kerr and Wm. Hopkins. In 1843 Elijah Pennington, an old bache- 
lor, kept a log grocery on the west side of the square. The building usually 
contained a barrel of whisky, water-bucket, and tin cup, with a few cheap 
tumblers — a half-pint glass full of liquor sold for ten cents — this would be 
a treat for from four to six persons. Elijah was a brother of John Penning- 
ton, who once owned, as a claim, all the land now comprising north Car- 
thage, and which embraces the ground on which stands the two woolen 
mills. 

George Hornback was postmaster in 1843. The mail was brought in 
weekly on horseback, by way of Bower's Mills, from the east, and was kept 
in a small desk, which contained a few pigeon holes, and stood in the corner 
of his store. 

The first sale of lots in the town of Carthage was on the thirtieth day of 
June, 1842, when twenty-eight lots were disposed of, on a credit of twelve 



224 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

months. The lots around the square ranged from $10.50 to $44. The low- 
est-priced lot was No. 10, on which now stands the handsome brick store of 
S. B. Griswold, and the frame building south occnpied by Messrs. Hedge & 
Knepper as a jewelry and music store, which brought but $10.50. The 
highest price bid was on lot No. 24, on the northeast corner of the square, 
DOW owned by Charles Harrington, and covered by one of the finest brick 
blocks in the city. This lot was bid off for $44. The lots on the square 
were laid off with a fifty foot frontage and two hundred feet deep, and are 
now held at from $125 to $200 a foot frontage. The first man who paid for 
his lot was William Kerr, who had purchased lot No. 3, where the Traders 
Bank and Drake's hardware store now stand, for $18.50. He made pay- 
ment on the third day of October, 1848. 

In the year 1842 two brothers, by the name of Pennington, brought a 
store to Carthage and put it up on the east side of the square. They sold 
out sometime afterward to E. Fisher & Son; this firm sold out afterward to 
Lewis H. Scruggs, who became the owner of all the land north of Mother- 
spaw's stable, and known as North Carthage. Scruggs died a natural death, 
and was buried on his own land on the lots now known as College Hill, in 
the northeast part of the city. His widow married T. B. Heusted, who was 
killed near McDaniel's mill, by Union soldiers during the war of the Rebel- 
lion. Mrs. Heusted remained on the farm until the Price raid, in 1864, and 
then went to Texas. 

The first brick building was put up by Kichard Henderson; it was a 
business house, and stood on the southeast corner of the square, where 
McCrillis's hardware store now stands. The second brick building was com- 
menced by John Pennington, on his farm, and stood on the lot now owned 
by Wm. Myers, on North Main Street. The house was finished by Lewis H. 
Scruggs, after he purchased the property, and remained standing after the 
Rebellion. Mr. Wm. Myers bought the property of the North Cartha^;e 
Land Company, and remodeled the old house, which is now a comfortable 
and sightly looking dwelling. 

The first school-house in Carthage was a log-house. It stood on a lot 
about a quarter mile north and half-quarter west of the public square. It 
was all the school-house Carthage had until the building of the Carthage 
Female Academy. 

Carthage grew steadily in population and wealth after it became the 
county seat. In 1852 it had a substantial brick court-house, erected on the 
public square; a number of business houses, which did a good trade with the 
surrounding country; and its inhabitants were social and free hearted. It 
had no city government in its early days; all disputes of a legal nature were 





^^-77^^^^*^ 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 225 

generally tried before the justices of the peace. On public occasions, such 
as elections, circuit courts, and fourth of July celebrations, the people 
from the country would turn out en masse. On these occasions there was 
always more or less of the over-joyful (whisky) consumed, and occasionally 
some boisterous conduct would follow, but these occurrences were not often. 

In the early days of Carthage slaves were brought to town and auctioned 
off to the highest bidder. The persons who wished to purchase them would 
examine them and ask as many questions about their age and health as are 
usually asked now by the modern horse jockey. 

The arrival of the mail, which was once a week, was quite an event. The 
post-office was generally kept in some store, and when the mail was due a 
crowd of persons would be waiting to get their letters or papers. After the 
mail was opened, the letters were called over by the postmaster, and if the 
persons were present when their names were called the letters were handed 
to them, or some friend who had been authorized to ask for them. 

In 1855 the legislature of Missouri passed an act incorporating the Car- 
thage Female Academy. This institution was under the management of a 
number of trustees; the building, which was a good brick house, stood 
where the present handsome public school building now stands. It was built 
by Judge James Haggard; cost about $3,000, and was destroyed during the 
Kebellion. The trustees were Ehvood B. James, Norris C. Hood, Wm. M. 
Chenault, and several others, whose names we cannot find any record of. 

About six of the southwest countias of Missouri, Barry, McDonald, Law- 
rence, Newton, Jasper, Greene, and Barton, were all known as Greene 
county. This was before the division, and the court was held on the bank 
of Spring River, about two and one-half miles west of Carthage, on the 
farm formerly owned by the Motley's, but now owned by Tiios. Ballinger. 
This land was entered by John S. Motley, in 1849. Mrs. John Motley re- 
lated to a resident of this vicinity, in looking over these grounds, that the 
ruins of chimneys was the beginning of old Jasper, and it was also where 
the first court met in this early day. Representatives of all parts of this, 
then undivided, county came to attend court. They brought on horseback 
their own " stomach bitters," seemingly so necessary in this malarial region. 
This is undoubtedly the first court and primitive court-house in Marion 
township or Jasper county, and the ruins of stone chimneys are yet to be 
seen, now grown up around by brush and small oaks. It would be difficult 
to fix a date. 

In June, 1842, Jeremiah Cravens, presiding justice of the county court, 
set apart in behalf of the county for public uses, the public square, 316x316 
15 



226 HISTOKY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

feet, and the streets and alleys as set forth in the plat. The original town 
plat as surveyed May 5, 1842, was 1,290 feet in length and 1,U30 feet in 
widtli, containing 104 lots, the width of the streets around the square being 
fifty feet. We give below the names of additions and the date of laying them 
off: 

Wales's addition of lots 122-140 inclusive, laid off in January, 1860. 
Bulgin's addition, 32-46 lots, laid off in 1866 and in 1868. Bnlgin's new 
addition, 48-58, inclusive. Lamb's addition, laid off in 1867, 32 lots, 95x 
100, more or less. James's addition, laid off" in 1867, 34 lots, of 50x85, 
Cassil's addition, laid off in 1867, 90 lots, 60x200. Parson & Case's addi- 
tion, laid off in 1868, 90 lots, 60x200. Wheeler's addition, laid off in 1868. 
45 lots. Holman's addition, laid off in 1868, 31 lots. Holman's second 
addition, laid oft' in 1868, 12 lots. James's second addition, laid off in 1870, 
34 lots. Plat of North Carthage, laid off in 1870, containing 647 lots, 19 
streets, and 10 alleys. Plat of addition made by commissioners of seat of 
justice, made in 1870, of fractional lots, 146, 121, 119, 91, 94, 97, and 101. 
Kegan's addition, laid off in 1871, 16 lots. Cloud's subdivision lot 118; 9 
lots, laid oft' in 1871. School addition, laid oft' in 1871, 8 lots. Cloud's 
addition, surveyed 1869, 128 lots. Chase & Slauson's addition, 42 lots, laid 
off in 1872. Thacker's addition, laid off in 1874, 30 lots, 50x150. Burch 
& Moore's addition, laid off in 1879, 35 lots, 50x150 and 200. Sara Bar- 
ker's addition, laid oft' in 1869, 45 lots, 60x200. Chase's subdivision north 
Carthage, laid oft' in 1880, 28 lots. Schuner & Coften's addition, surveyed 
in 1881. College Hill addition, laid oft' in 1881, by O. S. Picher, 19 lots. 
Thacker's second addition, 20 lots, 50x150, laid off in 1881. Picher's sub- 
division of North Carthage, laid oft' in 1879. Carter's addition, laid off in 
1881, 48 lots. Thacker's third addition, laid off in 1881, 42 lots, average 
50x150. Parkell's addition, laid off in 1882, 83 lots, average 50x162-206. 
Searles's addition, laid oft' in 1882, 4 lots, 68xl59-|-. O'Keef's addition, laid 
off in 1882, 12 lots, 60x190. 

At the commencement of the war, in 1861, the population of Carthage 
was estimated at from 400 to 500 inhabitants. Her merchants were pros- 
perous, and the town had entered upon an era of improvement. Several 
stores and a new hotel had been erected during the preceding two years. 

The following description of the public square at that time, furnished us 
by Judge John Hornback, an old citizen of the county, and a frequent 
visitor to Carthage, will no doubt be interesting to the reader of this work: 
Commencing on the northeast corner of the square, on lot number one, was 
a residence occupied by Mr. Johnson. The first business house on the east 
side was on lot number two; it was a drug store, owned by Ben. C. John- 



CITY OF CAKTHAGE. 227 

son; the next was a small saddlery shop, on lot number three, kept by 
Franklin & Vermillion; then came the Franklin House, on lot number 
four, kept by Dr. Love; the next house was a store and residence, owned by 
Robert McFarland; next, the store of J. B. & J. Dale, which stood on the 
lot which is now occupied by the Ruflfin & McDaniel block. On the south- 
east corner was'the Chenault store-house, which was a good brick building, 
and was occupied by Jesse L. Cravens. Going west, was a brick store- 
house, owned by E. Pennington, in which a saloon was kept. Next was a 
large, two-story frame store-house, owned by J, B. & J. Dale, which wai 
not finished. Next was a blacksmith and wagon shop, which was kept by 
Mitchell & Stinson; it stood about where Peter Hill's shop stands. On 
the southwest corner, where Jerry Casey keeps his bakery, stood a log- 
house which had been used as a saloon. The first house, going north, was 
L. Crisman's saloon, which stood on the ground where Dr. Hollingsworth 
sells groceries. The next was a log-house, in which Mr. Bulgin kept a car- 
penter shop. Next, where the Regan block stands, was the residence of 
Norris C. Hood. The next house was a small frame building, where J. C. 
Cannon sometimes kept store and hotel. The next building was on the 
northwest corner — it was the Masonic Hall; the lower story was used as a 
grocery and dry goods store; on the opposite corner, where CafFee's drug 
store now stands, was a residence occupied by a Mr. Fitzgerald. The north 
side of the square was principally owned by John Shirley, on which stood 
the Shirley House, which was a hotel. There was also a blacksmith shop 
and livery stable on the north side. Where McElhaney's house stands, was 
the residence of W. P. Johnson. Col. A. McCoy, county treasurer, had a 
residence where Pharley Brown's blacksmith shoj) and carriage factory 
stands. Going east from the southeast corner of the square, where Yost's 
shop stands, was a large blacksn>ith shop, owned and run by Judge John 
R. Chenault. South of the seminary lot, commencing on a line with Grant 
Street and Chestnut Avenue, was the farm of Judge Chenault, whose resi- 
dence stood where M. L. Reid, the banker, now lives; the farm is now 
known as Lamb's addition to Carthage. There were two residences south 
of the square — John J. Scott's, which stood about where Mr. Chaffee lives, 
and the residence of Jesse L. Cravens, where the LaForce home now stands. 
On the lot where the late R. M. Hall's residence stands, there was a build- 
ing occupied by Mr. Dawson, and used for a printing office. There were 
also some private residences west of the square. The county jail was a 
one-story brick; it stood on the lot on which the City Hotel now stands. 

A large majority of the citizens of Carthage, at this time, were Southern 
people, and when the civil war broke out they avowed their sympathies for 



228 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

the rebel cause. The leading officials of the county (with but one or two 
honorable exceptions) openly espoused the Confederate side, and gare aid 
and comfort to those in arms against the government. Not more than five 
or six of tlie male inhabitants of the town were outspoken Union men, and 
denounced the disunionists. John R. Chenanlt, judge of this judicial cir- 
cuit, and John M. Stemmons, the two delegates elected from this senatorial 
district to represent it in a state convention, called for the purpose of con- 
sidering the relations of the State of Missouri to the Federal Governrtient, 
were in favor of secession, and would have so voted had a majority of the 
delegates not been against it. They were the representatives of the people, 
and their action no doubt would have been indorsed by a large majority of 
the people then living in the district. This much can be inferred from the 
events which took place duj'ing the war, and the part which some of the 
prominent citizens of this section took in it, resulting in the end in disaster 
to themselves and the destruction of life and property. 

The Battle or Carthage. — The battle of Carthage, Missouri, was fought 
July 5, 1861, between Col. Franz Sigel, of the Union army, and Claiborn 
Jackson, the rebel governor of Missouri, who was fleeing from the state. 

In order that the reader may form a correct idea of the movements that 
led to the battle, we give the position of the opposing forces in this part of 
the state for several days prior to the engagement. . 

Colonel Sigel had entered southwest Missouri, via Rolla, with a well disci- 
plined force, consisting of two regiments of infantry and eight pieces of 
artillery, and had arrived at Neosho about the twenty-sixth of June. 

General Ben. McCullough was encamped at Camp Walicer, on the Arkansas 
line, with 22,000 Confederates, for the purpose of giving strength to the 
disunion element in Missouri — then in the minority, but organized and 

active. 

General Sterling Price, ten days prior to the battle, passed south through 

Carthage, from the Missouri River, with twelve or fifteen hundred mounted 

infantry, and was aiming to form a junction with the Confederates at Camp 

Walker, Arkansas, On the night of the third of July, he was encamped 

at Pool's Prairie, eight miles southeast of ISTeosho. 

On the third day of July, the rebel force with which Sigel fought two 
days later, consistingof ten thousand mounted infantry and eight pieces of 
artillery, was on Clear Creek, in Yernon county, under the command of 
Governor Claiborn Jackson, assisted by nine brigadier-generals. 

General Lyon, with 10,000 Federal soldiers, was on the march from Jefler- 
son City to Springfield, and was not in supporting distance of Sigel in this 
movement. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 229 

Colonel Sigel believed he could overwhelm General Jackson's force by 
a sudden and vigorous assault, and thus prevent the junction of this force 
with McCullough's in Arkansas. On the morning of the fourth of July he 
struck camp at Neosho, and, leaving a company of his small force there to 
guard the place, marched northwest towards Jackson's army (which that day 
was marching south towards him) and arrived at Carthage about 5 o'clock, 
p. M., and encamped near the big spring east of the town. Meanwhile 
Governor Jackson had proceeded southward through Lamar, and on the 
night of the fourth of July was encamped on the north side of Coon Creek, 
twelve miles north of Carthage. Each of these commanders was fully ad- 
vised of the strength and position of his opponents. 

On the night of the fourth, Samuel B. LaForce had an interview with 
Colonel Sigel, at his headquarters, and offered his services as a guide over 
the country for the approaching battle, which were accepted, and he was in- 
structed to return to his home, three miles northeast of Carthage, and report 
for duty at 5 o'clock the next morning. Mr. LaForce's thorough acquaint- 
ance with the topography of the country was of invaluable service to Col- 
onel Sigel on the march and on the retreat on the following day. Durino- 
the night many of the rebel citizens fled to Jackson's lines. Colonel Sigel's 
soldiers destroyed no property wantonlj' nor molested any of the citizens of 
the place. On the morning of the fifth they marched northwest through the 
town and crossed the river at the ford, where the lower bridge now stands, 
and thence northward, leaving their wagon train at the top of the hill, a 
quarter of a mile from the river. About 9 o'clock the advance guard of 
both armies met at the house of Vincent Gray, near Buck Branch, five miles 
northwest of Carthage, where a slight skirmish ensued, in which one on each 
side was killed. 

When Sigel reached the high prairie between Buck Branch and Dry Fork 
he could see the rebel forces forming into line on the prairie several miles to 
the north of him. On reaching the elevation beyond Dry Fork, southeast 
of where C. W. King lives, he found Jackson in position, extending from 
Nelson's farm on the east, past the place where J. C. Pitt's house is now 
situated, and west over the hill out of sight, a line a mile in length. Here 
a blank shot was fired at them by the artillery to see if they meant fight. 
They answered with a solid shot. Sigel then threw his force forward about 
half a mile to get into closer contact with the enemy; his artillery taking 
position about where the Pugh brothers have since erected a house, while 
his infantry was deployed in front of the artillery one hundred yards or 
more, and ordered to lie down in the grass to be out of the sight of the rebel 
artillerymen. 



230 HISTOBY OF JASPER COUNTY, 

While this was going on, large floating forces from each wing of the rebel 
line marched straight south, so as almost to enclose Sigel's small army in three 
sides of a square, the one on the west of the line riding along an old road 
past the Widow Shoemaker's, and the east being on the open prairie. 

About ten o'clock the battle opened with vigorous cannonading from 
both armies, which was kept up with but little intermission for nearly two 
hours, during: which time the rebels lost heavilv in killed and wounded, 
owing to the superiority of Sigel's artillerymen. During the cannonading a 
squad of about forty or fifty mounted infantry advanced towards Sigel^s 
position from the rebel flanking party on the east, which was promptly met 
by a squad of Sigel's infantry of about equal numbers, double-quicking in 
that direction. They halted in close musket range and fired a volley at the 
advancing rebels, which threw them into confusion, and they retired with- 
out firing a shot. Sigel's men were elated at this movement and cheered 
lustily. 

At length Sigel withdrew to the south side of Dry Fork. Here he sta- 
tioned a section of artillery on the blnflf, on the east side of the road, and 
deployed two companies of infantry along the bank of the stream, entirely 
out of sight of the advancing enemy, expecting simply to cover his retreat. 
The balance of his artillery and infantry continued an orderly march towards 
Carthage, but they had not gone over five hundred yards when the rebels 
debouched into the creek and rode promiscuously into the water, not expect- 
ing an ambuscade. When they had reached within fifty feet of the soldiers 
secreted at the stream, they were met by a destructive fire, both artillery 
and infantry, which fell like a thunderbolt upon the disorganized enemy in 
the creek bottoms, and compelled a precipitate retreat, the artillery continu- 
ing to send shells at the flying forces after they were out of musket range 
of the infantry. The rebels lost heavily in this engagement, while Sigel's 
loss was very slight. A wagon load of guns was picked up in the creek bed, 
after the engagement, by Sigel's tl'oops, and carried to Springfield. 

At this point the wagon train left near the river in the morning was 
brought up, so as to be under the protection of the- army, and Colonel Sigel 
resumed his retreat towards Carthage. As he neared Buck Branch he saw 
the rebel lines closing in along the branch, to the south of him, and he 
unlimbered a section of his artillery, and by a few well directed shots scat- 
tered that movement. The flanking columns again attempted to close around 
him at the top of tlie hill, north of the river ford, and thus capture him, but 
he again dispersed them with his artillery, after which he continued his 
retreat into and through Carthage, with no further molestation, leaving two 
pieces of artillery in position near where the windmill east of the square now 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 231 

stands, supported by a company of infantry, while the main force fell back, 
without stopping, into the hollow near the spring, which he had left in the 
morning. He planted his remaining six pieces of artillery on the elevation 
just west of the railroad crossing, southwest of the-spring, and marched his 
infantry across the spring branch, and over the hill, halting them in the 
road south of the house on the Wilber farm. This was done to be prepared 
for any flank movement that might be attempted from the river crossing 
north of that. 

Meanwhile, Jackson's center had crossed the river, at the same ford Sigel 
had, and was slowly following into town, feeling evei'y inch of the way, in 
case a repetition of Dry Fork might happen. His left wing had crossed 
the river at a ford about directly north of Carthage, while the right wing 
crossed at the Walker ford, now known as the Loveless ford. 

When the rebel advance reached Carthage a sharp skirmish occurred be- 
tween the pickets, assisted by the two pieces of artillery. As the Federal 
rear-guard fell back through town, under cover of the main force in the 
vicinity of the spring, the enemy had swarmed in from the three fords, and 
were pressing heavily on them. The picket Uring was close, and many of 
the houses in Carthage were riddled with balls and shot. The house re- 
cently sold by J. P. Betts, on Lincoln Street, shows scars to this day of rebel 
bullets made in pursuing Sigel. Most of the citizens remained in town 
during the skirmish. During this onset several were killed on both sides. 
Only one house was hit by a cannon shot, which was the house of David 
Holman, situated about where Mr. Sennet's house now stands, east of the 
square, which was a rebound shot from Sigel's artillery, posted as above 
mentioned. 

Colonel Sigel continued to fall back in perfect order along the road to- 
wards the mill east of town, now owned by Mr. McDaniel, taking all his 
wagons along, and ready at a moment's notice to repel any advances made 
by the rebels. The last attack was made three miles southeast of town, 
near the timber, about half a mile north of the place for several years 
owned by Richard Thornton; this was about dusk, and lasted some twenty 
minutes; resulting in a heavj' loss to the rebels, and scarcely none to the 
other side. 

Jackson's troops went into camp all around Carthage, while Sigel con- 
tinued his retreat through the night, and reached Sarcoxie in the morning, 
and Mt. Yernon on the sixth, where he halted two days, and then marched 
to Springtield, which he reached on the tenth day of July. 

On the morning of the sixth of July the rebels marched south of Carthage 
about three miles, and there met General Ben. McCullough's and General 



232 HISTORY OF JASPER COUKTY. 

Price's arniies, and amid deafening cheers and waving of flags held a great 
rejoicing at the victory over the Dutch. 

The battle of Carthage was the heaviest engagement, up to that time, of 
the war. Colonel Sigel's loss was thirteen killed and thirty-one wounded. 
The rebel loss was not published officially, and never can be accurately as- 
certained. It is safe to say that tlieir loss, owing to the superiority of 
Sigel's artillery, must have been many times greater, not less than three 
hundred killed and twice as many wounded. 

Confederate Side or the Battle. — Several years ago Colonel William H. 
McCown, a former resident of Carthage, and who served as captain of Com- 
pany H, Second Regiment Cavalry, Rains's division, furnished the writer 
with the following incidents of the battle of Carthage, in which he partic- 
ipated: 

About 10 o'clock in the morning General Rains's cavalry division was 
about six hundred yards from Sigel's battery. Rains came galloping up on 
the left, dismounted, advanced a few steps from his horse, adjusted his field- 
glass in the most approved military style. General Sigel having just unlim- 
bered a section of his battery. Captain McCown remarked to Rains that 
" we were going to catch it.'' The general replied : " Oh! no, we are not in 
range." The words had scarcely issued from his lips when a solid shot from 
Sigel's battery crashed through a section of horses, killing one man and 
wounding three others; also killing four horses. Almost instantly a spher- 
ical case exploded in the ranks, creating great confusion among the men and 
horses, who were all green in the business at that time. General Rains, in 
a very nnmilitary style, mounted his horse, and without a word of com- 
mand, rode out of range very hastily. He afterwards remarked that " Sigel 
had a damned sight better gunners than he gave him credit for, and that 
they could shoot with their guns equal to our Western riflemen. " The 
cavalry was composed of men and boys, totally unused to military service, 
and looked, with their rope bridles and rope stirrups, like Don Quixote and 
Sancho Panza, on Rozinante and Dapple. Colonel McCown considers that 
both armies were whipped, and didn't know it. The name of " Blackberry 
Cavalry," applied to General Rains's division, originated at this fight. 
General Parsons's division, who were largely composed of infantry, got mad 
because they were not mounted, and accused Rains's cavalry of stopping to 
pick blackberries on Dry Fork bottom, whilst they were engaged with the 
enemy; which, our informant says, is a base slander on the cavalry. 

Colonel McCown served in the Confederate army till the close of the war, 
and considers himself thoroughly reconstructed, and wants '' no more in 
his'n." 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 233 

Tlie battle of Wilson's Creek, which took place seven weeks after the bat- 
tle of Carthage, gave the rebels possession of southwest Missouri during 
that fall and winter. Price and McCuliougli divided up their commands 
and established their headquarters wherever their troops were well treated 
and forage could be had. The few loyal citizens who remained in Carthage 
after the fight were ordered to leave, as were also those living outside of the 
town. Some took refuge in Fort Scott, Kansas, and some went to Spring- 
field, Missouri, after it became a military post. The rebel troops, however, 
were gradually withdrawn and sent south; but in order to prevent Carthage 
becoming a place of shelter for the Federal forces they destroyed, at differ- 
ent times in 1862 and 1863, nearly every building in the town, not except- 
ing the court-house, academy, and jail. During these two years the sub- 
stantial store-houses, public buildings, and private residences, became a heap 
of ruins, and the place a rendezvous, at times, for the soldiers of both armies. 
At one time the Union forces made a fort out of the ruins of the court- 
house, in the public square, but it was afterward destroyed by rebels. 

While there seems to be a difference of opinion among some persons who 
lived here during these turbulent times as to which of the opposing forces 
was to blame for the destruction of Carthage, the events which followed the 
battle of Carthage, and the bitter feeling of its citizens toward the Federal 
government prior to that event, would incline the impartial historian to the 
belief that the above statement is, in the main, correct. 

Miscellaneous Events. — On the morning of February 25, 1841, Judge 
Charles S. Yancey, ordered J. P. Osborn, elisor, to open the Jasper 
county circuit court. The ofiicer took a plug of tobacco from his mouth, 
and stepping to the door of a log-shanty, about 12x16 feet in size, pro- 
claimed to the world at large, and the few persons assembled, that the 
"Jasper county circuit court was now in session." That simple sentence 
prefaced with the cautionary "hear ye! hear ye!" started the wheels of the 
court, and they have been running ever since, except during the last three 
years of the war. The place w^as at the residence of George Hornback, 
about two miles west of the present site of the city. Mr. Hornback had a 
small store there, and parties attending court could also attend to purchasing 
such articles as they needed, such as tobacco, salt, powder, etc., during the 
intervals. 

The grand jury, after being charged by the judge, retired to a large 
log to consider their duties. They brought into court an indictment against 
David Lamasters, for forgery, which was afterward nolled. This was the 
only indictment found at the first term of the first circuit court held in 



234 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Jasper county. The session lasted two days, and the proceedings covered 
four pages of record. 

The officers comprising the court were Cl^arles S. Yancey, judge; John 
P. Osborn, elisor (sherifl); El wood B. James, clerk. Robert W. Crawford 
was appointed circuit attorney, ^ro ttm. 

The following were the grand jurors: George Horn back, foreman, Henry 
H. Zachery, David Hawkins, Daniel Smith, James Hornback, John Oxford, 
Daniel Brochus, Thacker Vivian, Thomas J. Mills, Daniel M. Hopkins, 
Samuel Teas, John F. Mills, Dubart Murphy, Levi Dickerson, Leander Mes- 
sick, William Laxon, and Robert Neal. 

Ex Judge John C. Price was admitted to practice law in that court, and 
is the only attorney then in attendance who is still alive. 

The next term was held in the same place in July following, and the pro- 
ceedings covered five pages, showing a considerable increase of business. 

The next term was held in October, and it is recorded that Robert W. 
Crawford and John R. Chenault were fined each in the sum of ten dollars, 
" for contemptuous behavior committed during the sitting, and in the imme- 
diate presence and view of said court, and directly tending to impair the 
respect due to its authority, by fighting in the presence and view of said 
court during the said sitting; and it is further ordered that execution issue 
for the same." Mr. Crawford paid his fine, but his antagonist filed a mo- 
tion that his fine be remitted, which the court overruled. Mr. Chenault 
appealed the case, and nothing more is found on record concerning it. 

At the March term, 1842, an indictment was found against eleven per- 
sons for riotous conduct. A man by the name of Skidmore had incurred 
their displeasure because he gambled and horse-raced, and was also guilty of 
other irregularities. They constituted themselves into a vigilance commit- 
tee, waited on him one night and whipped him, and then notified him that 
he could take his choice between leaving the country by a certain time or 
faring worse. He concluded to stand his ground. A few nights after the 
first occurrence the party went to the house and called to him to come out, 
but he would not do it. They then commenced an assault upon the house. 
One man, named George W. Messick, went to a hole in the wall and or- 
dered Skidmore to surrender. He replied with a shot from his gun, and 
missed Messick, but killed a man by the name of Henry G. Archer, who was 
standing behind him. The besiegers then retired. Skidmore came in and 
had the parties indicted for riot. The case was continued for several terms, 
and finally dismissed. 

The fourth term of the court was held at Carthage, commencing June 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 235 

30, 1842, and regularly thereafter until the war broke out; the last entry on 
the record being May 11, 1861, and is signed by John R. Chenault, judge. 

Burning of two Negroes. — In the month of August, 1854, a terrible 
tragedy was enacted in the southern portion of the city of Carthage, in the 
hollow, near Mr. Ezra Huntley's residence, in which two negroes were 
burned to death at the stake, by the populace, for committing the threefold 
crime of murder, rape, and arson. The particulars of the fearful crime 
of which they were guilty, and the terrible retribution which they suffered, 
are as follows: 

Dr. Fisk, a man highly respected by all who knew him, had some deal- 
ings with John B. Dale, a few days before, in which he received a large sum 
of money. A negro belonging to Mr. Dale, named Colley, knew of the 
transaction, and conceived the idea of murdering the doctor for the money. 
He took into his confidence a colored man belonging to John J. Scott, 
Their plan was to entice the doctor away from his house, kill him, and then 
return to the house, kill the inmates, plunder the house, and then set fire 
to it. 

The night the horrible crimes were committed Colley went to the doc- 
tor's house, and told him Dale's child was sick, and that he should come 
over right away. The doctor, supposing that all was right, mounted his 
horse and started on his way. After he had gone but a short distance from 
the house, Bart, who was lying in wait for him, came up behind him and 
knocked him off his horse, and Colley came up with an ax and beat his 
brains out. They then went back to the house, and after outraging Mrs. 
Fisk, killed her, and a child of two years of age; plundering the pi*emises, 
getting only some thirty dollars in silver and a watch, which were after- 
wards recovered. They then fired the house and fled. This was about mid- 
night, and none of the neighbors discovered the burning building. They 
hid the plunder in a corn-crib. Colley went back to his cabin at Mr. Dale's, 
and Bart took to the brush for safety. In the morning Mr. Dale's negro 
arose very early, went out to hunt the horses on the prairie, and in a short 
time returned and told the folks that Dr. Fisk's house was on fire. Some 
one started for the doctor's house, and before reaching it found the doctor, 
where he had been killed. In the ruins of the house were discovered the 
remains of Mrs. Fisk and child. The news soon spread, and the neighbors 
gathered to the scene of the crime. Suspicion at once pointed to Colley as 
the perpetrator. To test him, they placed him to watch Dr. Fisk's corpse. 
He exhibited unusual nervousness, and soon became sick and begged to be 
excused. He was immediately arrested and taken to Mr. Dale's house. 
Mrs. Dale thought he had committed the crime because he had changed his 



236 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

clothes. On searching his cabin his other clothing were found spattered 
with blood. He still denied having any knoweledge of the deed; and the 
incensed populace took him to a high gate beam and drew him up with a 
rope, and threatened to hang him on the spot unless he confessed what he 
knew. Finally a committee, consisting of Littlebury Bedford, J. M. Jack- 
son, and A. J. Burden, were appointed to guard him, and talk with him; 
and to them he confessed and gave the horrid details of the crime; and also 
revealed where the stolen goods were hidden, which was found to be correct. 

Bart was still at large. A large force of men turned out to search for 
him. Women and children of whole neighborhoods would collect at one 
house for safetj', while the men scoured the country in search of the fugitive. 
Traces of the murderer were found day after day, and the circle gradually 
closed around him. He was ignorant of the topography of the country, and 
being obliged to travel at night to avoid being seen, he never got beyond 
the boundaries of Jasper county. One evening some children discovered 
him skulking through the brush about a mile and a quarter south of where 
Georgia City is now situated, and reported it to a squad of men in a house 
near by. They immediately surrounded the place on horseback, and soon 
captured him. He was armed with a gun and pistol, but made no resist- 
ance. 

An examination was had before a committee of citizens chosen for that 
purpose, and when all the facts were brought to light, popular indignation 
was almost without bounds. All were agreed that they deserved death, but 
there was a diiference of opinion in regard to the mode. Some were for 
hanging them, while others insisted that hanging was too good for them, 
that they ought to be burned. Fiuatly it was agreed that the mode of death 
should be left to a vote of the people. The vote was taken on the east side 
of the public square, the people dividing into two separate lines, and march- 
ing between two men stationed at the northeast corner of the square, 
for the purpose of being counted. After the vote was counted it was found 
that the proportion of those voting was two to one in favor of burning. 
Quite a large number of those present did not vote at all. It was then 
announced that they would be burned at the stake in three days from that 
time. 

The largest crowd ever assembled in Jasper county, up to that time, gath- 
ered on that afternoon to witness the awful spectacle. It was a very sultry 
day. Special pains had been taken to secure the attendance of nearly all 
the negroes in the county, who were given the nearest position to the stake. 
At three o'clock the murderers were marched out into the hollow. Thous- 
ands of spectators followed and took their position on the side of the ajacent 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 237 

hills. The negroes were chained between two large posts, a cord or so of 
dry fagots were piled around them waist high, well supplied with shavings. 
Mr. Dale's negro stood the trj'ing ordeal bravely, and sang songs until the 
flames suffocated him, but the other man pleaded piteously for release. 
After the tire had been kindled he screamed for them to take it away and 
he would tell them all about it. Two colored men lighted the fire, and as 
soon as the flames struck the bodies of the victims they made one or two 
surges and then sank down without any further strugglings. In an hour 
the fire had burned down, and but little remained of the murderers. People 
from the adjoining counties had come fifty miles to witness the sight. A 
heavy thunder shower came up in the evening, and many got thoroughly 
drenched before they reached their homes. 



CHAPTER XI.— ANNALS OF CARTHAGE. 

A Record of many of the most Important Events connected with the History gf Carthage 

from 1810 to the present time. 

The public exercises of the organization of the Congregational Church 
of Carthage, and the ordination of Rev. H. B. Fry, its pastor, took place on 
Wednesday, January eighth, at the M. E. Church, 

Among the brick blocks built this srcason, were three store-rooms in Re- 
gan's block and Young & Coffee's block. 

The following bridges were built this season: Tunnel ford bridge, North 
Fork, 108 feet long; trestle work, 212 feet in length; total length 320 feet; 
cost of masonry, $2,875: bridge proper, $3,200; trestle work, $1,300; total, 
$7,375. Bridge at Dawson's ford, Spring River, 80 feet long, trestle work, 
200 feet; total, 280 feet; costing $2,170. Bridge at Amsden ford. Spring 
River, 90 feet; trestle work, 77 feet; total, 167 feet; cost, $4,950. They are 
all of the Howe truss bridge patent. 

March 15. The Carthage Patriot^ a weekly Democratic sheet, was started 
by Messrs. Carpenter & Tenney. 

March 17. Two children of a Mr. Copeland, who was moving from Kan- 
sas to Arkansas, and camj^ing near Bahney's saw-mill, a mile north of 
Carthage, were burned to death by the bedding in the wagon catching on 
fire. 

March 15. By act of the legislature a corporation known as the Trustees 
of the Carthage Female Academy received a grant of land, which was sold 



238 HISTOKT OF JASPER COUNTY. 

to the board of education of the town of Carthage for a school building, for 
one dollar, without conditions. 

April 7. The grafting-house and root-celler of J. 0. Teas, at the Jasper 
county nursery, three miles northwest of Carthage, was burned. 

June 23. E. H. Benham retires form the editorial staff of the ^aw-wer, 
because of ill-health. H. C. Henney assumes his position. 

June 26. The new Methodist Church of Avilla dedicated. 

July 21. Carthage Woolen Mills organized with a capital of $20,000. 

August 20. Capt. C. C. Allen candidate for state senator. 

November 8. Judge K. S. Merwiii elected member of county court. 

November 24. Globe Flouring Mills, Carthage, completed by Thomas 
& Co. A fine frame steam mill, four stories, being respectively from the 
bottom, 9, 12, 14, and 13 feet in heights, and an engine room attached 
twenty by forty-two feet. Completion of the new Presbyterian church, lo- 
cated on Grant Street, fronting Park Avenue, 

1871. — January 5. New public school building of Carthage completed, 
costing $30,000. The building is of brick, three stories high, fifty four by 
seventy-seven, and forty- six feet high, with an east and west front, con- 
taining tQn rooms, having a capacity for 800 pupils. There are four tow- 
ers, and the third story is a Mansard roof. On the front is a slab with the 
inscription " Carthage Public Schools, 1870." The design is from the Rich- 
mond, Indiana, public schools. 

January 12. Iron bridge contract, at Georgia City, let for $4,659.60, to 
the Canton Wrought Iron Bridge Company, of Canton, Ohio. 

March 2. Gaston's new cemetery completed for the use of interments. 

March 14. Thomas Holmes was killed b}^ lightning, north of Carthage, 
and a young son of Mrs. Randall burned to death. 

April 27. A killing frost. 

May 4. Son of Joseph Kelly killed by a field roller, at Twin Grove. A 
miner by the name of Cody was killed by a premature blast at Minersville. 
A man by the name of Seaton was murdered on Turkey Creek. 

May 18. Attempts of incendiarism on Mr. Brownsill's wagon-shop. 

May 25. D. H. Budlong, of Carthage, appointed revenue collector of the 
district; George D. Orner resigned. 

June 22. "There is a new town in Jasper county. Its name is Joplin; 
location, fourteen miles southwest of Carthage, en the farm of J. C. Cox. 
Has lead in unlimited quantities under it. Everybody out of employment 
ought to go there and dig. That is better than doing nothing, and it may 
lead to certain fortune." C. W. King, a prisoner, broke jail; was confined 
for stealing horses, and is supposed to have been assisted in his escape. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 239 

July 4. Fourth of July celebrated generally throughout the county. 

July 25. Bloody fight at Fidelity. A Mr. Dye became offended at some- 
thing Mr. Knowles had said, and Mr. Dye commenced an assault upon 
Knowles. T. M. Wakefield interfered and separated the parties. Dye 
stabbed Wakefield in the back and twice in the breast. Mr. Dye sought 
the timber, followed by Knowles, who fired several shots at him. Wake- 
field's wounds were dangerous but not fatal. " Dye was an ex rebel soldier, 
and has made his boast that he had killed Union men since the close of the 
war." 

July 27. John W. Yelton, while digging a well on his farm in the south- 
west part of the county, when about twenty feet down, struck a vein of thick- 
ened, crude oil. The lumps had the crude-oil smell, and when fired would 
burn readily. 

October 5. Murder at Minersville. Charles Short, a miner, late of 
Granby, was shot through the breast and instantly killed by an assassin, 
Harris, also a miner, who fled and escaped. A similar fate has befallen 
three of his brothers in shooting affrays. 

October 12. Mr. Ellis Serjeant, of Carthage, was attacked by two armed 
men, just south of town, and robbed of a package containing a large 
amount of money, which he had that day received from Indiana through 
the bank of Neosho. Mr. Serjeant offered $2,000 dollars reward for the re- 
covery of the money and the arrest of the thieves. Third annual fair of 
Jasper county was held October 10, 11, and 12. 

November 30. J. A. Hardin, of Carthage, appointed assistant United 
States assessor for the fifth district of Missouri. 

1872. — February 8. Horse stolen, belonging to Captain Ornsby. 

April 13. The People's Press. " The first number of the above paper 
came out on the 13th of April. It is a large eight-column paper. It does 
not commit itself to any political party, but from the drift of selections it is 
easy to see that it is liberal and independent. We extend to Mr. Boden- 
hamer, the publisher, the right hand of fellowship." 

May 30. At the city of Joplin, in Jasper county, there are a Tiumber of 
industries that have grown into prominence in a few short months. About 
a year ago there was not a dozen inhabitants; now they have 2,500 souls. 
The Joplin Mining and Smelting Company, with a capital stock of $200,- 
000, commenced mining for lead. They now have seven lead furnaces run- 
ning. In six days of the past month there were more than 150,000 pounds 
of lead lifted from the shafts at Joplin. 

May 30. "Great flood of Spring River; unprecedented rise; immense de- 
struction to property; thrilling scenes and incidents; houses, trees, logs. 



240 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

ho^s, and cattle afloat; men, women, and children in danger of drowning." 
Thus heads a column in the Banner of this date. " Not within the recollec- 
tion of man has Spring River cut up such .a caper as on last Monday, swel- 
ling form a quiet stream, of ninety feet wide and half a bank full, to a rag- 
ing torrent of a mile in width, within an hour and a half. Only once be- 
fore was the water known to be higher, which was in 1844. The amount of 
rain here would not have raised the stream above a foot. As the day was 
clear, no one suspected the impending deluge. Shortly after noon the roar 
of waters was heard up the river, and those who were on the bluffs north- 
east of town could see the breast of water, half a mile wide, and from four 
to six feet high, rolling down the bottom, sweeping everything before it. 
But for the destruction, any one could have enjoyed the sight. The river 
banks and bluffs were crowded with men, women, and children, and nearly 
the entire population of Carthage was out "on view." In two hours the 
Water began to subside. Only one life was lost, but many head of cattle 
and stock, and general destruction of property, estimated at $200,000. 
Though the cause is not known, it is supposed to have come from the big 
rains in tiie hills of Lawrence county." At any rate the flood of Ma}'- 
twerity-seventh will go down to posterity as one of the ephochs of Spring 
River on a spree. 

June 20. A man killed in a fight. A railroad Irishman, under the in- 
fluence of liquor, fractured the skull of his comrade with a club, from which 
he died. The affair occurred a mile northwest of Carthage, and King, the 
murderer, escaped to the woods. 

July 4. Fourth of July celebrated at Carthage; 10,000 present. Com- 
pletion of M. C. & N. W. Railroad to Carthage the cause of great rejoicing. 
Much of the labor and credit is due to the untiring efforts of Messrs. Cun- 
ningham and Brown. The full name of the above mentioned road is the Car- 
thage Division of the Memphis, Carthage and Northwestern Railroad. ''This 
new road in southwest Missouri is an important one to St. Louis, as, with its 
western extension, it will control largely the trade of southern Kansas, and 
bring it over the Atlantic & Pacific road to this city. Carthage is one of 
the most promising young cities in this state, and is growing rapidly. Emi- 
gration from Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York is filling Jasper county 
with an industrious and thrifty population. Its wide-spreading prairies, 
rich bottom-lands, and beautiful streams offer superior inducements to 
farmers and manufacturers, and now that railroad facilities are secured we 
confidently look for a marvelous development of the unfailing agricultural 
and mineral resources of Jasper county." — Missouri Democrat. 

August 15. A new cemetery was laid out and fitted up by C. E. Spen- 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 241 

cer, donating one-half the lots to the cemetery association; proceeds to im- 
prove the lots and grounds. 

August 22. First National Bank of Carthage organized under the bank- 
ing law. 

August 24. Jasper county pomological and horticultural society organ- 
ized, with a constitution and by-laws prepared by a committee for that pur- 
pose. In the articles of the constitution it is set forth that the "object 
shall be to advance the science of pomology and the art of horticulture. 
Membership shall be given by the payment of one dollar per annum; wives 
of members received without fee. The meetings were to be held annually 
at such time and place as the executive committee shall designate. Peter 
Myers placed on the secretary's desk a late Crawford peach which measured 
nine and three-eights inches in circumference and weighed seven and one- 
half ounces. The following are the charter members: J. P. Sawyer, Peter 
Myers, Elam Hall, Thomas McElbenny, William I. Bullis, A. W. St. John, 
J. E. Black, Charles W. Engle, C. W. Corwin, L. D. P. Kendrick, L. C. 
Amsden, M. J. Parker, S. S. Riley, R S. Griffith, E. P. Searle, Thomas 
Buckbee, J. B. Slauson, Thomas M. Garland, and O. M. Stewart. 

The Spring River Baptist Associations met at Carthage, September 13, 
14, and 15, also its Sunday-school convention. Delegates to the St. Louis 
Republican State Convention, were C. C. Allen, W. F. Cloud, A. E. Greg- 
ory, 0. E. Spencer, J. M. Craven, and A. F. Lewis. 

October 10. Grand rally at Carthage, 5,000 patriots in line. Reception 
of Hon. John B. Henderson and Jeff. Chandler. Monday last witnessed 
pi'obably one of the largest political gatherings ever assembled in south- 
west Missouri. It was the occasion of the visit to Carthage of Hon. John 
B. Henderson candidate for Governor, and JefF. Chandler, candidate for 
Attorney-general. The procession which gathered early and long were 
all enthusiastic and full of the grand spirit of the occasion. It will be re- 
membered that this was the Grant and Wilson vs. Greeley and Gratz 
Brown campaign, and one or two of the tableaux in the procession will 
best describe the pleasantry of the occasion. The first, " Glory of 
America," was characterized by the young ladies representing " Even 
Handed Justice," "The Constitution," and "The Goddess of Liberty," 
with flags, costumed soldier boys and gala girls and other parapher- 
nalia. Following this tableau was a wagon, in which was a skiff", wherein 
sat a representative of Horace Greeley in a white coat and hat, with black 
band; a card was pinned to his back lettered " H. G." and on the tail of the 
coat " Gratz Brown." Horace was pulling for Salt River, but anon pause(][ 

16 ,J 



2i2 HISTORY OF JASPEK COUNTY. 

to read some of his favorite articles on the Democracy, from the New York 
Tribune. 

Carthage Woolen Yarn. It is gratifying to know that the yarn manu- 
factured at the Carthage Woolen Mill took first premium at St. Louis Fair. 

December 19. Discovery and exploration of a great cave on Garrison 
Avenue. A great subterranean cavern with numerous roDms and compart- 
ments. One chamber was 583 feet in extent, and one passage 80 rods in 
length. There was also found a clear underground lake, across which no 
one of the exploring party could throw. Many crystal stalagmite and 
stalactite specimens were found, beside numerous fossils and petrified re- 
mains of extinct animals. Truly the bowels of the earth are full of won- 
ders, as well as the heavens above, and the waters under the earth. 

Organization of the Carthage fire company, with the following officers: A. 
Cahn, president; T. Buckbee, vice-president; W. C. Betts, secretary; J. Gr. 
Leidy, treasurer; 0. O. Harrington, foreman; C. B. Wood, assistant-fore- 
man. 

December 19. Hominy Mills of Mr. Wampler, one mile north of Car- 
thage, organized. New jail completed at Carthage. The jail contains 
eisjht cells, which are secured by fastenings and locks of the very latest in- 
vention, and the" movements of which are only known to the manufacturers 
and jailers. The eight cells are unlocked on the inside by two keys, but it 
takes several keys to get to the halls in which the cells are located. The 
building is well lighted and ventilated, and has the necessary accommoda- 
tions for keeping it clean and habitable. The brick portion contains four 
ofiices, and are fire-proof. 

187S. — January 30. The clerks and sherifi''s offices removed to the rooms 
at the jail. 

February 6. Babcock fire extinguisher arrives and tested with satisfac- 
tion to council committee, finall3^ Fire at Georgia City. Mr. J. C. Cox's 
residence one and a half miles south of Medoc was destroyed by fire Tues- 
day noon. The building cost $3,000 and was insured in the Continental, 
of New York, for $1,800. A defective fine was the cause of the fire. 

February 27. Railroad completed to Minersville, ten miles west of Car- 
thage. 

February 25. Carthage voted to become a chartered city, by a vote of 
four to one. Organization of the Jasper County Immigration Association. 
The object being as set forth in the constitution is the dissemination of in- 
formation with regard to the agricultural, mineral, and manufacturing inter- 
ests of Jasper county. The membership fee is $5 a year. The following 
board of directors were elected: T. Regan, W. S. Tower, J. W. Young, L. 



CITY OF CAETHAGE. 243 

S. Mohr, E. P. Searle. The directors elected the following officers: Capt. 
J. W, Young, president; W. S. Tower, vice-president; D. S. Thomas, treas- 
urer; Captain Tnttle and H, C. Hennej, corresponding secretaries; E. P. 
Searle, secretary. Cowgill & Hill enlarge their business place for extensive 
business. 

March 15. Jasper County Associrtion Patrons of Husbandry in success- 
ful operation. Joplin becomes a chartered city. 

March 27. An act to incorporate the city of Carthage. 

April 3. Fire at Galesbnrg. " Last night, about ten o'clock, the people 
were aroused by fire, and it was soon ascertained that the flour-mills belong- 
ing to Cabanis & Monroe were on Are. The fire started in the rear, and 
soon the grist-mill, work-shop, carding-mill, and tools were in ashes. The 
loss is estimated from $12,000 to $15,000." New township organization 
law approved, March 24, 1873. Medoc murder. William German, accused 
of killing his father-in-law, near Medoc, last spring, was arrested in Kan- 
sas, and after a preliminary examination before Esquire Brown, of Gales- 
bnrg, was committed to jail. Mr. Jonathan Rusk, an old resident, and 
a native of Indiana, died March 20, 1873, twelve miles southwest of Car- 
thage. He and five sons served in the Federal cause, and he was highly es- 
teemed. 

May 22. Foundry and Machine Shops. The company organized in this 
city a few days ago is actively engaged. Mr. Thos. Davey, of Louisville, 
Kentucky, has become a member of the company, and was elected super- 
intendent. The board of directors are J. W. Young, president; J. Brown- 
sill, vice-president; C. C. Allen, secretary. A large au.ouut of machinery 
has been ordered from New Haven, Connecticut, and work is being done 
for Joplin. 

August 7. Establishment of the Brownsill Wagon Factory, corner of 
Second and Main. It is a two-story brick building, 40x60 feet. Mr. Brown- 
sill has one hundred feet more ground adjoining the above, on which he in- 
tends placing his work-shops. Eagle Iron and Foundry Works, for the 
manufacture of agricultural implements. The shop is on North Main. The 
company consists of Messrs. A. T. Wheeler, Chas. Weed, A. H. Merriss, II. 
J. Hervin, and George Kleb. 

August 4. Lead struck at Mmersville; a 60,000 pound chunk of lead only 
eight feet under ground; biggest lump in the world; two Carthagenians the 
winners of the prize; rich in a day; valued at $5,000; found by two hard- 
working men ; it is believed to be the biggest find yet. 

November 13. Lynched. Alfred T. Onan was lynched by a disguised 
band of fifteen masked men. He was hung for boldly attempting to rob the 



244 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

house of a man named Hunter, at Minersville, and is said to have been a 
member of Quantrell's band. 

December 14. Completion of the O. S. Presbyterian church, eight miles 
north of Carthage. The structure is 30x36 feet, 14 foot posts, and cost $3,- 
000. 

December 18. The Patriot burned out; total loss, $3,500, $1,000 of 
which Mr. Carpenter lost, and $1,500 by Regan & Cunningham, and the 
building, valued at $1,000, by Messrs. Strawn & Powell, of Ottawa, Illinois 
Mr. Carpenter was tendered the use of the Banner office, and got out his 
issue ahead of the usual time. 

1871^.. — January 16. Fire at Smithfield. The residence of J. M. Cessil 
was destroyed by fire, although the greater part of the household goods 
were saved. 

May 7. Killed by lightning. Mrs. Thos. Eslinger, of Lincoln township, 
a sister of Mrs. J. J. Williams, was killed by a bolt of lightning while going 
up stairs. Her clothing was badly torn and burned, and a child out doors 
was found senseless and badly burned. 

May 28. Murder at Smithfield. Patrick Daugherty, a railroad con- 
tractor, was killed by a half-breed Indian, with whom he had some differ- 
ence. The assassin escaped. 

July 16. Convicted. Joseph Sayers, charged with the murder of Charles 
Wilson at Joplin, in June last, was tried in the circuit court, and found 
guilty of murder in the second degree. The court assessed his punishment 
at sixteen years in the penitentiary. 

July 23. Communism. The Hannibal furnaces blown up and burned by 
a masked mob. About two o'clock the Hannibal furnaces were blown up, 
and all the buildings, together with the books and papers, were burned and 
destroyed by a band of masked men. The works were commonly known as 
" Picher's," being located on land owned by Colonel Picher. Thirty to 
fifty masked men entered the works on Monday morning, and with drawn 
revolvers forced the workmen away and blew up the furn-aces and safe, and 
completed their destruction of property. The parties are supposed to be 
disaffected miners because of the high rate of royalty, twenty per cent, on 
miners' mineral. 

August 27. Medoc mill burned by an incendiary. Mr. Reid, the pro- 
prietor, was absent in St. Louis. The mill originally cost $14,000, but Mr. 
Reid considers his loss $8,000. Everything was destroyed except the boiler 
and engine, which were slightly damaged. 

Novembers. Fire in East Joplin; entire business blocks burned. The 
fire originated in the rear of Wisburn's bakery, and was discovered about 



CITY OF CARTHAOE. 245 

two A. M. A great gale at the time spread the dread fiend rapidly, and 
about thirty buildings were destroyed. The Southwestern Hotel was saved 
with great exertion by men working with wet blankets around them to pro- 
tect them from the heat. It was a terrible fire and only checked by the ut- 
most exertions of brave and fearless men. 

November 12. Leidy & Co. establish a furniture factory. 

November 19. Death of Judge Williams of Jasper township, near Me- 
doc, with consumption, with which he had been affected for several years. 
He came to this county in the fall of 1866, and was for some years engaged 
in the mercantile business. Judge Williams was a staunch Republican and 
one of Jasper county's best friends. 

December 31. Ordination. Rev, E. F. Fales, late of Boston, was or- 
dained pastor of the Congregational Church. The exercises were conducted 
in the Methodist Church. The ordination sermon was preached by Rev. 0. 
H. Dunlap; ordination prayer, by Rev. T. O. Rice; charge. Rev. Plumb; 
right hand of fellowship, by Prof. Benner. 

1875. — January 28. Murderer arrested. John Steeley charged with mur- 
dering Harvey Silton in the spring of 1871, was arrested in Christian 
county, Missouri. There had been $450 reward offered for his arrest. 

February 4. Arasden June peach, a native of Jasper county, and prop- 
agated by Lucius Amsden, near the city of Carthage. Six years ago it 
sprouted and grew into a tree. Three years ago it fruited large, luscious 
peaches in the month of June. It has since been largely grafted and is the 
earliest variety known. 

February 11. Piatt's plow factory established; cost $20,000. Mr. Piatt, 
the operator and proprietor, is no novice in the business, having run an exten- 
sive factory for years in Des Moines, Iowa. Some of the best plows in the 
country are made, and it is an important industry for the county. 

March 4. Carthage freight depot burned on the M., C. & N. W. R,; 
thought to be the work of an incendiary; fully insured. 

April 15. Meeting of Southwest Missouri Medical Society; met in the 
Masonic Hall. The counties of Greene, Newton, Lawrence, Barton, and 
Jasper were represented. The president. Dr. J. A. Carter read a paper 
compiled from the ninth census report of the United States, comparing the 
deaths of southwest Missouri with the deaths from like causes in the differ- 
ent states and sections of the Union, and showing that in proportion to 
population the death rate was much less. Many other interesting subjects 
were presented and discussed by several physicians. 

May 6. Man drowned in Spring River, at the lower bridge, near Car- 
thatre. His name was Swan Olson. He attempted to cross the swollen 



246 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

stream with a span of horses. The team was also drowned. He left a wife 
and four children to mourn his death. 

June 4. Boy drowned, son of Mrs. Belle Ross, five years of a^e, four 
miles south of Carthage, by going in swimming. 

June 17. Sixteen prisoners attempt to break jail by sawing oif the bars, 
but were detected. They were desperate, and one was condemned to be 
hung. 

Killed by lightning, Allen Crawford, a young man of twenty-two years of 
age, who lived in Sheridan township, was struck down while plowing corn; 
every bone in his body seemed to be shattered. He was the youngest son 
of Mr. Crawford, and highly respected. 

June 24. Barn burned. Judge W. H. Rusk had his barn and entire 
contents burned, excepting live stock. The cause of the fire is attributed 
to some matches, which had been laid on a beam in the barn, being ignited 
by mice chewing the phosphorous. Loss, $1,000. 

August 5. The great flood. The rains descend in torrents and the val- 
leys inundated; great destruction of property; loss of life reported. From 
continued heavy rains Spring River was twelve inches higher than high 
water mark of 1872. Center Creek and all other streams were higher than 
ever before; small grain being in shock along its banks was washed away, 
besides fences, bridges, and cattle — a general destruction of property. 

September 9. Charley McGregor kicked to death by a horse. A twelve 
year-old son of Mr. Amos S. French, four miles southwest of Carthage, 
loses his arm in the cogs of a cane-mill. 

September 16. Death of Hon. Henry T. Blow on the 28th ult., at Sara- 
toga Springs, New York. Mr. Blow was born in Virginia, July 15, 1817, 
and was a resident of St. Louis forty-five years. Among the many enter- 
prises he was engaged in were the large mining works at Minersville or Oro- 
nogo in Jasper county, Missouri, where he owned immense tracts of mining 
land, and spent a princely fortune; also those of Gran by in Kewton county, 
and the Collier White Lead and Oil Company of St. Louis. In 1860 he 
was a vice-president at the Lincoln convention at Chicago, and minister to 
Venzuela in 1861. In 1862 a member of Congress; again re-elected; and 
in 1869 minister to Brazil; resigned in 1871; in 1874 served eight months 
as district commissioner. He was highly respected. 

September 23. Killed by a mule. Mr. James Day, son of Dawson Day, 
who resides six miles east of Carthage, on Spring River. 

October 21. The Carthage Turf Association hold their first annual fair. 

October 28. John Malay, a scissors sharpener, found dead in a lumber 
yard; was accustomed to getting drunk. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 247 

November 25. Breach of promise suit; Berry vs. Cassil; jury failing to 
agree, suit was dismissed. 

December 9. Shooting affair. James F. Hardin shoots Wm. H. Phelps 
twice, though not fatallj. 

1876. — January 27. Killed in a shaft. A premature blast blows a tamp- 
ing rod through a negro's head, and destroys the sight of another man. 

February 3. Assassinated. James F. Hardin waylaid and shot dead. 
We clip from the Carthage Press the following: "To-day, about 12 m., as 
James F. Hardin was on his way from the business part of the city to his 
residence, in the south part of town, he was shot dead. The assassins were 
concealed in Squire Robinson's blacksmith shop, which is several blocks 
away from the square, and is unoccupied. It appears that the fire-arms 
used were double-barrelled shot-guns, heavily loaded with buckshot. Hardin 
was walking along the pavement, with his cane in one hand, and the other 
in his pocket. Seven bullets entered his breast, three directly in the heart. 
Four shots are said to have been fired. It is thought the first shot killed 
him instantly. Hardin was unarmed. Hardin was considered by a good 
many as a dangerous and desperate character. He was bold and daring, 
and was under bonds for his appearance at the next terra of court for shoot- 
ing W. H. Phelps in the court room some two months ago." 

February 10. Arrested for murder. Trial of W". H. Phelps and his 
brother for the murder of J. F. Hardin. A warrant of arrest was sworn out 
by Mrs. Hardin, wife of the late James F. Hardin, for W. H. Phelps and 
Charles Phelps. Several attorneys were emploj'ed on either side, and the 
evidence seems to point against the defendants. 

The banking-house of Myers & Mohr, of Carthage, crashes and leaves its 
depositors in the lurch. Liabilities $50,000, and assets not to exceed $10,- 
000. The principal losers were J. D. McCrillis, $5,000; Frank McCrillis, 
$1,000; Chafi'ee & McCrillis, $1,100; John Onstott, $3,100; John Gumbro, 
$3,000; F. M. Chaffee, $1,000; T. B. Tuttle, $2,200; W. C. Betts, $800; 
A. Scholwell, $v»,000; C. W. Piatt, $1,800; U. Hendrickson, $1,500; W. P. 
Miller, $1,000; Puffin & McDaniel, $1,000; S. B. Griswold, $700; Dr. 
Burns, $700; Thos. E. Gray, $900; T. C. Canaday, $200; Miss Brooks, 
$700; Mr. Countryman, $100; Mrs. O. S. Picher, $700; Mrs. Briggs, $200; 
Mrs. Ptagsdale, $300; Mrs. Mastin, of Arkansas, $6,000. 

March 30. New firm. Messrs. Hicks & Bartlett, of St. Louis, opened a 
large stock of dry goods in the splendid store-room recently occupied by 
Cowgill & Hill. 

April 13. Miss Belle Douglas murdered. Her body found in Center 



248 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Creek, near Oronogo. The evidence indicated that one Charles Manlove 
knew when and how she disappeared. 

June 15. A child dies by drinking concentrated lye. 

June 22. Bloody work; a woman in it. Edwin Hoag shoots Theodore 
Foster at Reed's Station, eight miles southeast of Carthage. Hoag was 
suspicious and jealous of Foster, as being too fond of his wife, and pro- 
ceeded to take the law into his own hands, by shooting Foster three times, 
resulting fatally. Iloag gave himself up, and was put under $5,000 bonds. 

July 6. Flag presented to Light Guards by the ladies of Carthage, in a 
speech by A. L. Thomas, and responded to in behalf of the Guards by Cap- 
tain Garrison. 

July 20. Flag presented to band boys by Joe Church, without demon- 
stration. 

July 27. Assassination. George BurgOon was shot at, in his own bed, 
b}' an unknown man. Mr. Burgoon resides one and a half miles southeast 
of Carthage. Amos Saunders, who was under arrest for supposed seduction 
of Burgoon's wife, was arrested. 

August 3. Indignation meeting at Carthage, because of the bold and 
lawless crimes committed, and expressing disapprobation and devising 
measures for preventing them. 

Stabbing affray. Pat Clifford, of Joplin, cut four times by John For- 
sythe, though not fatally. 

August 10. New lumber yard. M. L. Keid, successor to W. J. McCarty, 
on the north side of the square. 

August 31. Joplin railroad, to Girard, built, by Mr. Moffett, to procure 
coal for the Joplin Smelting Works; cost, $300,000, and fort}' miles in length. 

September 28. W. H. Phelps acquitted, as "not guilty" of the murder 
of James F. Hardin. 

November 9. Mr. Cassil's residence destroyed by fire. The origin of 
the fire is not known. Most of the property was saved. It was a new resi- 
dence, the finest in the city, and cost $10,000; insured for $7,000. 

December 31. Drowned under the ice. Miss Anna Chaffee fell through 
the ice while skating on the pond of Spring River and was drowned. 

1877. — January 25. War in Webb City. A mob take possession of the 
town, defy the authorities, and shoot down citizens. A man, Messie by 
name, had been lodged in the calaboose for disorderly conduct. A number 
of his friends, full of whisky, determined to release him. Armed with revolv- 
ers and Winchester rifles, firing by the mob was begun and continued till 
dark, when the leaders escaped and a number of accomplices were arrested, 
after several citizens had been wounded. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 249 

March 29. Hoag, tried for the murder of Foster, was acquitted. 

May 10. Death of Mrs. Judge Hornback, a very estimable woman, at 
the age of 45. 

June 21. Contract for building the first end of the Oronogo & Joplin 
Railroad was let to Messrs. Riley & Co., oi St. Louis. 

July 12. Thomas Garland retires from the editorial management of the 
Banner. The Carthage Advance also changed management, Rev. J. W. 
Jacobs retiring and Mr. Dudge coming to the rescue of the quill. A, F. 
Chaffee and Lee Burlingame commenced their large two-story brick store- 
room and opera hall. 

July 19. Proposition of Messrs. Gray, Bowman & Co., of St. Louis, to 
furnish Carthage with gas, putting in twenty-five lamps for $750 per year 
for twenty years. 

August 16. Horrible death. Joshua P. Taylor, foreman of the Joplin 
Daily News, killed by falling into an abandoned shaft. 

October 4. Deplorable accident. R, S. McCoy, a bank officer, was shot 
by Charles Glover, supposing him to be a burglar. McCoy fell, as the ball 
entered the right side and lodged near the spine, although his wound is not 
thought fatal. A colored man shot in a saloon, not fatally. 

October 25. Jasper county sheep take the premium at the Dade county 
fair, the property of AVilliam McGuire, living four miles northeast of Car- 
thage, the sheep being of the Cotswold breed. 

1878. — January 10. Destructive flames. The residence of I. F. Garner 
in ashes; clothing, bedding, etc., total loss. Insurance in Phoenix $400. 
No cause nown for the fire. 

January IT. Crushed to death. A Mr. Armstrong was crushed to death 
on the Neosho road, south of Carthage. He was in the act of drinking 
water, under the uplifted roots of a large tree his brother was cutting, 
when the latter sprang back in position, literally crushing the unfortunate 
man. 

February 7. Sudden death of an artist, Mr. H. C. Mitchell found iu 
his gallery in a dying condition, from an overdose of opium. He was prom- 
inent in society and his loss is deeply mourned. 

February 14. New corporation. Articles of association of the Banner 
Printing Company of Carthage, Jasper county, Missouri, have been 'filed 
with the Secretary of State, and a certificate of corporate existence issued ; 
capital $6,000; business object, publishing a daily. 

March 28. Permanent organization of the Greenback party in Jasper 
county, Missouri. All presidents of Greenback clubs acting as members of 
a County Central Committee. 



250 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

April 11. Terrible accident. Louis Hinkley, of Webb City, accidently 
shot oif part of his head and died in an hour. 

May 2. Dr. D. K. Bedell found dead in his bed, and probably died from 
paralysis of the heart. 

June 6. Surrender their charter. The First National Bank went into 
voluntary liquidation, although solvent, from lack of money and sufficient 
deposits. 

September 19. Cattle plague. The " Texas Fever " carried off hundreds 
of cattle in Jasper county; caused by contagion being brought into the county 
from cattle shipped into this section. 

December 5. Opening and reception at the Karr Hotel. 

1879. — January 2. A winter that arouses the recollections of the old- 
est inhabitants. Ten to thirty degrees below zero. 

January 17. Death of Judge Koontz five miles northeast of Carthage. 
He was one of the early settlers after the war, a member of the county court 
and a highly esteemed and respected citizen. 

February 12. The senate confirmed the appointment of A. F. Lewis, as 
postmaster, succeeding George Rader. 

March 13. Opening the City Plotel. A splendid improvement and im- 
portant acquisition to the business of Carthage, by Messrs. Warner, Smith 
&Co. 

Destructive fire. A barn struck by lightning and eight horses burned. 
This property belonged to George Miller, living five miles northeast of Carth- 
age. Besides the horses burned were a reaper, four sets of harness, five tons 
of timothy; no insurance. 

April 19. Prof. Underwood the first school commissioner ever re-elected. 

April 2-1. Death of Kev. W. Harris, pastor for two years of the M. E. 
Church South, of Carthage. Samuel E. Whitlock, a son of Mr. Whitlock, 
was killed bj a falling tree near Reed's Station. 

July 4. Carthage celebrates; the largest crowds in southwest Missouri. 

1880. — January 8. Theodore Til ton lectured to a large audience at the 
Opera House, Carthage, on the Problem of Life. Jasper county temper- 
ance convention met at the court-house. E. P. Searle presented a constitu- 
tion, which was adopted. George L. Learning was chosen president, F. A. 
Hazen, secretary. 

January 16. Fire; thirteen business houses in ashes. "Fire is a good 
servant, but a bad master," was truly verified in Carthage last night. As 
it was seen from the first that the store buildings could not be saved, nearly 
all the goods from the stores were saved and guarded by a police force. 
The parties suffering loss were Mrs. M. M. Clark, $300; no insurance. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 251 

Charles Valin, $400; insurance, $300. Dr. Carter's office; Jenkins & Miller; 
insured; loss $2,000. J. J. Higgins, loss $1,500; insurance $1,000. Louis 
Blaise, loss $1,000; insurance $800. Winkler's barber shop; J. M. Whit- 
sett, loss $1,000; partly insured. G. W. Crow, loss $1,000; no insurance. F. 
Victor, insured; loss $500. Charles Harrington, insured $1,200; loss $1,500. 
Peter Bowers, insurance $400; small loss. Charles Harrington began re- 
building at once. Cause of fire uncertain. 

Fire near Avilla. The house and furniture of Louis Luck, living ten 
miles northeast of Carthage, was destroyed early Tuesday morning by fire. 
Though the origin of the fire is unknown, there are suspicions of incendia- 
rism. The loss was $1,000 and insured in the Rockford Insurance Com- 
pany for $500. Two years ago his barn and contents were destroyed. 

A Mrs. Tomes of Webb City was supposed to have been poisoned, 
although the parties charged were acquitted. 

May 13. Old settler's meeting. Carthage cyclone. Several shops and 
out-buildings were injured, the roof of the woolen mills blown off, but no 
lives lost. 

June 3. Laying of the corner stone of the M. E. Church South, on How- 
ard Avenue, with the usual ceremony of depositing county papers, relics, 
names of national, county, and city otiicers. The church is to cost $3,000. 

November 25. Fire. The Commercial Hotel burned to the ground; loss 
$2,000; fire said to have originated in the kitchen. 

December 9. Fatal accident; the cars run over and crush Charley Bates, 
who fell between them. 

1881. — January 13. Sad ending of a young life. Miss Mary Hogg, sister 
to Mrs. J. E. Nicolls of Carthage was found in a well on the premises of 
Mr. Hickman, with whom she was visiting. 

May 4. Hon. De LaMatyr's great speech at Carthage to an appreciative 
audience. 

June 9. A bloody tragedy. The Theatre Comique the scene of a terri- 
ble shooting affray. Thomas Carney, a former proprietor of the place, de- 
manded some silver spoons which he said belonged to him, from the pro- 
prietor, Jake Pecora. They w^ere refused, when shots were exchanged. 
Charles Thompson, a bystander was shot and afterwards died; Fecora es- 
caped uninjured, and was placed under arrest; Carney was hit in the groin. 

June 23. Suicide near Avilla. James Carter, residing two miles from 
Avilla, cut his throat from ear to ear. Prospective failure of crops the only 
assignable cause. 

January 13. Congregational church and chapel burned; cause unknown. 
Loss on chapel, $300; $1,000 insurance on the church. The following night 



252 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

a story and a half honse, known as the "Warren Clark property, was con- 
sumed, caused by a defective flue, the goods all being saved. 

February 10. Suicide of Mrs. J. E. Nicolls, sister of the late Miss 
Mary Hogg, by drowning in a well. A sad and terrible death. Mrs. Nic- 
olls had attempted her own destruction at various times, and was therefore 
watched. She was a skillful piano player, a marvelously sweet singer, and 
an accomplished lady. She leaves an only brother as the surviving mem- 
ber of her father's family, and a husband and two children to mourn her 
tragic death. 

July 4. Carthage celebrates the fourth. 

July 28. Completion of the Missouri Pacific Railroad to Carthage. 

October 6. Organization of the Home Lumber Company, with Robert 
Moore, of Carthage, as vice-president. 

1882. — January 5. Kellogg Bros.' marble shop and some small build- 
ings of Mr. Sennet burned to the ground. 

A. W. St. John becomes and equal partner and editor in the Press. 

January 19. Five prisoners broke jail. 

January 26. Carthage Woolen Mills burned; insured for $20,000. 

February 23. Fire engine house at Carthage destroyed by fire. 

June 22. A man falls in descending into a mining shaft from the foul 
air or damps some forty-five feet, at Blend City, and was found dead. 

S. N. McFerrin builds a large store at Carl Junction. 

New woolen mill built by William B. Myers & Co. The building is 
50x100 feet, two stories, the first of limestone and the other of brick, at a 
cost of $25,000. 

July 12. Drowned in Jones's Creek, a son of James Scantlin, while bath- 
ing; aged twelve years. 

October 5. Jasper county, Missouri, fruit takes first premium at the 
Illinois State competition. 

Opening and reception of the Harrington Hotel. 

October 19. Gala day in Carthage. Convention of the Grand Lodge of 
the Knights of Pythias. Great crowds of people witness the street parade 
and drill of the plumed knights, in a competitive drill for prizes: First 
prize for division, Sedalia, $300; second prize for division, Moberly, $100. 
First prize drill corps, Columbus, Kansas, $200; second prize drill corps, 
Golden Crown, St. Louis, $50. Second prize best division commander, to 
Captain P. Carmody, Moberly; second prize best corps commander. Cap- 
tain Abbott, Moberly. Captain Caffee and Sergeants Deagen and Halli- 
burton, judges. 

November 2. A Jasper county woman takes the first premium for the 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 253 

largest yield and best quality of wheat on ten acres. Awarded by three 
judges to Mrs. Mary E. Cutler, three miles west of Carthage. The average 
was thirty-five bushels per acre. 

November 28. Accidental death. S. N. Andrews, of Carterville, with 
a party of friends, went to Indian Territory on a pleasure hunt, and by an 
accident Mr. Andrews's gun was discharged through his head, causing in- 
stant death. 



CHAPTER XII.— CARTHAGE CITY GOYERNMENT. 

First, Under Township Organization from 1842 to 1868 — Carthage as an Incorporated 
Town from 1868 to 1873 — Petition for Town Government — Carthage as a Chartered 
City — First Mayor s Inaugural — Official Directory — -Municipal Statistics — Fire De- 
partment. 

18Jf!2-1868. — The present city of Carthage, now known as the " Queen 
city of the Southwest," has existed in history under three distinct systems 
of government. Carthage as a platted town, laid out in 1842, under Marion 
township jurisdiction; Carthage as an incorporated town in 1868, governed 
by a board of trustees, created by an act of the county court; and Carthage 
as a chartered city, in 1873, by an act and grant of the state legislature of 
Missouri. From the time Carthage was laid out in 1842, until after the war, 
in 1868, the government was vested in the constable and justice of the 
peace, so far as the civil government was concerned. 

1868-1873. — By reference to the records of Jasper county, Missouri, 
under date of March 12, 1868, in the proceedings of the county court, we 
find the following reference: "On this day comes M. G. McGregor and 
presents to the court a petition signed by 206 taxable inhabitants of the 
town of Carthage that a police be established for the local government 
of the same, and for the preservation and regulation of any commons ap- 
pertaining to said town within the following metes and bounds; viz., Com- 
mencino' at the northwest corner of Parson & Case's addition to said town 
of Carthage, running thence north 800 feet; thence east 6,110 feet; thence 
north 2,120 feet, to the place of beginning, with the same narrations as the 
original surveys, being 2,920 feet north and south, by 6,110 feet east and 
west. The matter being seen and heard and fully understood by the court, 
it is considered and adjudged that said petition is reasonable, and that every 
matter and thing required by law to be done in the premises has been com- 
plied with, it is, therefore, ordered by the court, that said town of Carthage 



254 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

be and the same is hereby declared incorporated as prayed for in said peti- 
tion, and that David S. Thomas, Thomas E. Gra}^ Norris C. Hood, David 
H. Budlong, and Robert A. Cameron, be, and they are hereby, appointed 
trustees within and for said town of Carthage, and that they are hereby 
authorized and empowered to hold and discharge the duties of said office 
until their successors are elected and qualified." Here we have given both 
the authority to incorporate and the " making " in the same act of the 
county court, the town government by trustees, in whom was vested the 
authority and control of municipal affairs. At this time Carthage num- 
bered 500 to 800 souls, and from this time may date their small begin- 
nings and their steady progress and prosperity. 

Carthage as a Chartered City. — 187S-1883. — Carthage having been 
governed under the township government of Marion township and the town 
of Carthage for some 3'ears, having attained 5,000 inhabitants required by 
law within its corporate limits, through their representative, W. H. Phelps, 
presented a petition to the legislature of Missouri praying for a grant of 
a city charter, which was received and passed March 15, 1873. 

The first article of this charter sets forth its purport: "An act to incor- 
porate the city of Carthage, included within the limits herein described, in 
the county of Jasper, and State of Missouri, embraced in sections three and 
four, and the north half of sections nine and ten, in township twenty-eight, 
range thirty-one, west, and the south half of the southeast quarter of section 
thirty-three, and the south half of the southwest quarter of section thirt}"- 
four, in township twenty-nine, range thirty-one west, together with such 
additions outside of the above limits as may hereafter be laid out, mapped, 
and recorded, according to law, is hereby declared to be within the corpor- 
ate limits of the city of Carthage." Under the charter as it now exists 
the city is governed by a mayor and four councilmen, elected annually, the 
city being divided into four wards according to population, who shall sub- 
scribe to the maintainance of the charter and the Constitution of Missouri. 
Among the legislative powers of the city council is this, that the "city 
council shall have no power, neither shall the city, in any capacity, incur ob- 
ligations, or go in debt in any form or manner, or become security for, or 
loan its credit to a greater extent than five percentum of the assessed valua- 
tion of all property within said city limits." Although there have been 
few amendments the chief one is this, that the citizens of the city of Car- 
thage are exempted from paying any pauper tax other than is incurred 
within the city limits. Among the special ordinances granted by the city 
are to the gas company, in August, 1877; the right of way through the city 
to the Missouri Pacific Railroad, February 14, 1881; a grant to the Water- 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 255 

works Company, in June, 1881; Telephone Exchano^e, September 26, 1881. 
Carthage having now gotten lier charter from the legislature and come forth 
from her former protoplasmic state, grows from her embrj'onic existence 
in the first year of her life under the gubernatorial control of Peter Hill as 
mayor, with D. S. Thomas, J. W. Young;, H. C. Henney, and T. B. Tuttle 
as councilmen, and M. M. James acting as clerk jpro tern. This was in 
April, 1873. W. W. Thornburg was appointed marshal until his successor 
should be qualified. D. A. Harrison was appointed as the first city attor- 
ney. The message of the mayor, Peter Hill, to the honorable councilmen 
is short, concise, and best demonstrates the position and standing of the 
city in its infancy in his own words: "Gentlemen: — I congratulate you 
on our prosperity and growth as evinced by our change from a village to 
an incorporated city. In this our ability to still further and more rapid 
progress is increased. This brings with it increased responsibilities to 
those whom the' citizens have entrusted with the management of our muni- 
cipal affairs. So much is needed to be done in the way of public improve- 
ments, and means so limited, that it is. only by a careful and impartial 
course that the best interests of all will be promoted. The greatest amount 
of improvements should be made that will not work a hardship to our in- 
dustrial and commercial interests. The taxation of the many for the build- 
ing up of the few should be held up in its true light as a wrong against the 
people. No revenue should be raised except for the public benefit, and our 
expenditures should be limited to our means of paying. It is not my pur- 
pose to point out especially the objects that will demand your attention, but 
it is well to bear in mind that our treasury is empty, that our present debt 
tween four and five thousand dollars, nearly all of which is to be paid out 
of our next taxes. Knowing the energy and enterprise of our people, and 
our great natural advantages, I" have an abiding faith in the future of the 
Queen City of the Southwest, which is entrusted to your government." 

It may be of interest to some to know the salaries of the city ofiicers. 
The office of mayor and councilmen was of gratuitous service, and rendered 
to the city both as an honor and interest shown in the city's public welfare. 
The city clerk originally got ten dollars for each regular meeting, once a 
weekj a dollar for each called meeting, and for extra work the council were to 
decide. He now gets forty dollars per month and all fees allowed the of- 
fice by the statutes. The marshal got twenty-five dollars per month and all 
fees subject to this ofiice. The supervisor of roads got two dollars per day, 
"for each day actually engaged in said work." 

Under the original charter of 1873 the clerk, city treasurer, marshal, as- 
sessor, collector, and supervisor of streets were appointed by the councilmen. 



256 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

The Official Directory.— 1873. Mayors, Peter Hill, T. Re^an ; alder- 
men, Thomas B. Tattle, D. L. Thomas, J. W. Young, H. C. Henney; clerk, 
M. M. James; city treasurer, Peter Myers; marshal, W. W. Thornburg; 
assessor, M. M. James; collector, A. B. Parkell; street commissioner, J. 

W. Hart. 

1874. — Mayor, Timothy Regan; aldermen, J. E. Moberly, J. W. Young, 

E. Sherman, J. P. Betts; clerk, D. G. White; city treasurer, E. W. Harper; 
marshal, W. W. Tiiornburg; assessor, D. T. White; street commissioner, 
J. W. Hart. 

1875.— Mayor, H. H. Harding; aldermen, F. T. Welch, William B. 
Myers, C. C. Allen, Ezra Huntly; city clerk; F. A. Beebe; city treasurer, 
A. M. Drake; marshal, M. Mix; assessor, D. G. White; street commis- 
sioner, J. W. Hart; city attorney, B. F. Garrison. 

1876. — Mayors, J. W. Sennet, Josiah Lane; aldermen, William Mothers- 
paw, J. W. Sennet, G. B. McMerrick, M. L. Reid; clerk, F. A. Beebe; 
city recorder, G. M. Robinson; city treasurer, J. T. RufBn; marshal, W. 
W. Thornburg; assessor, J. T. Grubb; collector, W. Woodward; street 
commissioner, J. W. Hart; city attorney, D. A. Harrison. 

1877.— Mayor, John T. Ruffin; aldermen, M. Block, G. W. Stebbins, I. 
Perkins, Enos Myers; clerk, Jesse Rhoads; city recorder, G. M. Robinson; 
treasurer, J. L. Bottenfield; marshal, B. F. Thomas; assessor, Jesse Rhoads, 
collector, W. Woodward; street commissioner, J. W. Hart; engineer, M. 
N. Randall; city attorney, W. H. McCown. 

1878.— Mayor, John T, Ruffin; aldermen, W. H. Smith, George W. Steb- 
bins, W. S. Bower, A. E. Gregory; clerk, Jesse Rhoads; city recorder, W. 
W. Thornburg; treasurer, John L. Bottenfield; marshal, B. F. Thomas; 
assessor, Jesse Rhoads; collector, W. Woodward; street commissioner, J. 
W. Hart; engineer, H. H. Cloud; city attoVney, T. B. Haughawout. 

1879. — Mayor, George Rader; aldermen, J. W. Sennet, Charles Keswe- 
ter, John F. Hampton, W. T. Somers; clerk, Jesse Rhoads; city recorder, 
Daniel W. Brown; city treasurer, T. M. Garland; marshal, J. B. Buchanan; 
assessor, Jesse Rhoads; collector, Fred Crocker; street commissioner, J. W. 
Hart; engineer, H. M. L. Iruies; city attorney, F. S. Yager. 

1880.— Mayor, A. H. Caflfee; aldermen, A. G. Milless, Charles Pool, I. 

F. Garner, Henry Hout; clerk, Jesse Rhoads, H. C. Cabot; city recorder, 
Daniel Brown; treasurer, J. J. Wells; marshal, James Fianigan; assessor, 
Jesse Rhoads, H. C. Cabot; collector, Fred Crocker; street commissioner, 
J. W. Hart; engineer, H. M. L. Innes; city attorney, M. G. McGregor. 

1881.— Mayor, A. H. Caflfee; aldermen, C. F. Hedrick, George W. Steb- 
bins, A. W. Rogers, T. B. Tuttle; clerk, H. C. Cabot; city recorder, C. B. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 257 

Stickney; city treasurer, L. F. Brown'; marshal, James Flanigan; assessor, 
H. C. Cabot,- collector, Fred Crocker; street commissioner, George Coffen; 
engineer, H. M. L. Inness; city attorney, R. F. Bnler, 

1882. — Mayor, E. W. Harper; aldermen, John Dermott, R. C. Friend, 
W. E. Hall, John H. Taylor; city clerk, E. O. Keefe; city recorder, Sam. 
G.Williams; city treasurer, James Spence; marshal, James Deagan; city 
collector, Fred Crocker; street commissioner, George Coffen; engineer, H. 
M. L. Innes; city attorney, W. H. Halliburton. 

1883.— Mayor, T. T. Luscombe; aldermen, J. W. Miller, D. A. Smith, 
H. M. Gray, John D. McCrillis; city clerk, Thomas L. Garland; city re- 
corder, Sam. G. Williams; city treasurer, James Spence; city marshal, 
James Deagan; city assessor and collector, Thomas M. Garland; street 
commisioner and engineer, H. M. L. Inness; city attorney, John Flannigan; 
policemen, F. M. Hawker, Tliomas C. Hood, Charles P. Phillips. 

The following is a list of the justices of the peace for the respective 
years: 1865, S. W. Bowlen, James Rickner; 1866, S. W. Bowlen; 1867, Ira 
Creech, Esq. Robinson; 1868, John Easton, Esq. Sheffield; 1870, J. P. Betts; 
1872, J. P. Betts, T. B. Tattle, James Griffith; 1874, John Easton; 1876, 
T. B. Tuttle, Esq. Folger; 1878, W. Woodward; 1882, J. J. Higgins. 

Salary of mayor $100 per annum; councilmen, $50 per annum each; 
city treasurer, $200 per year; attorney, $100 per year; clerk, $40 per month 
and fees; recorder, fees; marshal, $40 per month and fees; street commis- 
sioner, $2 per day at work; engineer, $3 per day when employed; police- 
men, $40 per month; street workmen, $1.50, and with team $2.75. 

Herewith is given the rates of licenses: Circus or menagerie, or both, 
traveling by rail, $150, by wagon, $25 to $50; concerts or side shows connected 
with above, each $5; theatrical, or minstrel shows, first exhibition $3, each 
subsequent $2.50, or by week $15; peddler, for three months or more at r^te 
of $60 per year; auctioneer or hawker, $125 per year, six months, $75, 
three months, $45, one month, $20, ten days $15, and $2 per day for first 
five days; hotel per annum, $10; boarding house, $5; restaurants, $5; dram- 
shops, $800; ale, beer, and wine, $200; billiard or other table, $20; shooting 
gallery or baby show, per week $3, per day $1; banks, per annum $20; 
job wagons, two horse, $10; job wagons, one horse, $5; delivery, not owned 
by seller of goods, $5; water wagon, $5; milk wagon, $8; milk vender, 
foot, $4; huckster wagon, $5; livery stable, $20; feed or sale stable, $10; 
omnibus or hack line, $50; bill poster, $15. 

Municipal statistics from April, 1881 to 1882: Milk, job, and water 
wagons, also omnibus and transfer lines, $511; hotels, restaurants, and 
17 



258 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

boarding houses, $145; dram-shops, |3,200; billiard tables, $220; circuses, 
shows, theatres, and operas, $291; auctioneers and peddlers, $87; livery 
and feed stables, $95; banks, $80; bill posters, $15; total, $4,644. 

Statistics from April, 1882, to April, 1883: Milk, job, and water wagons; 
also omnibus and transfer lines, $557; hotels, restaurants, and boarding 
houses, $215; circuses, shows, theatres, and operas, $303.50;. auctioneers, 
peddlers, and shooting gallery, $261; livery and feed stable, 170; billiard 
and pool tables, $220; dram-shops, $3,400; banks, $80; dealer in fresh 
meats, $125; total, $5,331.50. 

Fire Department. — The fire department of Carthage comprises three 
departments, and is divided into three companies, as follows: 

Hope Hose, No. 1. — It was organized in 1881, and is composed of fifteen 
men. Officers: George Thomas, foreman; Garrett Sheffield, assistant fore- 
man. 

Fire King., No. 2. — Organized at the same time. Officers: Charles 
Tobias, foreman. There are fifteen members. 

Rescue Hook and Ladder, No. 1. — Organized December, 1872; has a 
membership of twenty-three. Foreman, J. Linegar; assistant, D. Helt. 

Chief engineer of the fire department, Charles O. Harrington; aosistant 
chief, Charles Kisweter. 

There is 1,000 feet of hose, two hose carriages, and one hook and ladder 
truck. A system of fire alarms is established in the principal places in the 
the city : viz, Harrington Hotel, City Hotel, recorder's office, and water tower. 
There is in process of construction a telephonic communication with the 
water tower, so that any one having a telephone connection can give an 
alarm of fire to the source of water. 



CHAPTER XIIL-CHURCHES OF CARTHAGE. 

Baptist Church — Congregational Church — Methodist Episcopal Church — Christian Church 
— M. E. Charch (South) — Grace Church — Second Baptist Church (Colored) — Swede 
Christian Church — Wesley Chapel, M. E. Church (Colored). 

' The Baptist Encyclopedia says: " The Baptist denomination was founded 
by Jesus during his earthly ministery. That, next to Jesus, its great lead- 
ers were the apostles and elders, bishops and evangelists who preached 
Christ in those olden times. The teachings of their founder may be found 
in the four gospels and in the inspired epistles of the apostles. The Acts 
of the Apostles is their first missionary journal. That the church estab- 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 259 

lished by Christ through his apostles has come down to us through all the 
ages of darkness and persecution. The American Baptists descended from 
the English, the English from the German Anabaptists, and these from the 
Waldenses and Petrobrusians, and others who are usually considered as wit- 
nesses of the truth in times of general darkness and superstition. "Before 
the rise of Luther and Calvin they lay concealed in almost all the countries 
of Europe." The same writer says: "The origin of the Anabaptists is hid 
in the depths of antiquity, and is, in consequence, extremely difficult to be 
ascertained." 

The Royal Encyclopedia says: "The Baptists appear supported by his- 
tory in considering themselves the descendants of the Waldenses who were 
so generally oppressed and persecuted by the despotic heads of the Romish 
hierarchy." 

About the year 1570 Cardinal Hosius, who presided over the Council of 
Trent, said: " If the truth of" religion were to be judged of by the readiness 
and cheerfulness which a man of any sect shows in suffering, then the opin- 
ions and persecutions of no sect can be truer or surer than those of the 
Anabaptists, since tliere have been none for these twelve hundred 3'ears 
past that have been more greviously punished." According to this learned 
Romish cardinal the persecution of these honored ancestors of the German 
Baptists extends back to the year a. d. 370 — within less than three cen- 
turies of the close of the apostolic age. 

In 1819 the King of Holland had his attention called to the Baptists. 
He directed Doctors Ypiege and Durmont to investigate their history 
and report the result. Here is the conclusion they reached: " The Baptists, 
who were formerly called Anabaptists, and in latter days Menonites, were 
originally called Waldenses, and who have long in the history of the 
church received the honor of that opinion. On this account the Biipti§ts 
may be considered as the only Christian community which has stood since 
the days of the apostles, and as a Christian society which has preserved 
pure the doctrines of the gospel through all ages. The perfectly correct 
external economy of the Baptist denomination tends to confirm the truth 
disputed by the Romish Church that the Reformation brought about in the 
sixteenth century was in the highest degree necessary, and at the same time 
goes to refute the erroneous notion of the Catholics that their communion ' 
is the most ancient. 

American Baptists. — There were Baptists among the early colonists of 
Virginia and New England. In 1639 Roger Williams embraced the views 
of the Baptists and was immersed. The church which was then organized 
was abandoned and another was created under the leadership of Thomas 01- 



260 HISTOKY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

ney, and this became extinct in 1715. There was a regularly organized 
church in Newport in 1644. There was a Baptist church formed in Wales 
and settled in 1703 at Welsh Tract, now Delaware. In 1714 Robert Nor- 
den was set apart to the ministry in London, and during the same year he 
constituted a church at Burleigh, Virginia. From this beginning there 
went forth other organizations until this denomination has covered the land 
with its churches. We learn from Howell and others that in 1765 there 
were fifty Baptist churches in Virginia. 

The Faith of the Bajptists. — The Baptists hold that the Word of God is 
the only authority in religion; that all should bow with unfeigned defer- 
ence to its teachings in matters of faith and practice; that it is a perfect 
rule of faith and practice. They teach that men are saved through faith in 
the merits of Christ before they are to be admitted to baptism, and that 
baptism is immersion in water in the name of the Trinity; that the Lord's 
Supper is a church ordinance, and that to partake of the same one must be- 
come a member of the church. Their government is independent or con- 
gregational; each church is the sole judge of the qualification of those who 
become members. Their associations are merely benevolent advisory 
bodies without jurisdiction over the churches. Their views of the doctrines 
of grace may be denominated as moderately Calvinistic. 

The Progress of the Baptists. — The Baptists comprise one of the most 
numerous denominations in the United States. Their growth has become 
steady and rapid. From 1770 to 1784 they had: 

CHURCHES. MINISTERS. MEMBERS. 

1770 471 424 35,101 

1792... 891 1,156 65,345 

1812 2,164 1,605 172,972 

1832 5,320 3,618 384,926 

1840 7,771 5,208 571,291 

1851 .-...9,552 7,393 770,839 

1860 12,279 7,773 1,014,171 

1875 21,423 13,214 1,815,300 

1880 26,060 16,596 2,296,327 

It is believed that for each member there are five adherents, which will 
make the Baptist population of the United States about ten millions — one- 
fifth of the whole population. 

Educational Institutions. — The Baptists commenced at an early day to 
take an interest in education. One of their English brethren made liberal 
donations to Harvard University. Brown University was founded in 1764. 



CITY OF CAKTHAGE. 261 

There are now: Colleges, 31; teachers, 281; students, 4,609; property, $7,- 
910,597; endowment, $3,279,000. 

Academies, Seminaries, Male and female. — Number, 48; teachers, 352; 
scholars, 5,522; property, $2,388,408; endowments, $489,890. 

Theological Schools. — Number, 8; teachers, 37; students, 430; property, 
$1,689,872; endowments, $1,191,681. They have a total of more than ten 
thousand students at Baptist schools, exclusive of those who are in state in- 
stitutions and colleges that are under the auspices of other denominations. 

The Baptists of Missouri. — The first Protestant church that was organ- 
ized in what is now Missouri was the Tywappity Baptist Church, in 1805. 
Another was constituted in 1806. 

CHURCHES. MINISTERS. MEMBERS. 

1806- 2 3 .50 

1816 14 11 426 

1826 91 52 2,984 

1836 230 126 8,723 

1846 410 201 19,667 

1856 539 349 31,358 

1866 479 432 44,877 

1876 1,284 842 89,786 

1880 1,449 839 96,567 

Jasper County. — Among those who immigrated to southwestern Mis- 
souri were a number of Baptists. They had churches in what is now known 
as Jasper county in 1840. We have been unable to secure the data from 
which to prepare a sketch of them. The first church of Carthage was or- 
ganized in 1845. Its growth for several years was retarded from not hav- 
ing a place in which to worship, or a resident minister. The church had 
preaching occasionally in private houses, or in the school or court-house. 
At the commencement of the great civil war the membership was about one 
hundred. They had purchased lot No. 127, but the purchase-money was not 
due, when the courts were suspended, and Jasper county was deserted of 
nearly all of its inhabitants. The Baptists were largely from Virginia, 
Kentucky, and other states that were in sympathy with the South, and many 
of them went into Arkansas and Texas, The gentleman who had acted as 
clerk, and who held the certificate of purchase given by the county, returned 
the same. It became necessary that there should be a reorganization of the 
church. Some of the members had been killed in battle, some had been 
shot down at their homes, the oflicers had made their homes elsewhere, and 
the records had been lost, and but one of the members, Mrs. McElhannan 
remained. In the meantime, other Baptists had moved into Carthage and 



262 HISTORY OF JASPEE COUNTY. 

the vicinity. In September, 1867. assisted by Elders Caleb Blood and E. 
S. Freeman, George P. Hedge, N. C. Hood, Mrs. Mary E. Hedge, Louisa 
E. Stimson, Martha K. Hood, Mahala Stockton, Mary E. Hood, Adeline 
Hildreth, Amanda McElhannan and Rev. Caleb Blood, agreed to unite to- 
gether in church relation. George P. and Mary E. Hedge, Mrs. Stockton, and 
Mrs. Glass, are still members. Rev. Caleb Blood was the first pastor. He 
was a native of New England, and a man of marked ability. He was then 
a resident of Jasper county. L. B. Ruftin was the first clerk of the church. 
Elder M. C. Clelland succeeded Elder Blood in 1870, and rendered accep- 
table service for a few months, and without any known cause left the city 
and was never heard of again. Then came Elder Brayton. In the mean- 
time the house which is now used as a court-house was erected. In 1872 
the house and lot No. 127 was sold to the county of Jasper for $5,000, and 
steps were taken for building on the lot donated to the church by the North 
Carthage Land Company. It was not till the administration of Elders 
Whitman and Crutcher had closed, and that of J. M. Smith had commenced, 
that the interior of the church-house was completed. Elder Smith's term 
extended from November, 1877, to December, 1880, the longest, and in 
some respects the most prosperous, pastorate the church has ever had. El- 
der J. Toll Miller succeeded Elder Smith, but the severity of the weather 
as compared with the mildness of Texas, and the precarious condition of his 
health, led him to return to Texas in April, 1882. He was, in June, 1882, 
succeeded by J. B. Hardwicke, who, at this writing, is closing his first pas- 
torate year. Nearly eighty members have been received and the church is 
united and prosperous. 

Officers.— S. B. ELardwicke, D. D., pastor; C. N. Wetherell, clerk; E. Pratt, 
treasurer; D. J. Bliss, R. J. Dale, A. McBride, M. D., and L. Nail, deacons; 
Messrs. Coffman, Bliss, D. Miller, George P. Hedge, and A. Ross, trustees. 

The Aid and Missionary Society. — Mrs. Pratt, president; Mrs, Hout, 
vice-president; Mrs. O'Keefe, treasurer; Mrs. Hardwicke, corresponding 
secretary, 

Sunday-school. — F. S. Yager, superintendent; C. N. Wetherell, assistant- 
superintendent; Miss Maggie Loyd, secretary; Miss Ada Heath, treasurer. 

Teachers. — Rev. J. B. Hardwicke, Mrs. E. O'Keefe, Miss Ella Pixlee, 
Miss Oliver, Miss Wetherell, Miss Efiie Fisher, Miss Rose Fisher, Miss Anna 
Hardwicke, Miss Lizzie Owens, Mr. A. Baker, F. A. North, Miss Beulah 
Pendleton, Miss Nannie Stockton. 

The following is a list of the members as shown by the clerk's books, 
in June, 1883: 

G. P. Hedge, Mary E. Hedge, Mahala Stockton, Amanda McElhannan, 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 263 

Mary Miller, Nancy Bistline, Ralph Pendleton, Corinfhea Pendleton, Simon 
BlsiHne, Hattie Marx, Nannie Stockton, D. J. Bliss, Ehnada Wilson, 
Phoebe Keller, George A. Case, Jane Ewing, Clarissa Fisher, Mary Loyd, 
D. E. W. Smith, Mary F. Smith, John Glass, Catharine Brown, F. M. 
Loyd, George Hedge, Thomas Glass, Rose A. Fisher, Kate M. Fisher, Helen 
Miller, Jnlia Ann Stickney, Mary J. Wilson, Mary F. O'Keefe, C. N. 
Wetherell, Nancy Harrison, John Lindsey, J. C. Smith, Brother and Sister 
Randall, Henrietta Boss, Sister Love, Eliza J. Smith, Mary Shearer, John 
W. Harrison, R. J. Dale, (31ive Dale, Canzada Dale, F. S. Yager, J. T. 
Spencer, Mary Spencer, Amelia Hntchins, Ada Heath, Kate Brannaman, 
Alvira Wetherell, Emily Wetherell, Sister Fngett, Ada White, Mollie Yogel, 
Sister Buckingham, Martha Mitchell, Augusta Reynolds, Sarah Douthitt, 
Even Land, William Land, Martha Land, Jennie Bliss, Fannie Bliss, Beulah 
Pendleton, George Tipton, Rebecca Tipton, Lydia Ross, James Ross, J. L. 
Green, Cora Fisher, Lulu Spencer, Mattie Ross, Georgie Reeves, Sister Bliss, 
Miriam Ford, Amos Ross, Eraeline Ross, Alice Harrison, Sister Hout, John 
W. Harrison, Jr., M. H. Heath, Eva Smith, Clara Smith, Joseph W. Logsden, 
Brother Badger, Sister Hancock, M. L. Elliott, Sarah E. Elliott, J. S. 
Walker, Rebecca Sorenci, George Tiliman, Joliny Fillman, Ann Wise, Sis- 
ter Perkins, A. McBride, E. H. McBride, Anna Hitt, David Miller, Sister 
Cheek, Sister Stoup, Brother CofFman, Sister Coffraan, George Fugett, S. 
M. Haggard, Elias Pratt, E. H. Pratt, C. W. Fisher, J. L. Nail, Laura Nail, 
John T. Long, A. W. Clary, Mary E. Clary, A. Marietta Kilgore, William 
Stockton, Lucy Belknap, Lucy Pendleton, C. A. Erwin,Mrs. Erwin, Mrs. King, 
Harriet Glover, John Good, J. B. Hardwicke, James McCourtney, Lydia 
Kilmer, M. J. Hardwicke, Anna J. Hardwicke, Sallie H. Hardwicke, Eliza- 
beth Allison, Alexander Lyle, Angeline Lyle, Modie Lyle, F. Y. Moore, 
W. H. Moore, E. P. Swan, M. A. Swan, Mary A. Miles, Hattie B. Stickney, 
Laura Hedge, Ellen M. Ted ford, Ella Pixlee, W. J. Berry. Anna E. Berry, 
F. Dickeu sheets, Sarah Dickensheets, D, M. Stafford, Nancy J. Stalford, 
Ella Foore, Rice Smith, J. B, Hardwicke, Jr., Hal Miller, Archy Baker, 
Libby Baker, Prudence Carter, Sarah Pixlee, John E. Carter, Minnie Stone, 
Samuel Stockton, Cornelia Crandall, Ella Crandall, E. M. Love, Daisy Yo- 
gel, Chauncy Stickney, Irvy Nail, Zella Keller, Joseph Miller, Ollie Fisher, 
Myrtle Fugett, Frank Fisher, Anna Mallen, Grace Pendleton, Cicero Spen- 
cer, Alice Bistline, Stella Fugett, Sallie Pixlee, Mina Strang, Mabel Miller, 
J. W, McKay, Medley Chadwell, Sennett Hardwicke, Tommy Yogel, Helen 
Yancy, George Carrivan, Mary Carrivan, Francis Cassivan, Sister Blackford, 
Sallie Sherrell, Eunice Bell, Henrietta Bradford, Adonna Norwood, Aurora 
Norwood. 



264 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

The Congregational Church. — The following detailed dtscription of 
the Carthage Church is quoted largely from a history prepared and read on 
the occasion of their thirteenth anniversary exercises held in their beautiful 
church building January 1, 1883: "In the latter part of the year 1869 when 
this modern Carthage was young and no fear of royal interdiction from 
Queen Dido of ancient Carthage, a little band of six or seven persons signed 
a declaration of principles setting forth their faith in the principles of Con- 
gregationalism and pledging themselves to labor for the formation of such 
a church organization. This incipient organization was effected at this time 
principally by the A merican Home Missionary Society through its mission- 
ary agent, H. B. Fry, a licentiate from Oberlin, Ohio. On the first Wednes- 
day in January, a. d. 1870, a council was called to meet in the present 
M. E. Church building, Carthage. When a band or company of Christians 
desire to form themselves into a Congregational Church tliey adopt some 
kind of a constitution or governing rules and send invitations called" letters 
missive " to two or more of the nearest Congregational Churches, which 
each elect a delegate, who, with the pastor, responds to the invitation, and 
when these delegations meet they form a Congregational council which ex- 
amines the constitution, articles of faith, and whatever governing rules the 
church has adopted, and if found consistent with the Word of God and 
Congregational usage, they are, by vote ot the council, declared a Congrega- 
tional Church. 

The council called to meet at Carthage was composed of a delegate from 
the church at Neosho, and a delegate and pastor, Kev. C. C. Cadwell, from 
the church at Lamar, these two being the only Congregational churches then 
organized in the Southwest. These three worthy Christian brethren in solemn 
council sat, and carefully examined the situation, articles of faith, cove- 
nant, constitution, etc., and ultimately decided that the Congregational 
Church of Carthage should begin its existence. This council also examined 
and ordained the Rev. H. B. Fry, the ministerial ceremonies being performed 
alone by the Lamar pastor. Rev. C. C. Cadwell, who in a most impressive 
manner deliv-ered the customary charge to both pastor and people, which 
have been ever since remembered by those present as doubly significant 
from being the last ministerial acts of that worthy man's life. He was called 
to his Heavenly reward after a few days' illness contracted from exposure to 
the storm incident to this trip across the almost uninhabited and trackless 
snowy prairies, in response to this council call. It has often since been re- 
marked that Bro. Cadwell sacrificed his life for this church. 

The membership of this memorable organization was the significant Bible 
number twelve. The following are their names: E. H. Benham, Mrs. E. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 265 

H. Benham, E. P. Searle, Mrs. Lizzie A. Searle, D. C. Forbes, Mrs. Fannie 
Forbes, M. C. Farwell, Mrs. M. C. Farwell, W. H. Osborn, Mrs. W. H. Os- 
born, Mrs. Bell Mitchell, and Mrs. Margaret E. Stone. Seven women and 
five men, of whom three woman and two men still remain resident members. 

The Conffreo^ational Church of Carthaije was thus begun in much weak- 
ness. Its few members were all in moderate or poor circumstances, and 
without a home, no house of worship. The M. E. Church building was 
rented at a cost of $100 per j^ear for an afternoon preaching service, and 
occupied about thirteen months, then went into the Baptist Church by in- 
vitation, they having no pastor at that time, where a morning preaching 
service was held for about two months; then into the Presbyterian Church 
by invitation during the summer vacation of their pastor, where a morning 
preaching service was held about three months, followed by a period of 
about fifteen months without preaching services. During all these changes 
and intermissions in the preaching services, the Thursday night prayer 
meeting was never suspended, although most of the time it was held in 
private houses, and from house to house, yet it was never lost, but generally 
well attended, always interesting and profitable, mostly full of spiritual life 
and power, and sometimes thrilling and glorious, never to be forgotten by 
those who participated in them. On one of these occasions, the church 
being at that time six months without a pastor, a young lady was received 
into membership by assenting to the confession of faith, adopting the cove- 
nant as read by the deacon, and with the church members together standing 
and with deep feeling all renewing vows as in the form of " Response of the 
Church" in the manual. 

In Maj', A. D. 1870, the lot was purchased whereon now stand the pres- 
ent church building and parsonage, and the brick school building, which 
was once known as the chapel building of this church The lot was 
100x200 feet, and cost a little over $600. The chapel building was com- 
menced in January, 1872. The pastor. Rev. H. B. Fry, gave the whole of 
that year's salary and all his time, laboring with his hands on that building 
from January until November 24, when he conducted the first service within 
its bare brick walls, and the communion service was celebrated the first time 
for more than a year; two new members were received; and it will ever be 
remembered as a most joyous occasion in which tears of gratitude best ex- 
pressed the hearts overflow of thankfulness to God for his goodness. At 
the close of this service the first sabbath-school of this church was organ- 
ized, all the members of the church and congregation were elected teachers 
and instructed to bring their scholars next sabbath, which was done, and 



266 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 



the sabbath-school organization completed with forty members, December 
1, 1872. 

The chapel building was completed in 1874 at a total cost of $3,C00. 
During the year 1877 the present parsonage was built, costing $1,200. In 
1878, the chapel building, being too small to accommodate thegrowino- sab- 
bath-school, a frame building called a tabernacle was built near the chapel 
at a cost of $100. In the winter of 1879 and 1880 this tabernacle was en- 
larged and improved at a further cost of $150. On the night of January 4, 
1881, this tabernacle building was destroyed by fire; total loss of buildino- 
and furniture $400; no insurance. In December, 1880, the chapel building 
and fifty feet of ground otf of the north end of the church lot was sold to 
Dr. Brooks for $1,200, and is now used for Miss Brook's select school. 

About the first of July, 1880, work was commenced on the present church 
building, and on Sunday, April 2, 1882, the first public service was con- 
ducted therein by the present pastor, Rev. E. S Gould. The first pastor 
of this church was Rev. H. B. Fry, his pastorate continuing from its organi- 
zation, January 1, 1870, until August, 1871, when he resigned, but was 
again engaged January 4, 1872, continuing u»til his final resignation in 
July, 1873, since whicli time he has been an acceptable minister and pastor 
in the states of Maine and Ohio, until the year 1882, when he was obliged 
to cease from active work on account of failing health. 

From the time of the resignation of Rov. H, B. Frj' in July, 1873, until 
November, 1874, this church was without a regular pastor but was gener- 
ally supplied by the excellent Dr. J. H. Harwood, special agent of the 
American Home Missionary Society, and the gifted young Prof. Oeo. H. 
Ashley of Drury College. Dr. Harwood, after a brilliant career as an evan- 
gelist, accepted the position of general superintendent of the Southwest for 
the American Home Missionary Society, with headquarters at St. Louis. 

November 1, 1874, E. F. Fales, a licentiate from Andover Seminary, Mas- 
sachusetts, became the pastor of this church, and he and Prof. Ashley were 
ordained as ministers on the twenty-ninth day of December, 1874. 

Prof. Ashley soon returned to his position as teacher in Drury College 
where he remained until his sudden death in 1877. He left a ^''oung wife, 
who, as Miss Katie Mitchell, was a well known Carthage girl, a prominent 
member and worker in the Congregational Church and Sunday-school, and 
a sweet soprano singer. She felt so thoroughly imbued with the idea of a 
Christian teacher, so wonderfully exemplified in the short, brilliant life of 
her young husband, that she determined to pursue the same calling, and 
has, for two years, been isolated from home and kindred in Utah Territory, 



CITY OF CARTHAGE, 267 

a very successful missionary teacher, under the auspices of the New West 
Education Societv. 

Rev. E. F. Fales resigned his successful pastorate January 1, 1882, and 
located at Palestine, Texas, where he is the pastor of a thriving Congrega- 
tional Church. 

Rev, E. S. Gould of Providence, R. I., was called to the pastorate of this 
church March 30, 1882, and still remains its successful pastor. 

The first board of trustees of this church was composed of the following 
named gentlemen: M. C, Farwell, D. 0, Forbes, and John Harrison. All 
are still living, respected citizens of Carthage. 

The first clerk of this church was E. H. Benham, who is now editor and 
proprietor of the Barry county Beacon^ published at Exeter, Barry county, 
Missouri. 

The first deacon was E, P. Searle, who held the office for seven consecu- 
tive years, and is still a resident member. 

The first treasurer was Mrs, M. E. Stone, a non-resident of Carthage for 
a number of years. Her little daughter, Lizzie Stone, who was much in- 
terested in the new church in the first year of its organization, and deter- 
mining to do something, started a subscription paper among her associates 
and friends upon which she raised thirty-four dollars, with which she 
bought and presented to the church the communion set which is still in use. 

The following tabular view shows the accessions to the church each year 
Bince its existence. 

In 1870 charter members, ., . 12 In 1877 accessions 6 

1870 accessions 15 1878 7 

1871 2 1879 7 

1872 5 1880 22 

1873.*. 4 1881 8 

1874 16 1882 4 

1875 8 1883 33 

1876 18 

Of this total of one hundred and sixty-seven members only five have died 
during their membership, and only two while they were resident members, 
and only one excommunicated. The present resident membership is about 
one hundred. 

This church has often been called the "Woman's Church," because its 
noble women, always in the majority in its membership, have taken the 
most active part in its prayer meetings and in the church work generally, 
and to a degree unequalled by any other church system, owing to the fact 
that CJongregationalism, more than any other church policy, has advanced 



268 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

and elevated woman, in that it has made her fully equal to her brother in 
the church, and her superior religious fervor gives her the lead in religious 
works, so that the Congregational Church of Carthage is far in advance of 
what it would have been, if indeed it could have existed at all, without the 
religious fervor and softening and moulding influence of the noble and self- 
sacrificing women who have generally composed four-fifths of its working 
spiritual force. Among the many noble enterprises which they have in- 
augurated might be mentioned the "Ladies Aid Society," whose working 
force has enlisted the cooperation of ladies in all the churches of Carthage, 
and has become the most prominent organization for the aid of the suffering 
poor and the destitute in the city. The city poor funds are mostly distri- 
buted through this agency. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union was warmed into life in Car- 
thage, in the Congregational Church, out of which grew the Temperance 
Sunday-school, superintended by Mrs. Mary Hill, of the Congregational 
Church. The Auxiliary Woman's Board of Foreign Missions, organized 
in the Congregational Church of Carthage, in conjunction with six other 
Congregational churches in this association, have for nearly three years fur- 
nished the entire support and maintenance of Miss Minnie Brown, formerly 
of Drury College, in her missionary field at Adana, Turkey. The prayer 
meetings of this church during the whole of its existence, and even when 
buffeted about from house to house, have been more largely attended than 
those of surrouuding churches according to membership, and generally 
larger regardless of membership, and especially has the general character 
and reputation of this church in the community as a power for good, and 
as an educational and elevating infiuence, always been of recognized su- 
periority. On the first of January, 1881, this church became, self-support- 
ing, and ceased to ask assistance of the American Home Missionary So- 
ciety. The church building is beautifully situated within four blocks of 
the public square, on the north side of the city park, and on the corner of 
the lot fronting south and west. It is built of brick, is modernized Gothic 
in style, quite unique, somewhat ornamental, and considerably attractive. 
The roof is hipped in pyramids of equal height, and with belfry and tower. 
The highest point of the roof is forty feet. The pinnacle of the tower is 
seventy-seven feet high. Whole size of building, 50x70 feet. The whole 
plan of the building is from inside outwardly — suggested by the modern 
Sunday-school, with class closely surrounding the teacher, or school in seg- 
ments of circles closely surrounding the superintendent. The prominent 
pulpit, with singers' niche closely in the rear, is closely surrounded on 
the bowled floor with circular pews on elevated tiers, enlarging, widen- 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. • 269 

ing, and rising graduallj' toward tlie two main entrances, from which two 
main aisles gradually converge down an inclined plane toward the pulpit. 
The vestibules at each main entrance also furnish access to the center 
aisle by a connecting horizontal aisle alongside the wall. One of these ves- 
tibules opens into the level vestry-room seated with 100 chairs, and can, at 
any time, be connected with the auditorium by its folding doors. The vesti- 
bule at the side entrance opens into the auditorium near one flight of the pul- 
pit steps, as well as into the singers' niche. The building is lighted with gas, 
and heated with a basement furnace with three large registers. The seat- 
ing capacity is 400. The large stained glass windows, the ornamental 
chandelier and column pulpit lights, neat brackets and elevated gas jet 
star, together with the varied and elaborate linish of the undulating inside 
surface, presents a pleasing and attractive artistic display. 

The cost of the building is $6,925; pulpit, $70; furnace, $225; carpet, 
$200; chairs and table, $125; gas fixtures, $150; total, $7,575. This build- 
ing — free from debt — was dedicated April 4, 1883. 

Dedication. — Quite as important in the history of a church building as 
its construction is its dedicqJ;ion, and, by this act and public ceremony, its 
consecration to the Lord for divine worship and sacred things. God can be 
worshiped in the closet, in a public hall, or even in the pure, free, open 
air of our Heavenly Father, upholstered by nature, frescoed and arched by 
the boundless blue, but " the mercy seat that all more sweet," should be 
hallowed, consecrated, yea, dedicated, given as a free-will, a thank-offering 
to the work and worship of the Lord. 

The day set apart for dedication was Wednesday, April 4, 1883, which 
seemed so full of the balmy freshness of this bright, charming springtime, 
that nature breathed forth a benediction, and the.heavens were open to grant 
a blessing, and the ear of the God of all good was open and eager to accept 
the service of consecration. The church was festooned and decorated taste- 
fully with flowers fit for a day in May, and all things conspired in one voice 
of praise and thanksgiving. A large delegation of our most talented min- 
isters from this and other states were present, among whom were Dr. C. L. 
Goodell, of St, Louis; Eev. Henry Hopkins, of Kansas City; Rev. H. C. 
Crane, of Alleghany, Pennsylvania; Dr. Harwood, of St. Louis; Rev. Stone, 
of Lebanon, Missouri; Rev. R. B. Bull, of Lamar, Missouri; Hon. Wain- 
wright, of Fayetteville, Arkansas, and the resident ministers of the city. 
As fine an audience as ever collected together in Carthage packed the main 
audience-room and occupied most of the adjoining lecture-room. The ex- 
ercises, according to the fully arranged programme, began at two o'clock in 
the afternoon by a well rendered anthem. The prayer of invocation was 



270 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

^iven by Rev, Stone, of Lebanon, Missouri, dedicating to t'he Lord, in be- 
half of the church and congregation, the new house of worship, and asking 
divine blessing upon its dedication and consecration. After another 
anthem followed the reading of the scripture by Rev. R. B. Bull, of 
Lamar, Missouri. Dr. L. I. Matthews, chairman of the building com- 
mittee, in behalf of the church, gave a clear and concise report of the 
finances, showing that the church was dedicated to the Lord free of debt, 
"owing no man anything save to love him," and how that from the plans 
and representations of the architect the building was begun on a basis of 
$4,000, and how the committee had paid out over $7,000 and yet had a bal- 
ance in the treasury. After a hymn by the congregation Rev. C. L. Good- 
ell, D. D., pastor of the Pilgrim Congregational Church, of St. Louis, was 
introduced by the pastor, Rev, E. S. Gould, and delivered the address of 
dedication. His text was First Corinthians, third chapter, and part of the 
21st, 22d, and 23d verses: "For all things are yours; whether Paul or 
Apollo, or Cephas, or tiie world, or life or death, or things present, or 
things to come; all are yours, and ye are Christ's; and Christ is God's." 
It were vain to give anything like a faithful or adequate conception of this 
exceedingly appropriate discourse, and able and brilliant effort, but simply 
to suggest the leading thoughts running through the several heads of the 
text. It was this: that all things are ours to enjoy, to have, and to hold, 
suggested by the enumeration of the text; that all owned a part, a share 
not only in this church, but all such edifices in the land of whatever race, 
denomination, or name, and that all were Christ's, and Christ God's. And 
his prayer and desire was that its carpets, or furnishings, or appointments, 
might not be too elegant, or too good, for the hearty and warm reception of 
the foot of the poorest clad, or the home of the vilest sinner. Prayer 
was ofi'ered by Rev, McLain, An address by Rev, West, editor of the 
Chicago Advance was on the programme, but being unable to attend he 
sent a letter of thanks and congratulation, which was read by the pastor, 
Mr. Gould, and then Rev. Henry Hopkins, of Kansas City, made a short 
address in well chosen and interesting remarks. Rev. E. F. Fales, the for-. 
mer pastor, who began the building of the church, and did much for its 
growth and prosperity, having been invited to be present, but not being able 
to attend, sent a letter of good will, which was also read by the pastor. Dr. " 
Harwood, of St. Louis, state superintendent of church supply, by the pro- 
gramme should have made an address, but because of the length of the 
exercises he led in prayer, and the benediction of blessing was invoked by 
Dr. Goodell, and the exercises of the dedication proper adjourned to meet 
in the evening at 7:30 for address and an hour of social intercourse.. In the 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 271 

evening as announced, after an anthem; the pastor, Rev. E. S. Gould, called 
upon the resident ministers of the city for five minute speeches, among whom 
were Rev. W. S. Knight, Presbyterian Church; Rev. E. H. Prosser, M. E. 
Church (South); Rev. N. M. Ragland, Christian Church; Rev. O. M. Stewart, 
M. E. Church; and Dr. J. B. Hardwicke, of the Baptist Church, who ex- 
pressed their good will, hearty congratulations, and claimed a share in the 
church. They were followed by ministers and friends from abroad, among 
whom were Rev. Henry Hopkins, Rev. H. C. Crane, Hon. Wainwright, Rev. 
Stone, Dr. Goodell, Rev. R. B. Bull, and Dr. Harwood, with timely remarks, 
interspersed with sallies of wit and words of praise and good will. The 
benediction of God was implored on all the people and the exercises by Dr. 
Goodell, of St. Louis. A short sociable and hand-shaking followed, when 
the audience dispersed, feeling that the house was none other than the house 
of God, and that it had been good to be there. 

Methodist Episcopal Church. — The earliest official record of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church in Carthage is found in the records of the second 
quarterly conference of Sarcoxie, Missouri, dated April 19, 185L By this 
quarterly conference a committee was appointed to build a parsonage in 
Carthage, and the following board of trustees was elected; viz., J. Doughty, 
George Sly, Nathan Ralston, Rowland King, and John Henry. To this 
board of trustees for the use of the Methodist Episcopal Church was do- 
nated by Elwood B. James a lot in Carthage on the corner of Fourth and 
Howard streets on which the brick church now stands, the deed on record 
bearing the date of July 12, 1851. A parsonage was built on this lot and 
occupied by the pastor of Carthage circuit for a number of years, but was 
totally destroyed by fire during the war. 

The same quarterly conference records show that Rev. J. K. Alderman 
was then preacher in charge and Rev. Richard Bird presiding elder of the 
district. December thirteenth of the same year Rev. S. H. Carlisle became 
pastor of a large territory called Carthage mission, under the same presiding 
elder, and within the bounds of that which was known as the Missouri Confer- 
ence and the Arkansas District, which latter included the southwestern part 
of this state and the populated portions of Arkansas. During this same 
year Rev. J. M. Pape was employed as junior preacher on Carthage mission 
then embracing upwards of twenty-one regular appointments. 

During 1853 Rev. D. W. Reese became pastor, and the district assumed 
the less pretentious name of Fayetteville district. January 21, 1854, the work 
became known as Carthage circuit within the Springfield district, with the 
memorable name of Rev. Anthony Bewley as presiding elder. As the M. 



272 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

E. Church was largely founded in Jasper county by this same historic per- 
son a more full account of his life and labors may be found in the sketch of 
Methodism wi'hin the county. Rev. J. Doughty was preacher in charge in 
1854 and Rev. C. C. Arrington in 1855. During 1856 Rev. S. H. Carlisle 
again became pastor. During 1857 Rev. Mark Robertson was presiding 
elder of the district and Rev. James Hanan pastor. In 1860 the latter be- 
came presiding elder of the Carthage district, and Rev. Benjamin Hall, 
preacher in charge. Rev. Henry Hubbard, now of St. Clair county in this 
state, succeeded in the pastorate. January 26, 1861, the last quarterly con- 
ference was held previous to the civil war. Soon after ministers were 
driven from their homes and fields of labor, private members were scat- 
tered, and no official records preserved until April 28, 1866. Rev, L. M. 
Yernon, D. D., as presiding elder (now superintendent of missions in Italy) 
was chosen to reorganize the work in southwest Missouri in the spring of 
1865. Carthage circuit was consequently reorganized, and the first quar- 
terly conference held at New Hope at the date already indicated. The fol- 
lowing board of trustees was appointed; viz., William J. Cameron, William 
G. Bulgen, A. J. Shepherd, Robert Sea well, William B. Hamilton, John 
Glassford, and D. B. Rives. Rev. J. C. Willoughby became pastor at the 
organization and remained in charge until the spring of 1868. The circuit 
then embraced all of Jasper county and a portion of Barton, Newton, and 
Lawrence counties. This pastor greeted the thronging immigrants in their 
new homes and preached the gospel far and wide for three months before 
any other pastor of any denomination entered this new and promising field. 
A Methodist Episcopal Sunday-School was organized in 1866 and held for a 
time in the old brick jail. The first superintendent chosen at the organiza- 
tion was Stokes Cowgill, succeeded soon after by R. H. Rose. Rev. C. Wil- 
loughby, the first pastor after the war, is now a highly esteemed citizen of 
this county. Surely he may well look out over these many churches and 
this increasing membership and say, '"What hath God wrought?" 

In 1867 Rev. Jesse L. Walker was appointed presiding elder. In Octo- 
ber, 1867, the following brethren were elected as board of trustees to hold 
church property in Carthage; viz., R. H. Rose, J. K. Glassford, D. S. 
Thomas, J. N. Stepheson, and Jesse Thacker. 

Carthage station was organized March 11, 1868, and Rev. D. H. Budlong 
was appointed pastor. During this year the constant immigration and con- 
sequent increase of membership, and regular growth of the Sunday-school, 
encouraged the members to undertake the building of a new brick church, 
at an expense of ten thousand dollars. The pastor resigned his charge dur- 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 273 

ing the following year, and the pulpit was supplied mostly by Rev. W. G. 
Stewart. December 19, 1869, Rev. T. H. Hagerty, presiding elder of the 
Springfield District, dedicated the new church, raising four thousand and 
eight hundred dollars on the day of dedication. A parsonage was also built 
and occupied. The St. Louis Conference, in session at Springfield, March, 
1870, appointed Rev. E. P. F. Wells to Carthage station. The following 
spring Rev. O. M. Stewart was appointed and remained in charge three 
successive years. Rev. H. R. Miller became pastor for one year. During 
the spring of 1875 Rev. J. N. Pierce was appointed pastor, and remained 
two years, and was succeeded by Rev. Jesse L. Walker, who, after the de- 
cease of Rev. G. W. Durment, presiding elder of the district, was changed 
from the pastorate to the district a second time, in the midst of which ex- 
tensive labors he died a peaceful, beautiful death, at Marion ville, July 16, 
1882. 

The work of the Springfield district had prospered in his hands, and he 
was already looking forward to the quieter and less exhausting labors of a 
pastoral charge. He was taken with inflammation of the liver and peritoneum 
on Tuesday, July 11; although suffering severe pain at times it was thought 
he would recover, until Saturday evening. When informed that he had but a 
few hours to live he expressed some surprise, but said it was right. "I put 
my house in order thirty years ago." In the course of his conversations with 
those about him he said, "All is joy and peace; I am ready." He counseled 
his wife wirli calmness, and taking her and his two little daughtei's in his arms 
said : '• Be courageous, be calm ; it is all well with me. I am just going on be- 
fore; that is all." His mind was clear; he bore calmly the overwhelming 
grief of his wife, commending her, " My good and faithful wife," to the care 
of his friends. " Tell my conference brethren that 1 have tried to do faith- 
ful and efficient work, and to be a faithful and humble follower of the blessed 
Master; and for these years of toil I have the assurance of a glorious re- 
ward." The words that were last on his lips were, "It is all well, it is all 
bright"; and on Sunday morning, July 16, an hour or so after sunrise, he 
fell asleep in Jesus. 

Rev. I. J. K. Lunbeck, pastor of Lebanon station, was immediately placed 
in charge, and continued until March, 1880, when Rev. T. E. Robinson was 
assigned the pastorate, and afrer remaining the full term of three years, he 
was appointed to Holden station, and Rev. O. M. Stewart, after an absence 
of nine years, was, in Marcii, 1883, taken from the Sedalia district and 
assigned pastoral charge of Carthage station. The church is now in a pros- 
perous condition, possessing valuable church property, two hundred and 
18 



274: HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

fifty members, and a very large Sunday-school. It is the present purpose to 
dispose of the church now occupied, as it is needed for business purposes, 
and soon erect, in a new location, a costly editice. 

Christian Church. — The present church was organized about tlie year 
1866, with few original members. It has had a varied history of successes 
and reverses through all these years; yet a few faithful men and women, 
"among the faithless found," have followed the wavering fortunes of this 
church through prosperity and adversity, and finally a better and a brighter 
day has dawned upon 'its history. In fact the outlook for this vigorous, 
aggressive and growing congregation is now most promising. 

The organization of this church was effected in the old jail, which stood 
on the ground now occupied by the City Hotel. This much of its history, 
at least, is apostolic, and not unlike the church in the city of Philippi, 
which was begun in the Philippian jail, with the jailer and his household 
for a congregation! No records of the early workings and management of 
the church in Carthage have been preserved, and that part of its history, 
however interesting, can only be treated briefly. John Hubbard was chosen 

the first elder of the congregation, and Eell was the first deacon. The 

following preachers have been pastors of the church in the order in which 
their names occur: G. W. Short, Amos Buchanan, John Ellis, M. J. Jen- 
kins, W. R. Cunningham, J. F. Tount, and N. M. Ragland, the present pas- 
tor of the church. 

At no time has the congregation here been large or wealthy, and it has 
had a continued struggle to maintain even an existence, surrounded as it 
has been by so many larger and stronger churches. In looking over the 
state for mission points the board of missions had its attention called to Car- 
thage as a most promising field. At once it was determined to make an 
effort to establish the cause on a permanent basis in this beautiful and rap- 
idly growing center of influence. To this end the state board oflered to as- 
sist the church in locating a preacher to give his whole time to the interests 
of this congregation, the board paying half his salary for one year, and 
longer if necessary. At the unanimous request of the board and the church 
here Elder N. M. Ragland, the pastor of the church at Clinton, Missouri, 
accepted the work in Carthage and entered on his labors November 15, 
1882. From the very first the work has met with most gratifying success. 
Within five months there have been seventy additions to the member- 
ship, more than doubling it, and the congregation now, April, 1883, num- 
bers one hundred and twenty-six members. The congregation and the Sun- 
day-school have outgrown -the little church on the corner of Third and 
Howard streets, and are now meeting in the opera-house. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. " ' 275 

The elders of the congregation are G. W, Edwards and Kobert Speers; 
the deacons are J. J. Williams, J. L. Aughst, M. T. Fuller, and D. S. Helt. 
The ladies of the church have their aid society, in addition to the Aux- 
iliary to the Woman's Board of Missions. These are among the most ef- 
ficient agencies of the church. The young people have organized for work, 
and the children, too, have their society of Little Gleaners, and in fact 
every department of the congregation is now doing efficient service. 

The old church originally stood on the corner of Chestnut and Lincoln 
streets, but during the pastorate of Elder W. R. Cunningham lots were 
bouii'ht on the corner of Third and Howard streets, and the church was 
moved. This proved to be one of the most profitable investments the con- 
gregation ever made, as the lots have greatly increased in value. 

These lots were bought of Mrs. Livermore, then living in St. Louis; the 
amount paid was one thousand dollars. The congregation has since 
realized for this ground, together with the old house, which was worth very 
little, three thousand five hundred and fifty dollars. 

One of the most beautiful and desirable lots in the city for church pur- 
poses has recently been bought, on the corner of Main and Chestnut streets. 
This lot is one hundred and fifty -feet on Main Street by one hundred feet 
on Chestnut, and cost eighteen hundred dollars. 

A splendid church is now in process of erection on this lot. The Sun- 
day-school in connection with this church was organized in March, 1877. 
Mr. H. C. Warner was the first superintendent, and Miss Mollie Speers was 
the first secretary and treasurer. Mr. Warner was superintendent about 
two years and was succeeded by Dr. W. W. Washburn. After ^ time H. 

C. Warner was again chosen superintendent, and he in turn was succeeded 
by Prof. D. B. Wilson, who is the present superintendent, and A. L. Aughst 
at the same time was chosen secretary and treasurer, which position he still 
holds. The school is one of the largest and best organized in the city, with 
twenty-four officers and teachers, and a membership of about two hun- 
dred. The following is the^ corps of teachers: Miss Mary Adams, 
R. G. Blair, Mrs. Cordelia Bissell, Miss Mary Dilzer, Mrs. Eliza Devore, 
G. W. Edwards, Mrs. Frances Foland, Mrs. N". J. Flinn, James C. Grissom, 

D. S. Helt, W. L. Moon, N. M. Ragland, J. H. Ray, Mrs. J. H. Ray, Mrs. 
J. J. Smith, Miss Ella Speers, Miss Mollie Taylor, Mrs. Dr. Wagoner, and 
Moses Willson. 

M. E. Church (South.) — Prior to the war this church had an organization 
in Carthage, embraced in a circuit, but the number of members connected 
with said charge we have no means of ascertaining. The incidents of the 
war in southwest Missouri were such that in many places where the M. E. 



276 • HISTORY OF JASPER COTJNTT. 

Church (South) had long held organizations, foremost in the rank of spread- 
ing the gospel, they were broken up, the membership scattered, and records 
lost. This was the case at Carthage. At the close of the war the town of 
Carthage had left standing only three or four buildings, the rest having been 
burned and destroyed by the ravages of war. Soon after the war there was an 
immense immigration to southwest Missouri, from the middle and eastern 
states, and Carthage was settled and rebuilt, mostly by that class of citizens 
who knew nothing^ of Southern Methodism, consequently the M. E. Church 
(North) was the only Methodist Church organized in Carthage, until some 
yekrs after. In the spring of 1874 I. F. Garner and family, of St. Louis, lo- 
cated in Carthage. Mr. Garner and family were members of the M. E. Church 
(South), having been connected with the Centenary Church of St. Louis for 
many years; then with the Chouteau Avenue Church. Mr. Garner was one 
of the official members as well as the Sunday-school superintendent at Chou- 
teau Avenue at the time he left to make his home in Carthage. On arriving 
at Carthage, and finding no organization of the M. E. Church (South), he set 
about trying to have the authorities reorganize the church. In the meantime 
he and his family connected themselves by letter with the M. E. Church 
as a temporary home. At the annual conference of the M. E. Church 
(South), held at Independence, Missouri, September 27, 1877, Bishop Marvin 
having previously been urged to establish or reorganize the M. E. Church 
(South), in Carthage, Rev. W. Harris, a transfer from Denver Conference, was 
appointed to Carthage, to organize the society in this city. The individual 
history of the church dates from October 21, 1877, where at the call of 
Kev. W. Harris, a meeting was held at the court-house, and after an elo- 
quent sermon by him, thirty-one persons came forward and, having given evi- 
dence of good standing in the churches of their former homes, were received 
into the church. The new organization was then declared fully reorganized 
by the pastor, as the First M. E. Church (South), in Carthage. The follow- 
ing named were those forming the organization: Isaac F. Garner, Mrs. P. 
E. Garner, Miss Ida B. Garner, Mrs. C. Angle Brown, Dr. D. Y. Wale, 
John W. Burch, Mrs. 1^. E. Burch, Mrs. Mary E. Funk, Miss Cassie Funk, 
Miss Sarah Funk, Mrs. M. M. Green, Isaac Wickersham, Mrs. Chistina 
Wickersham, Miss Kate Wickersham, Miss Bettie Wickersham, Joseph 
Gulick, Mrs. Eliza Gulick, and Miss Josephine Gulick, Mrs. Martha M. 
Proctor, Miss Amanda Proctor, Miss Fannie Proctor, James B. Yaughn, 
Miss A. Brittan, Mrs. Susan A. Keim, Mrs. S. C. Bryant, Mrs. Rebecca 
Belt, Mrs. Mary J. Guinn, Mrs. Elizabeth Gray, Preston Gray, Morgan 
Gray, James I. Gray. \ 

Rev. Harris was pastor of this Church for one year and a half, at which 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 277 

time he died, March 25, 1879. He was a man of eminent ability, and greatly 
beloved by all. The first year of his ministry was under the presiding 
eldership of Rev. W. S. "Woodard of the Neosho district; the second part 
of the year, under Rev. J. B. Landreth of the same district. Ater the death 
of Rev. W. Harris, the presiding elder secured the services of Rev. George 
H. Williamson of the Indian Mission conference, to fill out the last half of 
the year. It was a most fortunate selection, as Rev. Williamson proved to 
be a very zealous worker as well as a very able preacher. He filled out the 
unexpired time of Rev. Harris, and at the next session of the annual con- 
ference was returned to Carthage for another year. The necessity of the 
church in Carthage was a house, the services all this time having been held 
in the court-house. Plans were put on foot by the pastor. Rev. G. H. Wil- 
liamson, and successfully carried out to erect a good church, at a cost of 
$5,000, and it was formally dedicated. The spiritual growth of the church 
in the meantime advancing, numbers being added to the membership. At 
the annual conference held at Marshall, Missouri, September 29, 1880, Rev. 
B. Margeson was appointed to Carthage and remained one year. January 
10, 1881, the church was dedicated by Rev. John Yincil, D. D., of St. Louis, 
he remaining and preaching several days. Soon after a protracted meeting 
was held by the pastor, and some thirty or forty added to the membership 
of the church. At the annual conference held at Springfield, Missouri, Sep- 
tember 28, 1881, Rev. E. H. Prosser, D. D., transfer from, and former pre- 
siding elder in the Indiana conference, was appointed to Carthage, and is 
now in charge, this being his second 3'ear as pastor. The congregations im- 
mediately began to increase,^until the house is not large enough to accomo- 
date them, and the record for over a year has been remarkable in the attend- 
ance. Through the energy and enterprise of the pastor, the church purchased 
and set up a very fine $1,300 pipe organ, the first of the kind in southwest 
Missouri. His congregations are very large, and composed of the very best 
citizens of Carthage. The Doctor is a young man of brilliant talent, pos- 
sessing a degree of oratory, and peculiar method of presenting his subjects, 
which has brought him before the public not only in Carthage, but through- 
out this part of the state, as one of the deepest thinkers and most logical 
speakers in this country, evincing a spirit of progressive originality. Some 
very substantial members have been added to the church during his pastor- 
ate. The first Sunday-school was organized by Rev. W. Harris in the court- 
house, with I. F. Garner as superintendent, and was carried on successful!}'- 
and with growing interest from the date of organization. I. F. Garner con- 
tinued as superintendent up to the close of the year 1880, at which time 



278 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Griffith Dickinson was elected and has since filled the position. The school 
is now in a prosperous condition, and is properly regarded as one of the most 
important enterprises of the church. 

The First Presbyterian. — The First Presbyterian Church of Carthage, 
Missouri, was organized August 4, 1867, in what was known as Dunlap's 
Hall, on the south side of the public square, by a committee of the pres- 
bytery of southwest Missouri (now Ozark), consisting of Rev. William R. 
Fulton and John McFarland, both of Greenfield, Missouri. 

The following members constituted the church: Alma Foster, Mrs. Sa- 
rah Foster, Benjamin Beard, Mrs. M. O. Beard, Mrs. Sarah Lamb, Alfred 
C. Baldwin, Mrs. Isabel Mitchell, W. B. List, Mrs. L. L. Dunlap, W. P. 
Davis, and Mrs. Elizabeth Davis, eleven in all. 

Mr. Benjamin Beard, a certified elder from Frankville, Iowa, was elected 
and installed as ruling elder. The young church held their services in va- 
rious halls in the city for the first three years. After leaving Dnnlap's 
hall, in which the church was organized, the congregation worshiped in a 
room on the northeast corner of the public square, known as the Thomas 
building. In the meantime active measures were taken to erect a perma- 
nent house of worship on two well located lots on Grant Street, three blocks 
south of the public square. From January, 1870, to November, services 
were held in Regan's Hall, from which they were transferred to the new 
church building, then completed, and costing in the aggregate, for lots and 
building, $6,500. 

The following were the first board of trustees: I. K. Lamb, Edward W. 
Harper, W. P. Davis, Almon Foster, and W. B. List. There have served 
up to the present writing in that board Messrs. Peter Meyers, George W. 
Lemley, A. J. Brown, J. L. Moore, William McMillen, Louis Moore, C. 
Rivers, O. H. Pitcher, W. Allin, Joseph Wilson, Dr. W. H. Crothers, T. 
W. Bartlett, and John H. Taylor. The present board are J. A. Mitchell, 
J. L. Moore, J. Bnrch, W. A. Wheatley, and John N. Wilson. 

By invitation of the church Rev. John W. Pinkerton entered on his la- 
bors as stated supply for one-half his time on the last sabbath of Septem- 
ber, 1867. He was a man, concerning whom the uniform testimony is given, 
who was loved and respected by all who knew him. His ministry extended 
over a period of nearly five years, up to the time of his resignation, August 
15, 1872. During his pastorate he had as his assistants in the session 
Meseers. Benjamin Beard,Dr. A. C. Schell, Richard C. Suckey, Richard Bul- 
gin, George W. Lemley, and J. D. Young. There were connected with the 
church in all during his ministry ninety-eight members, eighty by letter 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 279 

and eighteen by examinations. From the pastorate of this church Mr. 
Pinkerton went to lola, Kansas, where he died February 12, 1875, aged 
forty-two. 

Rev. Hiram Hill succeeded him, as stated supply, October 27, 1872. He 
labored faithfully for nearly a year, but owing to continued ill health was 
compelled to relinquish his work and seek the climate of California, where 
he was able to resume the ministry. During his ministry eleven were re- 
ceived by letter and one on examination. 

Kev. T. O. llice, of Des Moines, Iowa, began his ministry with the church 
on the last sabbath of October, 1873, and performed it with earnestness 
and ability. His labors continued until May 11, 1875, when, on account of 
diseased eyes, he felt compelled to resign. During his ministry there were 
installed into the office of the eldership Messrs. O. S. Pitcher, William Mc- 
Millan, C. Rivers, and J. S. McLees. There were received into the mem- 
bership of the church fourteen by letter and four on examination, leaving, 
after removals and deaths, a total membership of sixty-six. 

By invitation of the church the present pastor. Rev. W. S. Knight, then 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Augusta, Illinois, visited the church 
May 11, 1875, and after spending two sabbaths with them was called to the 
pastorate, on which he entered July eighteenth following. From that time to 
the present writing the church has enjoyed a steady and substantial growth. 
A debt of $3,000 remaining on the building has been paid, and substantial 
improvements made on the church, including the purchase of a pipe organ. 
Messrs. John H. Taylor, Dr. R. L. Galbreaith, and Charles T. McElroy were 
added to the eldership, and Arthur Wheeler and W. W. Calhoon were in- 
stalled as deacons. Up to the present time (1883) two hundred and two 
have been received into the church since the beginning of this pastorate, 
one hundred and twenty-nine by letter and seventy-three on examination. 
After removals by certificate and by death the present membership is two 
hundred and two. 

The Sunday-school of the church has always been an important factor of 
its growth and influence, and at the present time enrolls a membership of 
two hundred and fifty, under Charles F. McElroy as superintendent and W. 
W. Calhoon assistant superintendent. Several seasons of revival have 
marked the history of the church, and great harmony has characterized all 
its history, and its members have manifested a spirit of hearty co-operation 
with the Christian churches of the city in all Christian efforts and moral 
reform. 

Grace Episcopal Church.— The lirst service of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church held in Carthage was held on April 20th, 1869, by the Right Rev. C. 



280 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

F. Robertson, D. D., Bishop of tlie Diocese of Missouri, in what was known 
as " Presbyterian hall," the second story of a bnildina; on the northeast corner 
of the public square. The estimated population of Carthaoje was then 2, .500. 
Just after this time the "Church Aid Society " was organized by ladies in- 
terested, and Mrs. George Blakeney was elected president; Mrs. A. M. 
Drake, vice-president; Miss Sarah M. Caffee, secretary; Miss Louise Griffen, 
treasurer. In May, 1869, this society purchased lot No. 14, in Cassil's addi- 
tion, for church purposes, at a cost of $288. On December 22d, of the same 
year, the Rev. D'Estaing Jennings, from the Diocese of Central New York, 
took charge of the work of the church, under the direction of the Board of 
Missions of the Diocese of Missouri, and he held service the next Sundav in 
the old school-house on the south side of the square, with a good attendance. 
On the evening of December 28th, a meeting was held at the house of Mr. A. 
M. Drake for the purpose of effecting a missionary organization. Mr. Geo. 
Blakeney was chosen secretary, and Amos H. Caffee, M. D., treasurer. The 
mission was named Grace Church Mission. Bishop Robertson visited the 
mission on Sunday, March 20, 1870, coming from Fort Scott, forty-five 
miles distant, by stage. Service was held in the morning in the old school- 
house, and in the evening in Regan's Hall, by the courtesy of Rev. Mr. 
Pinkerton, the Presbyterian minister. Three persons received the rite of 
confirmation on this occasion. In April, an organ was purchased by the 
Church Aid Society for $315. 

On Easter Monday, April 18, 1870, at a meeting held at the house of Mr. 
W. S. Tower, the mission was organized into a parish in due form, the Rev. 
Mr. Jennings, the missionary, in the chair. A vestry of seven members 
was elected, of whom Mr. William S. Judd was chosen senior warden; Mr. 
Thomas B. Martin, junior warden; Mr. Thomas M. Garland, clerk; Amos 
H. Caffee, M. D., treasurer. On April 21st the vestry elected the Rev. 
D'Estaing Jennings, rector of the parish. 

July 12th of this year, the church which had been some time in course 
of erection on South Howard Avenue, was so far completed as to allow of 
its use for services. It stood on a lot in Cloud's addition, donated by Col. 
W. F. Cloud, but was afterward removed to the corner of Howard Avenue 
and Third Street, where it stands at this writing. Mrs. R. H. Lemist, of 
New York City, sent the liberal donation of $525, collected by her for the 
purpose, toward the building of the church, and Mrs. Ellen F. Gregg, of 
Carthage, gave a handsome chancel window, while Mr. W. L, Mason, of St. 
Louis, furnished a stove. The church was completed and fully furnished 
later. A Sunday-school was organized during Mr. Jennings's rectorship. 
That gentleman was succeded by the Rev. John Siebold, the Rev. Robert 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. < 281 

S. Locke, the Rev. Robert C. Wall, and the Rev. Joseph S. Colton. Mr. 
Colton came from Wichita, Kansas, and assumed the rectorship in August, 

1880, and holds it at this time. The present vestry consists of Messrs. 
Francis Matthews, Thomas IST. Dav}-, D. A. Smith, Thomas C. Canaday, S. 
S. Wells, H. H. Harding, William K. Caffee, and A. H. Caffee, M. D. Mr. 
Francis Matthews is senior warden; Mr. T. N. Davy, junior warden; Dr. 
A. H. Caffee, treasurer; Mr. W. K. Caffee, clerk of vestery; and Mr. T. C. 
Canaday, collector. 

The Sunday-sciiool has about fifty scholars on the roll. The rector is its 
superintendent, and teaches the Bible class; Mrs. M. C. Eldred is librarian; 
and Miss Cora Seawell, treasurer. Besides the rector, the teachers are 
Miss Cora Seawell, Miss Julia Wells, Miss Caroline Ball, Mrs. J. S. Colton, 
and Miss Lida Clark. The ladies' society was reorganized in September, 

1881, under the name of the Guild of Grace Church. Its present officers 
are Mrs. M. C. Eldred, president; Mrs. S. S. Wells, vice-president; Mrs. 

George Blakeney, secretary; , treasurer. During the p^st two years 

it has raised $600 toward building a rectory. There are about forty-five 
communicants belongiino; to Grace Church. 

Second Baptist Church (Colored). — The facts and history of this church 
are meager, and we are compelled to be brief. The church was organized in 
1873 by J. T. Thompson. The original members are Elizabeth Crawford, 
Jordan Crumpton, Jerad Garnet, Anna Magraw, Julia Doss, Dan. Magraw, 
Lettie Garnet, and Sabra Scott. The house of worship cost $700, and is a 
neat frame building. The names of the pastors are as follows: J. T. Thomp- 
son, Jerry Garnet, S. Bryant, A. W. Green, and S. Bryant, the present pas- 
tor. The present membership is thirty-four, and constantly growing in size. 
The church officers are Daniel Yancy and William Handcock, deacons, and 
Daniel Yancy, clerk. The attendance of the Sunday-school is forty-eight; 
Charles Choice, superintendent, and Daniel Yancy, secretary: This church 
belongs to the Springfield district, comprising thirteen churches. It is only 
due the present pastor. Rev. S. Bryant, to say a word of his labors with this 
and other churches of the Southwest. He began preaching just before the 
war in Johnson county, Missouri, and was compelled to desist from further 
labors till 1864. He was ordained at Warrensburg, Missouri. He subse- 
quently labored very successfully at Pleasant Hill; Fort Scott, Kansas; 
Lebanon, Missouri; Baxter Springs, Kansas; Carthage, and for some years 
serving as a missionary agent, doing general work with marked power. He 
was instrumental in organizing the churches at Sedalia, Clinton, Warrens- 
burg, Pleasant Hill, Kansas City, Harrisonville, and has baptised 617 dur- 
ing his ministry'. 



282 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Swede Christian Church. — This churcli was organized in June,, 1877. 
Tlie original members were: Harland Peterson, Angst Modice, B. O. John- 
son, Christ Olson, and John Carlson. Thej own a neat frame building near 
the Mound Street school-house, costing $1,100, 24x40 feet. The church 
was dedicated by Charles Roos. The pastors have been: Charles Roos, Mr. 
Anderson, and A. Sangberg. The present membership is thirt^'-five. The 
church officers are: Peter Zacharison and Aug. Sahstrom, deacons; F. Hes- 
sel, secretary. There is a small sabbath-school, with Miss Lena Swanson as 
superintendent. 

Wesley Chapel, M. E. Church (Colored). — This church was organized 
in May, 1878, by Rev. II. Coleman. There are twenty-five original mem- 
bers, among whom are: 

Male.—D. Wilson, H. Tidwell, H. King, T. King, J. Kane, D. Irwin, W. 
Stemmons, and H. Stemmons. 

jr^emale. — A. Wilson, Georgiana Coleman, J. Tidweil, Betsy Armstrong, 
Judith Ruth, Charlotte Wilson, Martha King, Jane Irwin, A. Irwin, N. 
Stemmons, Flora Stemmons, R. Sullivan, M. Chennette, J. King, M. Weaver, 
J. Weaver, and B. King. 

The house of worship is a brick, twenty-four by forty feet, costing $1,000, 
with revolving seats, vestibule in front, and a library. The church is not 
finished, therefore not dedicated. The pastors are A. Coleman, W. E. Wil- 
son, and E. Pitts. The present membership is fifty-six, and the future 
prospects are very good. The trustees are I. Kane, H. Tidwell, D. Wilson, 
J. Chambers, J. W. Price, I. Beecher, and S. Fisher. 

The Sunday-school has an attendance of 175; the officers are B. F. Ad- 
ams, superintendent; L. Henderson, secretary. 

When the present pastor. Rev. A. Coleman, took charge of the church 
he found only about a dozen members, and now the present encouraging 
condition of the church and increased membership indicates that "Ethio- 
pia shall yet stretch forth her hands unto the Lord." 

Catholic Churcfi. — This church is situated in the southeastern part of 
the town. It is a frame house, thirty by forty feet, and was built in 1881 
at a cost of $1,000. It was built by Father Daughert}', now of St. Xavier, 
St. Louis. The present pastor is W. H. Coll, who now resides in Carthage. 
They have an enrollment of about fifty members; services the first Sunday 
of every month, and occasionally through the week. Before the church was 
built they held mass in Reagen's Hall; they were then under the super- 
vision of a priest from Osage Mission, in Kansas. The churcli is said to 
be in a prosperous condition, and the number of members gradually in- 
creasing. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 283 



CHAPTEE XIV.— EDUCATIONAL. 

Carthage Public Schools— Earh/ History, 1846-68— From 1868 to 1883— Names of Gradu- 
ates — Miss Cheadle's School — Miss Brooks' School — Carthage Library — Newspapers — 
The Star of the West— The Banner— The Patriot— The Advance— The Grip— The 
Transcript — The Press. 

" A little learning is a dangerous thing; 

Drink deep, or taste not, the Pierian spring; 
For shallow draughts intoxicate the brain, 
And drinking deeply sobers us again." 

Carthage Public Schools. — Common schools are the glory and pride 
of free America. Colleges and universities develop and stimulate the oc- 
casional master mind; but the common schools educate and train the na- 
tion's multitudes, fitting them for citizenship. The eminent J. V. Wick- 
ershara says: "The dearest interest of a nation is the education of its chil- 
dren." Among the intelligent citizens of Carthage there is a healthy 
and growing sentiment in favor of public schools. 

That old conservative element which retards and embarrasses the onward 
progress of modern thought has no perceptible following here. The 
people are content with nothing less than the best advantages that good 
appliances and superior instructors will afford. Some one has said: " Give 
me the first ten years of a child's life and I care not who has the rest," and 
although this is putting it very strongly, it is emphatically true in the 
formative period of the young. It will be plainly seen even by the casual 
observer, and recalled to mind even by the most listless, that while church 
and state are eminently separate and distinct in this country, the school, as 
an integral part of the state, goes hand in hand with the church, and im- 
mediately follows, if it is not inaugurated with it, in the early history of a 
new country. 

Early History, iSJfB to 1868. — The early history of schools in Carthage 
is both meager and of obscure origin. It will be remembered that the town 
was laid out in 1842. At this time there were no lands to assess for school 
purposes, at least, few or no taxes were levied for school purposes. But 
where there are children there will be schools, if there be neither school 
funds nor piles of brick and columns grand. The instruction at this early 
day was received at what is commonly known as "subscription schools," 
some one, oftentimes, devoting both his home and attention to the tuition of 
the youth of the neighborhood. The first building built and set apart for 
the education of the children of Carthage was constructed of logs about the 
year 1846 or 1847 and was located just northwest of the present sile of the 



284: HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Baptist Church on the residence block between Geo. W, Stebbins' residence 
and Clay Cowgills. In 1853 there was a private school held in the Masonic 
Hall which stood near where the bank building now stands at the northeast 
corner of the square. The first instructor was William M. Cravens, and 
snbsquently Mr. Ruark, who taught for a monthl}' tuition of from one to 
one and a half dollars per pupil per month. By this time there was a small 
school fund which was applied toward paying the expenses of the school 
which was in operation at the outbreak of the war. About 1851 the people 
desiring a female school, applied to Governor Slade of Yermont for a teacher, 
Miss Mary E. Field was sent out, and taught a girls' school which was loca- 
ted on lot eleven or near where Peter Hills' harness shop now stands, teach- 
ing some three or four years. 

In 1855 the legislature of Missouri passed an act incorporating the Car- 
thage Female Academy. This institution was under the management of 
a board of trustees. The building which was a good brick structure, stood 
where the present handsome public school-house now stands, and was de- 
stroyed during the war. 

(Samuel M. Knealand was the first instructor of the female seminary, and 
Mr. Hurley, assisted by Miss Alice Walker, who taught till the civil war. 
During the spring of 1866-()7 the frame court-house was built on the west 
side of the square, and Andrew J. Shepard and Miss Clemmie Shepard 
opened a public school in it, the tirst in the place after the war. About 
this time the town board bought a one-story double building of a Mr. Dun- 
lap, located on the south side of the public square. 

It is hardly necessary to observe that there were no schools during the 
period of the civil war, and the history of schools is broken into until 
1868, so far as present records are concerned; 

Schools after the War, 1868 to 1883. — The earliest records we find of 
schools after the war are in April, 1868, when the school was held in the 
double building on the south side of the square where Griswold's store now 
stands. A board was elected consisting of J. W. Young, president; D. S. 
Thomas, treasurer; M. G. McGregor, secretary, forming a board of educa- 
tion, under the general statutes of Missouri. Mr. G. A. Cassil presented 
the following y^roposition to the board of education: 

I propose to sell the board of education of the town of Carthage, all of lot 
nine, as shown in the original plat of said town for the sum of $4,500. I 
also propose to loan said board the sum of $500 in currency, and receive the 
bonds (to run three years), of the school district said board represents at 
par in payment of both sums. 

By referring to lot nine we find that it is about the middle of the south 



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286 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

side of the square, or where Gns Wood's store now stands. This was the 
real beginning of our present magnificent school system in Carthage, and 
Mr. W. J. Sieber was chosen as principal, and A. P. French, first assistant. 
John Eaton, Esq., was ordered to take an enumeration of the white and col- 
ored youths between five and twenty-one years of age. In the minutes of 
1870, 'Ordered that only thirty minutes be devoted to the recitation of 
Latin; ordered that E. P. Searle be allowed to use the school-room for sing- 
ing-school purposes, and for teaching a sabbath-school for colored children." 
"Ordered that we purchase the grounds known as the Carthage seminary lot 
for a school-house site, to pay the sum of one dollar, taking the same subject 
to all incumbrances." The fine scliool building was built in 1870, and cost 
about $30,000. It is one of the best arranged and comely school edifices in 
the Southwest, or most any state in the Union. Besides a cabinet of geo- 
logical specimens, there is begun the neuclus of a good library comprising 
many volumes. The high school building has three grades, A, B, and C. 

Instructors. — The following is a list of the present teachers and instruct- 
ors: Prof. Daniel Matthews is superintendent of all the city schools, also 
teaching the higher branches, among which are chemistry, astronomy, bot- 
any, geology, civil government, etc.; Mr. "VVm. M. LaForce is principal of 
the high school; grammar department, Miss Anna Hardwicke and Miss 
Belle Brown; intermediate, Mrs. H. C. Aholtz, Miss Claire Dittoe, Miss 
Maggie Loyd, and Olivia Seaman; primary department. Miss Beula Pen- 
dleton, Miss Ella Pixlee, Mrs. Gussa Hanna, Miss Wellie Rawson, and Miss 
Anna Pool; ward schools, S. S. Riley, principal. Miss Laura Flenniken, Miss 
Esther Hood, and Mrs. L. G. Rawson; colored school, B. F. Adams. 

'Board of Directors. — Charles Pool, president; E. O'Keefe, secretary; 
Frank Hill, treasurer; Samuel McReynolds, Robert Moore, and Bennett 
Hall. 

At the time of compilation only a full report down to the following could 
be had: 

Meport of the Carthage Public Schools for the year closing May '26., 
1882. — Number of white persons in the district between six and twenty 
years of age: male 665, female 822; total 1,487. Number of colored persons 
in the district between six and twenty years of age: male 58, female 59; total 
117. Total 1,604. 

Number of white children attending the public schools during the year: 
male 598, female 662; total 1,260. Number of colored children attending 
the public schools during the year: male 46, female 34; total 80. Total 
1,340. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 



287 



The following table shows the enrollment, attendance, absence, etc., of the 
several departments for the year ending June 26, 1882: 



















. 






P. 


X 


■a 
u 


q 




















o 






























60 


o 




CD 


P< 


'O 


■*^ 




















a 






CO 










CD 


TEACHERS. 


GRADES. 


-a 


a 


t-, 


i 


si 


M 

a 
o 
"S 




o 

P 


o! 


P. 
CQ 


m 

CQ 


o 
a 


ft 
73 


U 

§. 










V 




a 


,o 


e» 






o 


<ii 


Pi 


^ 


VI 








>> 


n 




as 

a 

£ 


OS 

r3 




'3 


O 
CQ 


a 
t 

OS 


a 


o 


1 


O 








> 


>> 


a 


3 


CO 

u 


60 

2 


2 


o 

"3 




60 

2 


SI 

a 


00 










<u 


o 






t* 


>• 


t>- 


o 


> 


> 


3 


C3 


>- 






^ 


« 


1-1 


K 


'A 


<! 


<! 


< 


H 


< 


<<1 


iz 


o 


<! 


W. M. LaForce 


High School 


58 






26 


32 


45 


43 


2 


78 


1.81 


.44 


29 


3 


16.5 


Georgia Gates 


Room No. 1 


50 


1 


2 


27 


22 


32 


31 


1 


34 


1 09 


19 


32 


1 


15 3 


Kate 0' Donald 


Room No. 2 

Room No. 3 

Room No. 4 


68 
60 
60 


2 
3 
1 


3 


38 
27 
26 


29 
35 
35 


44 
45 
43 


42 
43 

40 


2 
2 
3 


84 
69 
22 


2.00 

1.60 

.55 


.46 
.38 
.12 


40 
38 
47 


9 

1 
3 


14 'il 


Sella Brown 


13 5 


Claire Dittoe 


13 4 


Lucie Oulburtson 


Room No. 6 


63 


1 




31 


33 


48 


45 


3 


79 


1.75 


.43 


43 


13 


11.8 


Lelia Stephenson 


Room No. 6 


80 


7 




'Si 


55 


64 


61 


3 


21 


.34 


.12 


75 





11.2 


Olivia Seaman . 


Room No. 7 

Room No. 8 


90 
94 


8 
11 




26 
44 


05 
53 


66 
62 


62 
58 


4 

4 


38 
52 


.61 
.89 


.21 
.28 


78 
86 


2 
8 


10 5 


Ella Pixlee 


9.3 


Mrs. Gussie Hanna 


Room No. 9 


106 


14 


11 


42 


67 


71 


67 


4 


118 


1.76 


.65 


71 


1 


8.0 


Mrs. L. G. Rawson 


Room No. 10 

Mound St. School 


150 




14 


69 


67 


69 


62 


7 


78 


1.24 


.42 


75 





7.1 


D. B. WUson 


Room No 1 


74 


1 




33 


41 


52 


60 


2 


106 


2.12 


.58 


38 


34 


10 8 


Laura Flenniken 


Room No. 2 


75 






24 


51 


53 


60 


3 


62 


1.24 


.34 


59 


29 


9.4 




Room No. 3 

Room No. 4 


84 
148 


27 


27 


50 
52 


59 
69 


55 
68 


50 
61 


5 

7 


96 
94 


1 92 
1.54 


.53 
.52 


60 
73 


7 
4 


8 8 


Weltha BawBon 


6.8 




Colored 


80 
1,340 


76 


76 


44 
591 


36 
749 


40 
857 


36 
801 


4 
56 


150 
1,180 


4.16 
1.4T 


.83 
6.55 


40 

884 


77 
183 


9 9 


Totals 




1ft 9 









Financial Statement for the Year Ending Ai^ril 4, 188'2. — Receipts: — 
Cash on hand beginning of year, $6,055.41 ; received from state and county, 
$4,090.08; district taxes. $11,357.68; non-resident tuition fees, $139.90; 
diplomas, etc., $57.55. Total, $21,700.62. 

Expenditures: — Superintendent and teachers, $6,195.60; building, $3,- 
550; fuel, $304.35; repairs, $218.18; apparatus, incidentals, etc., $2,- 
268.73; one bond and past due coupons, $595; interest on funded bonds, 
$900. Total, $15,031.86. Cash balance with treasurer April 4, 1882, 
$6,668.76. 

The following in brief is a statement of the schools for the present year, 
1883: Whole number enrolled, 1,500; whole number monthly enrolled, 
1,100; average daily attendance, 959, for 1883; average daily attendance, 
801, for 1882; increase in attendance, 158, in 1883. The enumeration of 
children in the city, June, 1883, is as follows: White, males 891, females 
1,046; colored, males 90, females 78; total 2,106. Last year the total enu- 
meration was 1,704, which shows an increase of 402 during the past twelve 
months. This would indicate an increase of about 1,000 in our population 
during the year. 

Graduates, 1879-1883.— Clsiss of '78:, Frank Pierce, Ed C. Crow, Louie 



288 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Brown, Eva I. McConnel, Florence 0. Parkell, Nettie Beaslej, and Fannie 
West. 

Class of '79: Charles L. Dickey, Ora M. Brum met, Nannie Dinsraore, 
Aura B. Speece, and Ellen M. Chase. 

Class of '80: Carrie Farwell, Arria Jenkyn, Kate M. Allen, Belle Cran- 
dall, Ella Harrison, Carrie L. Dittoe, Olivia Seaman, and Olive Dale. 

Class of '81: George E. Gwin,Thos. E. McCnne, Ben F. Brown, Joseph 
C. Roberts, Fannie Bliss, Beula Pendleton, Maud Reid, Minnie Dinsmore, 
Edith Easton, Nellie M. Wakefield, Anna E. Pool, Sallie P. Pixlee, Clara 
Hont, Abbie J. Speece, and Emma Campbell. 

Class of '82: Hal Wardin, Anna White, Adele Stephenson, Genevieve 
Rawson, Cora Fisher, and Margaret Loyd. 

Class of '83: Jennie Bliss, Etta Seawell, Kate Piatt, Salome Stanton, 
Hattie Reece, and Delia VanNatter. 

The school-houses of Carthage have been so greatly crowded that the 
board of directors have been compelled to build a new house in the Third 
ward. The contract was let to Simon Bistline for $i,409. The building is 
to be completed August 1, 1883, and is to be a two-story brick, of four 
rooms. It is located on the corner of Miller and Maple streets, in South 
Carthage. 

The Mound Street school building is located in the northwest portion of 
town, in a quiet and well selected spot. It is a two-story brick, comprising 
four rooms, and is at present presided over by Prof. S. S. Riley, assisted by 
Miss Flenniken, Miss Hood, and Mrs. Rawson. The average attendance in 
this building is about 240. The pupils are of an intermediate or primary 
character, are well behaved, and show good training and instruction. The 
building was constructed in 1881 at a cost of $5,300. 

Miss Cheadle's School. — This is the first year of this select school. It 
has been held in the old Christian church. There have been forty scholars 
enrolled consisting of three grades, high school, primary, and intermediate. 
The rate of tuition has been $1.-50 per month for intermediate and primary, 
and $2.00 for advanced pupils. There have been four advanced pupils. 
Miss Cheadle has taught eight years in the city schools, and is abundantly 
qualified for this new work. Pupils are prepared for the public schools in 
any and all branches. 

Miss Brooks's School. — This school was begun about 1872, in a little build- 
ing near her brother's ofiice, near where Dr. Brooks's office now stands. Miss 
Brooks, for years previous to this time, was engaged as a very successful 
teacher in the public schools, but having retired from them, opened a 
school of her own. A few years since, when the Congregationalists were 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 289 

about to build their new church, Miss Brooks bought their old brick chapel 
for $S00, where she now has a large and overflowing school. As a teacher, 
both of small scholars and preparing advanced pupils for the high school 
or college, Miss Brooks ranks well with the best instructors, as is attested 
by her success. 

Carthage Public Library. — The Carthage Library Association was organ- 
ized about 1870. It was established largely through the instrumentality of 
the ladies of (;)arthage. The purpose of the organization was to found a 
permanent public library, and the chief source of revenue was from lecture 
courses and entertainments. At one of the early meetings in 1870 the re- 
port of the funds of the society was $200.25, from fines, membership fees, 
and other sources. A constitution was formulated, and the following ofii- 
eei's were elected: O. S. Picher, president; H. C. Kenney, secretary. 

The library comprises over 1,000 volumes of well selected works; biog- 
raphies, 141 ; essay, 63; fiction, 145; history, 95; juvenile, 51; miscellaneous, 
153; poetry, 49; religious, 91; science, 117. The terms of membership 
are !i^2.00 initiation fee, and 10 cents per week for the loan of books. This 
gives an abundant opportunity for good reading at a nominal cost, enabling 
those lacking either libraries or variety of reaching a great treat. Much 
credit is due to the ladies of Carthage for their literary ambitions and 
tastes. 

The Press. — The press of Carthage and Jasper county has done a great 
work in aiding the progress of the city, and accomplished wonders in bnild- 
ing up the county in its commercial, educational, and religious growth, as 
well as incalculable assistance in advertising and sending to all parts of the 
country the wonders and desirableness of the Southwest, and particularly 
Jasper county, for its climate, its mineral wealth, its fruit and grain, and 
Carthage as the queen city for a residence. 

The Star of the West and Southwest News. — This was the caption of a 
newspaper published in Carthage previous to the war. It was started dur- 
ing the Kansas troubles, and was intended to serve the slavery interests. 
At first it was named Star of the West, but that name did not seem to be 
suitable, and it was afterward changed to Southwest News. C. C. Dawson 
was the nominal editor. In the presidential campaign of 1860 it adv( cated 
the claims of all candidates except Abraham Lincoln. Its ofiiee was in a 
one-story, building, situated where McMerrick & Burlingame's grocery 
store stood. It early winked out in the war, and went south with the 
Confederates. It stopped awhile in McDonald county, where it did some 
service in printing shinplasters, and was afterward captured by the Federal 
19 



290 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

troops, and used for an army press. It is not known what finally became 
of it. 

Carthage Banner. — Was established by Thomas M. Garland in Decem- 
ber, 186G, as a weekly paper. January' 1, 186S, H. C. Henney became a 
partner and continued two years, when he sold out to E. H. Benham, who 
at the end of six months sold back to Mr. Henney, who remained another 
two years, and disposed of his interest to A. F. Lewis, July 1, 1872. It has 
been conducted both as a daily and weekly ever since. It has always been 
a radical Republican paper, and a strong advocate of temperance, progress, 
and the leading issues of the day of a reformatory character. Major 
Skews has charge of the job printing and general press-work, and is an 
equal partner witli A. F. Lewis in this branch of the business, doing work 
second to none in the Southwest. Mr. Julius Mayerhoff has charge of the 
bindery department, who is a skilled workman, having learned the three 
branches of this trade and profession in Gernjany. His work is excelled by 
none in St. Louis or the Southwest. Mr. W A. Sloane, late editor of the 
Sedalia J^agle-Times, has charge of the editorial dej)artraent of the Banner. 
He is a graduate of Iowa College, a young man of experience in this work, 
and possessed of tact and a peculiar fitness for the work. Mr. Hamilton 
F. Sloane, his father, is agricultural correspondent, and Mr. Thomas Zook 
is business manager. 

The Carthage Patriot. — The Carthage Patriot was started in March, 
1869, as a weekly, by S. D. Carj enter. December 19, 1873, it was burned 
out and was a total loss of $3,500. Mr. Carpenter, the editor, lost'$l,000, 
Regan and Cunningham lost $1,500, and Messrs. Strawn and Powell 
$1,000, who owned the building. Mr. Carpenter was kindly tendered the 
use of the Banner ofiice, thereby getting out his regular issue even ahead 
of the usual time. From about the year 1877 until the present it has been 
issued both as a daily and weekly. It is Democratic in politics. 

The Carthage Advance was inaugurated by H. C. Henney andE.C. Moul- 
ton, in September, 1873. After changing hands several times Rev. J. W. 
Jacobs and R. T. Marlow took charge of it, in the interests of temperance 
and religious ethics, and issued semi-weekly. It was changed to the Car- 
thage Republican in 1878, and was discontinued in 1879. 

The Orip. — In the spring of 1872 B. J. Bliss published an Odd Fellows' 
paper, which he very handily called the Grip., and after a few njouths he 
lost his hold on the Grip. 

Congregational Sabbath-school Bulletin. — Inaugurated in March, 1883, 
and published quarterly under the auspices of the Congregational sabbath- 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 291 

school of Carthage, Missouri, for gratuitous distribution; George F. Hill 
and Mrs. L. E. Whitney, editors. 

Transcript. — The first issue was March 24, 1883, edited and published 
by Ben. Deering. It was inaugurated as a dail}^, but in May the weekly 
was also begun, which was contemplated in the beginning. Independent in 
politics, it is a wide-awake sheet and full of enterprise. On May 14th, 1883, 
the Transcript was sold by Mr. Deering to A. W. Rogers, who now pub- 
lishes the daily and weekly. 

The Cartilage Press. — The above named paper was established in the 
city of Carthage in April, 1872, by Mr. Joshua A. Bodenhamer, a good 
writer and a newspaper man of experience and ability. It was independent 
in politics and conducted in the interests of the city and county, and es- 
pecially in the interest of the industrial and business classes, being always 
outspoken in denouncing, exposing, and condemning all systems of public 
plunder, such as bonds of ail kinds, national banks, railroad and other mo- 
nopolies, together with high-salaried, corrupt officials, and it has steadily 
maintained this course to the present day. In 1876 this paper had the 
proud distinction of being the first and only paper in the State of Missouri 
to support for President of the United States that grand philanthropist 
and humanitarian, Mr. Peter Cooper, and Jasper county gave more votes 
that year for this great and good man than any other county in the state, 
the number being 520. In July, 1879, the Press moved into the building 
it now occupies, the second story of the brick on the corner of Main and 
Third streets. On January 1st, 1882, Mr. A. W. St. John, well known 
throughout the Southwest as an earnest advocate of financial and industrial 
reforms, and a forcible and able writer, took an equal interest with Mr. Bo- 
denhamer in the editorial and business management of the paper, under the 
firm name of Bodenhamer & St. John, and since that time the paper has 
rapidly increased its business, circulation, and influence. The firm has re- 
cently added new job type, presses, and other material, making it one of 
the best equipped job offices in the Southwest. Also a new Cincinnati cylin- 
der press, of the latest and best pattern, driven by a Backus water motor, 
the power supplied by the Carthage Water-works Company, making it one 
of the best newspaper offices in this part of the state. The Press 
continues to advocate the best interests of Carthage and Jasper county, re- 
mains independent, denouncing with all its vigor the encroachments of all 
corporate monopolies and corrupt officers who plan to plunder the indus- 
trial and business classes. 



292 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 



CHAPTER XY.— CARTHAGE PUBLIC ENTERPRISES. 

Water-works— Gas-works— Frisco R. R.— Missouri Pacific R. R.— Telegraph and Tele- 
phone Lines — Post-office— Carthage Building and Loan Association— Board of Trade — 
Cemeteries — Wild Wood Park. 

Carthage Water-works. — The water-works were commenced in Septem- 
ber, 1881, and completed in Febrnarj, 1882 — built, owned, and controlled by 
home capital. The work has been pushed with rare activity, and met with 
remarkable success. The location of the city, contiguous to Spring River, 
a large and rapid stream of pure, clear water, running on one side, and 
within 4,000 feet of the center of the business portion of the city, and on a 
gradual elevation to a height of 150 feet, renders it an inviting spot for an 
enterprise of that kind, giving a steady and constant flow of water for do- 
mestic use, and in time of lire the stand pipe is turned off, and a direct 
pressure put on, enabling the powerful pumps to throw a solid body 
of water, through an inch and a quarter nozzle, to a height of 100, 150, or 
even a greater distance if desired. The company have now seven miles 
of mains laid in the streets, and a corps of men constantly at work putting 
service pipes in for consumers. The takers were so numerous as to enable 
the company lo more than pay cost of running and interest on investment 
the year just finished, and the first of its existence. The whole construc- 
tion is being done in the most substantial manner, and without sparing ex- 
pense for its perfection. It has been claimed by experts that the Carthage 
water-works, for their size, were not excelled, if equaled, in the United 
States. 

By reference to the city charter it will be seen that the contract for the 
Carthage water-works was awarded to Jesse W. Starr, Jr., of Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, May 24, 1881. Being unable to comply with the contract, a 
company was organized, composed of the following gentlemen: D. S. 
Thomas, president; C. L. Bartlett, treasurer; John W. Slaney, superinten- 
dent, and T. B. Tuttle, director. Soon after the completion of the enter- 
prise the following new officers were elected: D. S.Thomas, president and 
superintendent, and C. L. Bartlett, secretary and treasurer. Mr. Slaney 
still holds a fourth interest in the stock, Mr. Bartlett one-fourth, and Mr. 
Thomas one-half, he having purchased Mr. Tuttle's interest. 

The water-works of Carthage is of the Holly system, which gets its pres- 
sure directly from the pumps, although the Carthage works has in connec- 
tion, for convenience, a stand pipe for pressure when the pumps are not in 
use. This stand pipe is eight feet in diameter and seventy-two feet high. 



CITY OF CAKTHAGE. 293 

There is a fine brick building for the pumps, 42x46. There are two 
Babcock & Wilcox boilers, of sixty horse-power each. These pumps throw 
four streams 125 feet high, and six streams over one hundred feet. 
The water is supplied from Spring Kiver, a clear stream, fed by many fine 
springs, and the water passes through a filter 25x50, and fifteen feet in 
depth, and filled with both stone and gravel. The water is always cool and 
clear, passing fifty feet through this filter into a well constructed for the 
purpose. There has been over $70,000 invested in this enterprise, which 
gives both an unfailing supply of water and adding greatly to convenience 
in domestic economy as well as the safety of the city in case of fire. It has, 
besides, become an absolute necessity for sprinkling and irrigating pur- 
poses during the long dry months of the summer, because of the porous 
character of the soil. It is, in fact, without doubt, the greatest public con- 
venience as well as a commendable investment of private capital for public 
uses. Cartilage may well feel proud of her superior water- works, and the 
excellent manner in which it is constructed and managed. 

These works have been completed eighteen months and there are 400 
consumers. There were 275 consumers at the end of the first year. 
The private consumers pay, on an average, $17 per year for the water 
used, paid quarterly, in advance. The amount received from the city for 
fifty public fire hydrants, is $3,000, payable semi-annually. The company's 
annuity from their investment is about $6,800, or less than ten per cent, and 
an expense of operating the works of $3,200 per annum. 

The Gas wokks. — Second only to the water-works of this cit}', among 
its public enterprises, is the gas-works. By a special ordinance granted in 
the city charter, dated August 16, 1877, a company of St. Louis were 
granted the exclusive right to manufacture and furnish gas for twenty 
years, the city of Carthage obligating herself to use the gas of this company 
in at least twenty-five public street lamps, paying $30 dollars per annum 
W each street gas lamp. Tuesday, August 7, 1877, John T. Ruffin, mayor 
of the city of Carthage, ordered a special election by the qualified voters to 
determine: " Shall the right to erect gas-works and lay down pipes and 
mains for the use of the city and its inhabitants be granted upon such 
terms as the council may, by ordinance, prescribe? Yes. No." The vote 
stood as follows: For the proposition, 240; against, 48; total vote, 288; ma- 
jority for, 192. Upon this vote the company forthwith proceeded to an 
organization which was perfected March 25, 1878. The laying of the street 
main began February 10, 1878, on the east side of the public square, and 
April 18, 1878, excavation was begun for the tank and buildings. July third 



294 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

the Queen City was first lighted by gas, and we clip the following from the 
Banner of August 1, 1878, wliich sa^'s: 

•'Last night was one of unusual interest to the people of Carthage, as it 
was the occasion of the first illumination of the city by gas. The success- 
ful inauguration of the Carthage Gas-works notes a prominent era in the 
life of our city, and will furnish an interesting chapter in her history, and 
speaks loudly for the solidity and permanency of our community. The firm 
of Gray, Bowman & Lewis, of St. Louis, commenced the movement of this 
enterprise at a time when most men would have refused to grapple with 
the undertaking. In this enterprise the company has made an expenditure 
of $40,000, besides the employment of much foreign capital and work for 
many men." 

The present company is composed of the following offigers: H. D. Wood, 
president; M. L. Gray, secretary and treasurer; C. J. Lewis, engineer; W. 
L. Carver, superintendent. To show the increase and the amount of busi- 
ness, the following statement in figures will show: Total cubic feet of gas 
made in 1879, 2,147,330; total cubic feet of gas made in 1882, 3,020,580; 
value of gas consumed in 1879, $2,605.85; value of gas consumed in 1882, 
$9,128.70; length of mains laid in 1879, 16,667 feet; length of mains laid in 
1882, 19,119 feet; capacity of gasometer, 22,000 cubic feet; original value 
of works, $30,000; present value of works, $30,000; number of street lamps 
in 1879, 25; number of street lamps in 1882, 27. This enterprise in Car- 
thage is steadily increasing, and when the facts of the great opposition in the 
first struggles are known, and how the company has prospered notwith- 
standing, great credit will be given the management, Mr. W. L. Carver, 
instead of discouragement and opposition to this public enterprise. 

The Frisco Road. — We can best illustrate the internal works of this 
great railroad system by giving a few facts and figures of the management 
from the annual report of the general mat)ager for 1882: Gross earnings 
for the year, $3,572,240.92; those for 1881, $3,160,523.25, showing an in- 
crease in gross earnings of $411,717.67; operating expenses for the year, 
$1,410,722.10; those for 1881, $1,335,182.35. showing an increase in operat- 
ing expenses of $85,538.75; the ratio of operating expenses to earnings in 
1882 was 39.77 per cent; that of 1881, 42.25 percent. 

The present mileage is as follows: Pacific to Seneca, Missouri, 292-| 
.miles; Gran by branch, \^ miles; Peirce City, Missouri, to Wichita, Kan- 
sas, 118^ miles; Oronogo, Missouri, to Joplir), Missouri, \0^\ Girard to 
Galena, Kansas (including Belt road at Joplin), 47^ miles; Carbon branch, 
3i miles; Plymouth, Missouri, to Ft. Smith, Arkansas, 132^; Springfield 
to Ozark, Missouri (White River branch), 19 miles; total, 724f miles. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 295 

The rolling stock, at the close of the year, consisted of 79 locomotives, 33 
passenger coaches, 2 officers' cars, one-half interest in 3 Pullman sleeping- 
cars, 2 passenger and baggage cars combined, 1 pay-car, 11 baggage cars, 5 
fifty-foot postal cars, 43 cabooses, 5 boarding-cars for work trains, 1,087 
box cars, 1,000 ore cars, 20 Ioa^ fldt cars, 485 stock cars, 3 tank cars, and 2 
wrecking cars. 

The total mileage laid with steel rails at the close of the year 1882 was 
552^ miles, distributed as follows: Main line, 254 miles, 56 pounds to the 
yard; Kansas division, 7 miles, 56 pounds to the yard, and 156^ miles, 52 
pounds to the yard; Arkansas division, 40 miles, 56 pounds to the yard, 
and 92^ miles, 52 pounds to the yard; White River branch, 2^ miles, 52 
pounds to the yard — leaving 172J miles laid with iron. 

Missouri Pacific. — The depot was built about 1881. The building is a frame 
structure, 140x25 feet, under the management of the following officers: 
James Neylon, agent; Grant Wilber, baggage-master; I. S. Davis and J. 
H. Hodnett, operators. Davis works half day and half night. Hodenett 
works all day. Ko operator here from 1:20 a.m. until 7 a.m. Baggage- 
man constantly here. Express business is entirely separate from the depot 
work. Telegraph operators at the depot do nothing but the railroad busi- 
ness. The Western Union Telegraph Company attends to all the general 
business, whose office is on the public square in Carthage. Amount of sales 
of tickets average about $3,000 per month. Rate of fare three cents per 
mile. Freight averages about $9,000 per month. This is one of the best 
appointed and commodious depots, to our knowledge, outside of the large 
towns. It is divided into rooms as follows: Ladies waiting-room, office, 
gents waiting-room, baggage and freight-rooms. Both waiting-rooms are 
furnished with nice comfortable settees. The windows are larger than are 
ordinarily seen in commo)i depots, with four panes to the window. Also a 
large hay-window in the office, which is a great advantage in admitting 
light. The building is kept well painted, and inside and out is neat and 
clean, speaking well for the industry and energy of the present employes, 
who are accommodating and courteous gentlemen and well qualified to till 
positions of like nature. There is a large tank near the depot, furnished 
with water from the city water- works; it has a capacity of about 2,000 bar- 
rels. This depot is connected by telephone with all the principal business 
points of the city. 

The Western Union Telegraph.— This is the only company doing business 
in Carthaire. Thev have a general office on the southwest corner of the square 
and a branch office at each depot. The latter transact railroad business 
alone, all other communications passing through the general office. When 



296 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

this office was first established they had only one wire, and raih'oad and 
general business were both attended to here. At present the company have 
three wires running into this office, connecting them directly with St. Louis 
and Kansas City. This office employs two operators and two messengers. 
The operators are A. B. Ellison and J. S. Frye. The following figures 
given us by the manager, A. B. Ellison, will give some idea of the extent 
of the business: Average receipts per month, $500; average number of 
messages per month, 3,000. Chicago market reports are received here and 
delivered to the Chicago Grain and Produce Exchange. 

A TELEPHONE was established in the county first between the mills of Cow- 
gill & Hill in 1880, a private line. In 1881 an exchange was established 
in Joplin. There are about seventy subscribers at this place. The exchange 
was established in Carthage in 1882, and there are fifty subscribers now in 
Carthage. Among the other exchanges in the county are thirty-five sub- 
scribers at Webb City and Cartersville; an exchange connecting Joplin with 
Galena, Kansas, with twenty subscribers; Oronogo, Jasper county, lias six; 
Galesburg Mills has three; also, McDaniels's Mills, east of Carthage, and 
Forest Mills still further east. The longest line is to Galena, Kansas, 
which is twenty-seven miles long. There is used about one hundred and 
twenty-five miles of wire. The United Telephone Company which, with 
headquarters at Kansas City, is the Joplin Telephone Company, and the 
Merchants' Telephone and Telegraph Company, of Kansas Citj', combined, 
was efiPected in March, 1883. This new company controls the exclusive 
right of the State of Kansas and the territory controlled by the Joplin Tele- 
phone Company. The telephone enterprise in this county and twenty-seven 
other counties is due to Mr. Charles McDaniel, whose untiring efforts in its 
inception presaged its ultimate success, and now that it is a great success is 
an established fact, others can see the grounds for his faith in his work. 
Mr. McDaniel put up this line with his private capital, and having sold his 
interest is the manager for this territory. 

FosT-OFFicE. — The Carthage post-office was first kept on the north side of 
the square near where the first court-house stood. It has been moved sev- 
eral times since then, and is now kept in the Ilegan block on the west side 
of the public square. The books were all destroyed during the war, so it is 
impossible to give the exact dates when the several postmasters took charge. 

The first postmaster was George Hornback, who served from 1842 until 
about 1848. Edward Fisher then kept the office until 1850; Elwood B. 
James from 1850 to 1853; A. J. Burton from 1853 to 1855, and Jesse 
Cravens from 1855 to 1861, or the beginning of tlie war. In 1866 George 
Rader was appointed postmaster, his remuneration for the entire year being 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 297 

$12. At this time the mail was carried from Sarcoxie to this office on 
horseback, and was brought to Sarcoxie from Springfield by stage on the 
Springfield and Keosho stage route. A stage route was afterward run by 
the way of Carthage, and the mail was carried on this until the M., C. N. 
W. R. R., was built. 

In 1867 and 1868 the postmaster's salary was $160 per year. The 
amount due the United States, after deducting the postmaster's salary for 
the year 1868, was $573.53; for 1869, was $950. The business now in- 
creased rapidly, and in 1870 the salary was $1,200, and it was then made a 
third-class office. In 1873 it was made a second-class office, with a salary 
of over $2,000. In 1874 it was again made a third-class office, paying 
$1,800 per year. Mr. Rader informs us the money-order system was estab- 
lished here about 1870, and that at one time during his service as postmas- 
ter the orders amounted to $100,000 per year. In 1878 Mr. Rader's time 
expired, and A. F. Lewis, who at present holds the office, was appointed. 
In 1870 it was again made a second-class office. Below we give some figures 
which show something of the extent of the business since 1879: 

Beoeipts.— Total receipts for 1882, $10,3 39.30; increase over 1881, 
$1,244.16; increase over 1880, $3,693.53; increase over 1879, $4,472.22. 

Expenses. — Total expenses of the office in 1882, $3,748.00; profits to 
post-office department, $6,591.30; increase of profit over 1881, $242.16; in- 
crease of profits over 1880, $2,423.53; increase of profits ove.r 1879, 
$3,024.22. 

Registry Department. — Number of registered letters received in 1882, 
2,531; number of registered letters sent in 1882, 1,425; number of regis- 
tered letters handled in transit, 1,258; total, 5,211. 

Money Order Business. — Total receipts for 1882, $58,471.81; disburse- 
ments for 1882, $58,471.81; increase of sales over 1881, $6,112.46; increase 
of sales over 1880, $19,234,58; increase of sales over 1879, $22,505.59. 

Mail matter sent during 1882. — Average for the year first-class, 453,388; 
average for the year, second-class, 385,060; average for the year, third and 
fourth-class, 166,144; number pieces mail sent during 1882,1,024,592; in- 
crease over 1881, 179,826; increase over 1880, 368,469; increase over 1879, 
678,895. 

Beside the regular lettered boxes this office has 520 calls, and 320 lock- 
boxes. These boxes are all rented and the supply does not satisfy the demand, 
consequently there are to be 100 more lock-boxes put in soon; there are six 
post letter boxes at convenient points in the city, from which matter is col- 
lected and mailed three times a day The office is in charge of A. F. Lewis, 



298 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

postmaster; Belle Johnson, assistant postmaster; Earnest B. Jacobs, mail- 
ing clerk; J. W. Johnson, delivery clerk. 

Carthage Building and Loan Association. — Organized October 1, 1881, 
with 700 shares, representing $200 each. It has been run economically and 
saccessfnlly, and there is now $17,150 of notes on hand; the premiiin on 
the stock is now $5.80 per share. The great success of the association in- 
duced the management to organize a new series of stock of the same organ- 
ization, March 1, 1883, consisting of 300 shares. There have been about 
fifty houses built and repaired by the funds of the Building Association 
and the dues and interest which the borrowers pay the association is con- 
siderably less than the same houses would rent for. It will be seen that 
the plan of the association is that a party is loaned, money enough to buy 
a home at a less rate of interest than would be required to pay a rent for the 
use of the same property, besides having, at the end of the loan, a deed for 
the property. It will be seen readily that such an institution is not only 
a desirable association for investment, but encourages and stimulates build- 
ing and imj^rovement of the town. 

First statement of the Carthage Building and Loan Association of Carth- 
age, Missouri, January 10, 1882: 

Assets. — Notes for loans to shareholders, secured by deeds of trust on real 
estate, $3,250; cash in treasury, $262.85; total, $3,512.85. 

Ziabillties- -Expenses, $225.20; shares of stock canceled, $6; dues to 
credit of shareholders, |2,719; Net gains, $562.65; total, $3,512.85. 

Second statement of the Carthage Building and Loan Association of 
Carthage, Missouri, July 10, 1882: 

Assets. — Notes for loans to shareholders, $9,300; cash* in hand, $304.52; 
total, $U,604:.53. 

±,iahilities. — Dues, credit of shareholders, $7,320; net gains, $2,284.53; 
total, $9,604.53. 

Carthage Board of Trade. — Some of the enterprising citizens of Car- 
thage who were desirous of promoting the general welfare of Carthage and 
vicinit}', met at the city recorder's office on January 22d, 1883, and appointed 
a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws for the association. The 
report of the committee, only a portion of which is given, was as follows: 
"We your committee appointed at a meeting held at the city recorder's office 
on January 22d, 1883, for the purpose of drafting a constitution and 
by-laws for the organization of a board of trade, respectfully submit the 
following: Be it known that the undersigned together with such persons as 
shall hereafter become members, do hereby form and constitute themselves 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 299 

an association for the objects and uses hereinafter stated and under rules, 
regulations, and by-laws herein set forth, or shall hereafter be established." 
The number of members is 110. The officers of this association are J. D. 
Clarkson, president; Dr. A. H. Caffey, secretary; William E. Brinkerhoff, 
treasurer. 




CAKTHAOE CEMETEKY. 

Cemeteries. — The first cemetery used by the citizens of Carthage was 
located on the lot now occupied by the jail, about one acre square at that 
time. This lot was used till 1849. At that time another cemetery was 
established on the land now known as the "City Park." This was used until 
1870. This lot was transferred to the town of Carthage by order of court 
May 7, 18^9, on the conditions that the town would obtain other suitable 
ground for a cemetery and remove the bodies buried in this lot thereto. 
Consequently the "Carthage Cemetery Association," in behalf of the citi- 
zens of Carthage, bought a tract of land lying south of town on J Street, 
about forty acres, for the consideration of $500. On February 7th, 1870, the 
bodies were then removed from the city park to this place, except eight or 
ten that were left by special request of friends, and the soldiers who had 
been buried here during the war. They were removed to the National Cem- 
etery at Springfield by order of the government. This tract of land, about 
two miles south of town, is the only burial ground that is owned by the 
town; the others that we shall speak of are owned by private parties who 
sell lots to those who wish to purchase. The last named place was found 
to be too wet to give general satisfaction, and another one was opened to 



300 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

the public known as "Cedar Hill Cemetery," one mile east of the public 
square. This was used for some time, but afterward almost abandoned for 
a few years. It is now being improved by new fencing, shade trees, etc., 
and the proprietors have recently employed a sexton to keep the place in 
order. We are informed that 1,000 bodies here sleep in the silent tomb. 
Another one was opened One and one-half miles west of town about the 
same time known as "Gaston's Cemetery." 

The last, and the one that is now generally used by the citizens of Car- 
thage, was established by Timoth}' Regan. It is located about one and one- 
fourth miles southwest of the public square. It contains forty acres. Half 
of it is laid off in lots, containing 400 square feet each. Some of these lots 
are enclosed witli a curbing of dressed stone. The first interment was a 
child of Mr. C. Winkler, on July 25th, 1879; the second was a child of 
Lewis Luck; the third was that of J. G. Leidy. Robinson's monument 
and vault is probabl}^ the most expensive one erected here, the cost being 
$700. There are several other monuments which cost from $125 to $200. 
There are about 125 bodies deposited here. 

City Park. — This park lies between the following streets: Seventh on 
the north, Lyons on the east, Chestnut on the south, and Garrison on the 
west. It is about 700 feet in length, east and west, and 430 feet in breadth, 
north and south. It was transferred to the town of Carthage, from the 
county of Jasper, by order of court. May 7, 1869, to be used for a city park. 
It is an inviting retreat, with its green sward, canopied by its natural oak 
grove, for seekers of quietude and rest. 

Wild Wood Park. — This park, which has more than a local reputation, 
is known as a place of public resort and pleasure, is finely located at what 
is now known as "Tucker's Ford," on Spring River, three and one-half 
miles northwest of Carthage. The inclosure, a picturesque spot, comprises 
a level tract of seventeen acres of natural forest, which has been trimmed 
and pruned into shapeliness and grace, till the landscape presents a view, in 
the vernal and autumnal seasons of the year, glorious in its attractiveness, 
and fit for the brush of an artist. The undergrowth has been cleared away, 
the surface of the ground smoothed and leveled and seeded down to blue- 
grass, and ]-endered beautiful, comely in perspective as well as more conven- 
ient and delightful. There is fitted upon the bank of the streatn, which 
glides along the eastern side of the park, a large commodious hall, 30x68, with 
matched flooring, used both as a retreat and a place to " trip the light, fan- 
tastic toe," honored by the fabled goddess, Terpsichore, and also used for the 
popular amusement of roller skating. Here and there are rustic seats, 
swings, croquet grounds, as well as row-boats, in readiness for the swain or 



CITY OF CAKTHAGE. 301 

the gallant "Leander," and all the attractions of a " watering place" await 
you at your very door. Here picnic parties, Sunday-school gatherings, and 
pleasnre-seekers are wont to come, as well as the lover, who holds audience 
alone with his sweetheart, the sheeny river, and the silent, silvery moon. 
On such occasions lively music and palatable refreshments are always to be 
had. There is in preparation a fine half-mile track for driving and tests of 
speed. Wild Wood Park is praised most by those who know its beauties 
best. Few men have the public spirit and enterprise to tit up and endow 
for the pleasure and diversion of the public as Mr. Tucker has in this 
charming retreat, and while he has become a public benefactor his labors 
are not without pleasure and satisfaction to himself nor in vain, as the pat- 
ronage and popularity of Wild Wood Park indicates. 



CHAPTER XYI.— COMMERCIAL AND BUSINESS INTERESTS 

Banks, Farmers and Drovers' — Traders' Bank — Bank of Carthage — Jasper County Bank 
— Hotels — Opera House — Missouri Woolen Mills — Carthage Woolen Mills — Flouring 
Mills — Foundry, etc. 

Farmers and Drovers' Bank. — This bank began business in 1875 un- 
der the management of Levi Starr, being bought and controlled by the 
present officers in 1877, with Mr. D. R. Goucher, president, and J. L. 
Moore, cashier. It has steadily grown and increased in business. Their de- 
posits vary and have been $150,000. Their business is constantly increas- 
ing and there are indications of increased growth and prosperity. They 
are located on the west side of the square and will always be found courteous, 
honorable, and obliging. 

Traders' Bank. — The records show the bank to have been organized in 
1872 as the First National Bank of Carthage. The charter was surrendered 
in 1878, being solvent. It is now a state bank with a capital of $30,000. 

The official statement of the financial condition of the Traders' Bank at 
the close of business on the fourteenth day of April, 1883: Resources — 
Loans, undoubtedly good on personal or collateral security, $74,855.27; 
overdrafts by solvent customers, $490.95; due from other banks, good on 
sight draft, $11,646.80; real estate at present cash market value, $7,000; 
furniture and fixtures, $2,000; checks and other cash items, $1,845.33; bills 
of national banks and legal tender United States notes, $22,082; gold coin, 
$535; silver coin, 1,174.85; total, $121,930.20. Liabilities— Capital stock 
paid in, $20,000; surplus funds on hand, $12,426.50; deposits subject to 



302 HISTORY OF JASPEE COUNTY. 

draft, at sight, $78,770.80; deposits subject to draft atgiven dates, |5,732.90; 
due other banks and bankers, $5,000; total, $121,930.20. 

Bank of Carthage. — Organized 1868 with G. A. Cassil, president; E. W. 
Harper, cashier. Al. Cahn bought Mr. Harper's interest. J. A. Mitchell 
bought out Al. Cahn in 1880. The present officers are G. A. Cassil, presi- 
dent; J. A. Mitchell, cashier; E. P. Mitchell, assistant cashier. 

Official statement of the Bank of Carthage, Carthage, Missouri, April 14, 
1883. Resources — Loans, undoubtedly good on personal or collateral secur- 
ity, $1 17,955.06 ; loans and discounts undoubtedly good on real estate security, 
$5,077.33; overdrafts by solvent customers, $2,629.14; other bonds and 
stocks at their present cash market price, $2,000; due from other banks, 
good on sight draft, $64,436.04; real estates at present cash market value, 
$7,029.93; furniture and fixtures, $1,286.67; checks and other cash items, 
$3,127.41; bills of national banks and legal tender United States notes, 
$44,750; gold coin, $10,000; silver coin, $1,225.35; exchange maturing and 
matured, $934.41; total, $260,451.34. Liabilities— Capital stock paid in, 
$20,000; surplus funds on hand, $11,166.51; deposits subject to draft, at 
eight, $207,170.16; deposits subject to draft at given dates, $22,114.67; 
total, $260,451.34. 

Jasper County Bank. — Commenced business in 1876, with M. L. Reid, 
president, and Fred Crocker, assistant cashier. 

The official statement of the financial condition of the Jasper County 
Bank, at Carthage, at the close of business on the 14th of April, 1883: Re- 
sources — Loans, undoubtedly good on personal or collateral security, $36,-' 
646.68; overdrafts by solvent customers, $2,330.93; due from other banks, 
good on sight draft, $19,445.85; furniture and fixtures, $1,000; checks and 
other cash items, $294.32; bills of national banks and legal tender United 
States notes, $20,680; gold coin, $10,000; silver coin, $200; total, $90,- 
497.78. Liabilities — Capital stock paid in, $10,000; surplus funds oq 
hand, $10,441.42; deposits subject to draft at sight, $70,056.36; total, $90,- 
497.78. 

Harrington Hotel. — The Harrington stands on the northeast corner of 
the square on the site formerly occupied by the ^tna House, originally the 
Carthage House, which was the first hotel built in Carthage upon its re-set- 
tlement after the war. The house was built by Charles O. Harrington. The 
dimensions of the building are 96 feet front by 140 long, three stories high, 
and four stories in the center, with an observatory on top. In addition to 
the main building is a two-story kitchen and a one-story sample room, 
which are entered from the office. The office is 36x40 feet; main entrance 
on Third Street, and ladies' entrance on Grant Street; two great stairways 



ClXr OF CARTUAGE. 303 

lead to the upper stories. Each of the rooms are furnished in the best of 
style. The dining-room is 31x62 feet; the main parlor on the second floor 
is 16x24:. All the rooms are large and thoroughly ventilated; bath-rooms 
are on the second and third floors. A splendid basement underlies the 
entire building. All the conveniences to be found in the best hotels of the 
larger cities are supplied to the Harrington. Mr. E. K^ Criley is the pro- 
prietor. He placed about $10,000 worth of furniture in the seventy rooms 
of the grand structure, and announced the formal opening to take place on 
the twenty-eighth of September, 1882. Quite a large crowd assembled, and 
the pleasures of the evening will not soon be forgotten by those who were 
present at the luxuriant banquet and ball. 

Kaer Hotel, southwest corner of Main Street and Central Avenue, was 
opened on Thanksgiving Day, 1878, with a banquet and ball. The building 
is a neat, substantial brick structure, with a front of thirty-six feet on Main 
Street, extending back eighty feet. It is three stories high, with a basement 
under nearly the entire building. It was built by J. C. Karr, of Parsons, 
Kansas. George W. Rose was the first proprietor; he was succeeded by 
0. B. Karr, and then by Joe Henson, who has control at present, with A. J. 
Gibson as chief clerk. There are thirty-two sleeping rooms in this building 
beside the spacious bar-room, dining-room, and kitchen, all well furnished. 

The City Hotel.— This hotel was opened March 10, 1879, b}' Messrs. "War- 
ner, Smith & Co. A large number of guests were present to partake of the 
bounteous hospitality of the house, and all enjoyed the occasion. Thehouseis 
a substantial brick building, 35x70 feet, two stories high, with a basement the 
entire width of the building, extending fifty feet back and ten feet under the 
sidewalk, making a cellar capacity of 35x60 feet. The first floor is divided 
into an oflice and dining-room, and in the rear are kitchens, etc. The sec- 
ond floor is occupied by a parlor and bed-rooms, all well furnished. 

The French House, situated one block south of the square on Main Street. 
Mrs. Nellie French, proprietor, keeps an average of twenty-five boarders. 
Formerly kept transient, but of late years is confined to regular boarders. 

There are some other hotels and boarding houses, but space forbids an 
extended account of each. 

The Spring River House is situated on Main Street, three blocks north of 
the public square. 

The Pacific House is in the northwestern part of town, near the Missouri 
Pacific Railroad depot. 

The LaForoe House is on Main Street, one block south of the public 
square. 



30i HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Mrs. Gray operates a hotel or transient boarding-house one block south of 
the southeast corner of the square. 

Andrew Spear keeps a transient house one block southwest of the square. 

The Opera House is situated on the south side of the public square. It 
was built in 1878 by Messrs. Chaffey and Burlingame. The building is 
55x100 feet, and it is 44 feet from the pavement to the top of the wall. 
The first floor is used for sales-rooms; the height of the first story is fourteen 
feet. The second floor, or opera-house proper, is used exclusively as a city 
hall; it occupies the full length and width of the building, and is eighteen 
feet from floor to ceiling. The stairway leads up to the hall from the front 
of the building. The furniture with which this hall is furnished cost no 
less than $1,000, all told. It contains about 600 chairs and six changes of 
scenery, with two drop curtains. Mr. Burlingame informs us it can be ar- 
ranged to seat 900 persons, and there has been over 1,000 persons in the 
hall at one time. 

Armory Hall was built by Timothy Kegan about 1868. It occupies 
the third story of all the building on the west side of the public square 
known as Regan's Block. This hall is 60x70 feet; it was known as Regan's 
Hall until September 29, 1880; the Light Guards rented it to use as an ar- 
mory, and since that time has been known by the present name. 

Carthage Woolen Mills. — These mills have a double history, as the pres- 
ent company is entirely new and distinct from the original corporation pre- 
vious to the tire, January 24, 1882. The mills were originally built by 
William Myers & Son, in 1870, and was a tine three-story brick, 40x80 
feet, embracing two sets of machinery and thirty looms. They nianufictured 
jeans, tweeds, blankets, and yarn. The business was conducted success- 
fully for ten years, when Mr. Myers retired from the woolen business, 
leaving the care and business responsibility to his son. His son soon 
disposed of his interest to other parties. It lay idle for some time, until it 
burned down at the time mentioned. The present company, composed of 
the following gentlemen: Frank Hill, H. C. Oowgill, J. A. Mitchell, and J. 
W. Young, bought the old franchise, charter, and real estate October 25, 
1882. The cost of rebuilding and machinery will be upwards of $75,000. 
At present there are being put in sixty looms, of the Crompton manufac- 
ture, of Wocester, Massachusetts, and the full capacity is nearly double this 
number. There are two sets of sixty-inch cards, and the spinning capacity 
of 1,296 spindles. At the opening they will confine their business to jeans, 
and later contemplate making blankets, yarns, and flannels. It is only due 
to this enterprising firm to say that they have one of the finest rooms east 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 



305 



or west for this business, and it is as well a great addition to Carthage as a 
commercial enterprise. 

The Carthage City Mills, familiarly known as Cowgill's and Hill's, was 
built in 1874 and 1875, and commenced operations in the early part of the 
year 1875; the size of the mill is 26x48 feet, and the size of the elevator 
adjoining is 24x30. The mill contains six run of burs ^nd has the capacity 
to grind 800 to 1,000 bushels qf wheat per day. The power running the 
machinery is furnished by four large turbine wheels of from twenty to forty 
horse power each. The elevator is constructed of very heavy timbers. The 
first floor is arranged for an office and wareroom, and the remainder of the 
five stories is divided into four bins, capable of containing 3,000 bushels of 
wheat each, altogether 12,000 bushels. The walls are built of two by six 
inch lumber, spiked one upon the other, making a solid six-inch wall; the 
walls are held firmly together by inch rods of iron running each way 
through the building, four feet apart. The cost of the mill and elevator is 
about $35,000. 




Eagle Mills, situated on the northeast corner of Main Street and Central 
Avenue, is operated by T. T. Lnscombe&Co. The work is confined to hom- 
iny grits, pearl meal, and corn meal. Capacity on hominy is twenty-five bar- 
rels per day; corn meal forty barrels per day; grits and pearl meal twenty- 
five barrels per day. The building is a two story frame structure with 
basement under the entire building. The value of the establishment is 
about $10,000. 
20 



306 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 



Globe Mills. — This mill is situated on Garriston Avenue, two blocks north 
of the square. It commenced operation November 21, 1870; and was built by 
S. H. Thomas & Co. The size of the main part is 35x50 feet, four stories high; 
the stories respectively from bottom up being nine, twelve, fourteen, and 
thirteen feet high. The engine-room attached to the main part is 20x42 
feet. In 1880 it was sold to Cowgill & Hill, under whose charge it is now 
operated. It started with four run ot burs, and the latter company put in 
one more set of burs. It is now being remodeled and will have live sets 
double rolls, and three sets burs; the capacity will then be about 150 bar- 
rels per day. 

Carthage Spring Mills, situated near the big spring, in the northwest- 
ern part of town, were built in 1868-69, costing $12,000. They were built by 
Peter Smith, and were sold to another man, and he sold to "William Myers; 
the}' contain four run of burs, with a capacity of fifty barrels per day. The 
machinery is run by steam, it is supplied with all the modern appliances, So 
they are able to make three grades of flour at one grind. 

Missouri Woolen Mills built in 1882 by William B, Myers. The build- 
ing is 45x140 and two stories high. The basement is stone and used for a 
wool and engine-room, and the second devoted to weaving and spinning. 
The cost of the building and machinery is $25,000, and twenty-five hands 
are given employment; 3,000 yards are manufactured a week. The loca- 
tion of the Missouri Woolen Mills is on the corner of Limestone and 
Maple pItppI-s. 




CARTHAGE FOUNDRY AND MACHINE SHOP. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 



307 



Carthage Foundry and Machine Company. The shops belonging to the 
aforesaid company are situated on the corner of Garrison Avenue and Jop- 
lin Street; the company was established about 1870, but was not incorporated 
until 1878, by a stock company, with a capital of $20,000. Tliis company 
manufacture steam engines, steam pumps, and all kinds of mining and mill- 
ing machinery, and such work as is generally done at foi.ndry and machine- 
shops. The stock has increased since its organization until now it is valued 
at $40,000, just double the original stock. The shop is constantly running 
with a force of from twenty to twenty-live hands. The company is going to 
build an addition to the present building, thus enabling them to work a 
force of about fifty hands. The officers at present are "William 'McMillan, 
president; J. J. Squire, superintendent; E. W. Barnes, secretary and treas- 
urer. 




home lumber yard, CARTHAGE, MISSOURI. 

Carriage and Buggy Manufactory. — Charles Brown, propietor; shop 
on northeast corner of square. This shop works twelve men in the manufac- 
tory of buggies and carriages. In 1882 the sales amounted to about $8,000. 
The same year he turned on 100 pieces of work. Beside this they do repair 
work; some pieces bring $100; shops cover 100 feet square. 

Mervin & Lanpher have recently opened a shop, one block west of the 
northwest corner of the square, where they build wagons, carriages, buggies, 
etc., making a speciality of light work. These shops apparently do a good 
business, and some of the implement merchants also sell many wagons and 



308 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

buggies from the eastern markets. One firm informs us they sell from six 
to eight car loads of buggies and carriages per year. 

Lumber Yards. — S. A. Brown & Co., on Main Street, one block north of 
square, carry an average stock of eight or ten thousand dollars. Average 
from seventy-five to one hundred car loads of lumber per year, from Chicago, 
St. Louis, Hannibal, and some other points. Average amount of business 
per year, $30,000 to $40,000. 

F. Huggins, northeast corner of the public square, dealers in lumber, 
lath, doors, sash, and blinds. These yards cover about one-half square, and 
contain a good stock of such goods as are generally kept in a first-class 
yard. 

Home Lumber Company, corner of Main Street and Central Avenue. 
This yard covers 200 feet square. They keep a good assortment of all lum- 
ber, and ship from Hannibal and Chicago seventy-five to one hundred car 
loads per year. This company has nine other similar yards; headquarters 
at Nevada. 

Stone Quarries. — There is much good limestone for building, paving, and 
flagging obtained near town. The Garner quarry, on Kendrick's farm, one 
mile north of town, is operated by the Gilfillan Stone Company, of Fort 
Scott, Kansas. They ship to St. Louis, and it is said to be a popular stone 
in that market. They are putting in new machinery, which will enable 
them to ship a car load each day. 

Lamb's quarries are worked by J. McNamara. Gates & Merton are 
working a quarry one and on-e-fourth miles northwest of town, and just 
across the road is one worked by Mr. McDanavin. The last three men- 
tioned find sale for most of their stone near home. 

There are two brick-kilns near town, located near the St. Louis & San 
Francisco K. R. depot. One is operated by Mr. Wheeler, and the other by 
the McNerney Bros. 

Garner's limekiln is located at the Garner quarries, a mile and a quarter 
north of town. Mr. Garner bnrns the spauls that are left after the Gilfillan 
Stone Company take the stone suitable for shipping. 

Hub & Hill have a limekiln near the Frisco depot, and within about 200 
yards of this is another, worked by the McCord Bros. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 309 



CHAPTER XYIL— SOCIAL DEYELOPMENT. 

Free Masons, No. 197 — Odd Fellows — The Encampment — Knights of Pythias — A. 0. U. W. 
— Knights of Honor — Endowment Society — Grand Army of the Republic, Stanton Post, 
No. 16 — Silver Spring Lodge, No. 36 (colored) — Carthage Light Guard — Carthage 
Literary Soicieties, Alpha, Shakespeare, ^'N. N. C," Chautauqua — Carthage Literary 
Association. 

The Queen City of Carthage is not behind her sisters in secret and be- 
nevolent societies. Not onlj are the oldest organizations, like the Masons 
and Odd Fellows, represented, but the strongest and most popular orders or 
associations which have sprung into existence and become powerful means 
for good, in the past fifty years, are equally well represented. From the best 
information that can be gained, every one of the bodies in this city is in a 
flourishing condition, with the exception of one or two, which have not yet 
been founded long enough to grow so strong that they can combat and 
overcome all circumstances. There are many widows and orphans in this 
city to-day who are living in quiet comfort — the mother with means to as- 
sist and educate her children, and the children with homes where they can 
remain until they have gained a common school training, or learned a busi- 
ness or trade, whereby they can support themselves — who have got their 
means from the treasury of the secret and benevolent societies. The scru- 
pulous care with which the insurance and relief features of the societies have 
been conducted in this city has attracted the attention of many non -society 
men. 

Below will be found a complete list of benevolent, secret, social, national, 
military, and miscellaneous organizations in the city. Each one has re- 
ceived such mention as the scope and chapter will permit of, and the length 
and minuteness of historical details have been governed by the age, char- 
acter, strength, of the body or order. 

Carthage Lodge, ISFo. 197, A. F. <& A. J/., by authority of the Grand 
Lodge of Missouri, A. F. & A. M., was organized March 27, 1867, U. D., 
by order of Rev. John D. Yincil, grand master of Masons for the state of 
Missouri, dated February 8, A. D. 1867, A. L. 5867, to Griffith M. Robin- 
son, Josiah C. Gaston, Obed D. Stinson, Amos H. CafFee, Josiah Lane, Ja- 
cob E. Dawson, Norris C. Hood, and Hannibal W. Shanks, under instruc- 
tions from George Frank Gouley, grand secretary, to Arch M. Long, D. D. 
G. M., Fourteenth District of Missouri, and he to Brother Griffith M. Rob- 
inson, Carthage Lodge, U. D., assisted by Brothers Josiah C. Gaston, S. 
W., and O. D. Stinson, J. "W., and Brothers ISTorris C. Hood, treasurer; Jo- 
siah Lane, secretary; David K. Hood, S. D.; John Reynolds, J. D.; A. M. 



310 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Drake, tjler, and the following brethren: John C. Willoughby, Richard 
Thornton, Jacob Rankin, Alfred B. Hendrick, E. W. Harper, Charles Hig- 
bee, Franklin Sides, Henry H. Hess, and James Beard. Tlie charter was 
dated October 19, 1867. Masters: Griffith M. Robinson for 1867-68, Josiah 

C. Gaston, 1868-69; Peter K. Beard, 1869-70-71; Amos H. Caffee, 1871-72 
and 1880; Lyman J. Burch, 1872-73; Josiah Lane, 1873-74; John T. Ruffin, 
1875-76 and 1881: Charles C. Allen, 1877; Jnlins Cahn (deceased), 1878; 
Thos. Buckbee, 1879; Peter K. Beard, 1882-83. 

Odd Fellows.— Carthage Lodge, No. 171, organized May 20, 1868; 
present membership, 95. N. G., A. G. Milless; secretary, D. A, Smith. 
It was organized by Lyman J. Burch, I. N. Lamb, J. Gabriel, T. M. Gar- 
land, and J. C. Gaston, who were the charter members. At the jBrst or- 
ganization they held their meetings in the Masonic Hall, holding sessions 
here about four years. Subsequently they rented a room known as Grif- 
fith's Hall for three years; then three years in a room over Drake's store. 
They have been in their present hall, built especially for their use in Har- 
rington's block, some three years. It is a finely furnished room, 23x85 feet, 
and makes a convenient place of meeting. The amount paid for relief of 
brothers was $30 in 1868, and the amount paid in 1882 was $222.50; relief 
of the orphans of deceased members, |96; widows, $48.50, The assets of 
the lodge are $875. * 

Carthage Encampment, No. 50, organized December 18, 1871. The 
charter members are Riley J. Bliss, W. C. Wood, J. P. C. Langston, J. W. 
Gilbert, Simon Bistline, Jacob Block, and D. A. Smith. The membership 
is fifty-seven. Money belonging to this order loaned is $450. 

Knights of Pythias, Phoenix Lodge, No. 81, organized February 22, 
1883; present membership, twenty-four. W. W. Calhoun, C. C; F. S. 
Myers, K. of P. and S. Charter members: A. W. Rogers, T. A. Rogers, J. M. 
White, II. C. Lathshaw, W. J. Kinsello, R. W. Crandall, E. H. Prosser, T. 
H. Marshall, R. M. Sharp, A. B. Vogel, J. W. Halliburton, P. S. Dins- 
more, J. P. Kinsello, E. W. Doane, T. J. Roundtree, N. A. Floyd, H. M. 
Gray, H. Moehle, T. C. Canaday, and A. H. Myers. This lodge meets 
every Thursday evening in the Odd Fellows' Hall. 

A. 0. U. if:, Carthage Lodge, No. 47, organized in 1877, J. R. Shields, 
M. W.; A. B. Yogle, recorder. The charter members are Thos. Buckbee, 

D. A. Smith, John Bottenfield, A. H. Cafiee, Warren Woodward, J. M. 
Jenkins, D. S. Thomas, and A. Cahn. Meets in the Odd Fellows' Hall on 
the first and third Wednesdays of each month. Present membership, fifty- 
six. 

Knights of Honor. — Carthage Lodge, K. of H., was instituted February 8, 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 



311 



1882, J. M. White, dictator; M. J. McClerg, reporter. Tlie charter mem- 
bers are A. W. Rogers, T. A. Rogers, W. W. Caliioon, L. E. Whitney, 
Chas. Brown, H. C. Warner, D. M. Simons, B. F. Vannatter, H. S. Graves, 
W. B. Hubbard, Jolm Kissinger, J. M. Johnson, A. J. Papp, and M. B. 
Clajbangh. Meets second and fourth Wednesday night in every month in 
Odd Fellows Hall. 

Endowment Section of Knights of Pythias, No. 318, organized July 15, 
1879. Present membership, thirty-six. President, Frank Welch; secre- 
tary and treasurer, T. A. Rogers. 

Grand Army of Repuhlic, Stanton Post N'o. 16. — Perhaps this organi- 
zation is less understood than few others, and its claims upon the admira- 
tion of a loyal people more deserved. Only those who wore the "blue," 
either on sea or land are eligible to this craft, who served their country 
in the last war; consequently, its days are numbered with the natural 
life of the union patriots. It is organized to perpetuate the brother- 
hood of loyalty among our greatly respected soldier}'. Each local order is 
named in honor of some deceased military, naval, or civic official, and this 
one, " No. 16," is in honor of the late Secretary Stanton, ex Secretary of 
War. It was organized and mustered by Major William Warner, depart- 
ment commander of the G. A. R. for the State of Missouri, July 19, 1882. 
It is composed at present of seventy members, taken only from Union 
soldiers and marines of the late war for the suppression of the Rebellion. 
The following is a list of the charter members: 



NAME. 



REGIMENT. 



COMPANY, 



RANK. 



Thomas Buckbee 
G. M. Hurley... 
W. S. Bower.... 
T. A. Wakefield . 
C. P. Phillips. .. 
H. Armstrong. . . 
Bennett Hall. 
Amos H. Caffee. . 
Benton Tuttle. .. 

Frank Hill 

Jesse Rhoads. ... 
E. J. Montague.. 
A. Pettyjohn .... 
J. W. Burch.,.. 

S.S.Riley 

E. R. Wheeler. . . 
J. P. Hubbart. . . 
A. B. Parkell... 



13th Missouri Cav.. . . 

Medical Staff 

U. S. Navy 

8th Mo. Cav 

nth U.S. 0)1. Inft... 

2d Mass. Cav 

129th Illinois Infantry. 

13th Kas. Inf 

1st N. Y. S. S 

5th Mass. Yol 

30th III. Inf. Yol 

9th 111. Inf. Yol 

88th Ind. Inf. Yol ... . 

107th 111. Inf 

23d Ind. Inf 

22d 111. Inf 

2d III Cav 

4th Iowa Cav 



Co. B. 



Co. A. 
Co. A. 
Co. A. 
Co. E. 



Co. H. 
Co. H. 
Co. B. 
Co. E. 
Co. E. 
Co. C. 
Co. E. 
Co. A. 



2d Lieut 

Ass't Surgeon 
Quarter gunner 

1st Lieut 

Private 

Captain 

Sergeant 

Surgeon 

Private 

Private 

Corporal 

2d Sergeant. . . 
Private. .... . . 

Private 

Private 

Private 

Private 

Major 



312 



HISTOR\ OF JASPER COUNTY, 



NAME. 



REGIMENT. 



COMPANY. 



RANK. 



Dr. Miller 

J. (t. Irwin 

J. PI. Coffman . . . . 

M. Shupert 

H. Hubbart..... . 

R'L. Galbreath. . 
Theo. F. Gray .... 

J. H. Ralston .... 

A. J. Crandall., . . 
Walter Benedict. . 
R. G. Seawell .... 

J. E. Twitchell... 

A. F. Lewis 

John C. Gill 

G. Rose 

Charles Pool 

Sam. Wetzel . . . . 
John T. Hodsheir. 

E. Edwards 

J. C. Bridges 

Charles Bovard.. . 
Josiah Tilden. . . . 

C. W. Botkiu 

H. P. Sloan 

E. C Stephenson. 
Andrew Russell . . 
W. O. Robinson . . 



9th Ind. Inf. . . 
18th Ohio Inf. 
126th 111. Inf... 
24th Ohio Inf. . 

2d 111. Cav 

14th Penn. Cav, 
169th Ohio Inf. 
16th III. Inf. . . . 
51st Wis. Inf... 
100th 111. Inf. . . 
100th 111 Inf. . . 
6th Mo. Inf. ... . 
13th Kas. Inf... 
40th 111. Inf. . . . 
15th III Cav.... 
24th Ind. Inf. . . 
29th Ind. Inf. . . 

4th Mo. Cav 

12tli Mo. Inf. .. 
21st 111. Inf.. ... 
nth Penn. Inf. . 

U. S. A. 

1st Alb. Cav 

74th III. Inf. . . . 
36th Wis. Inf... 
14th Iowa Inf. . . 
16tli Iowa Inf . . 



Co. H. 

Co. K. 
Co. B. 
Co. D. 
Co. F. 
Co. L. 
Co. 1. 
Co. A. 
Co. C. 
Co. B. 
Co. D. 
Co. E. 
Co. I. 
Co. B. 
Co. G. 
Co. B. 
Co. B. 
Co. E. 
Co. c. 
Co. K. 
Co. G. 



Co. II. 
Co. C. 
Co. D. 
Co. I. 
Co. F. 



Corporal.. . . 
1st Lieut. . . 
2d Lieut.. . 

Private 

Private 

2d Sergeant. 
2d Sergeant. 

Private 

Private 

Private. . . . 
Corporal.. . . 
Corporal. . . 
Lieutenant.. 
Private .... 

Private 

Corporal . . . . 
Captain. . . 
Private .... 
Private .... 
Private. . . . 
Private .... 
Paymaster. . 
Private. . . . 
Captain .... 

Private 

Private .... 
2d Sergeant. 



The present officers are as follows: Jesse Rhoads, post commander; A. 

B. Parkell, senior vice post commander; J. M. Hurley, junior vice post 
commander; Amos H. Caffee, surgeon; Sam. E. Wetzel, officer of day; W. 

C. Shupert, officer of guards; W. S. Bower, adjutant; J. G. Irwin, chaplain; 
R. Wheeler, quartermaster. This organization meets on the first, third, 
and fifth evenings of each month in the Odd Fellows Hall, using Cushing's 

.Manual of Rules of Order. 

Silver Spray Lodge {Colored), No. 36. — The first records we find of this 
lodge are dated August 9, 1880, "opening in the first degree of Masonry 
with ten members." The followins: is a list of officers and charter mem- 
bers: Peter Emerson, S. W. ; Wm. H. Hansford, J. W.; R. T. Gore, treas- 
urer; J. M. Kelly, S. D. ; Cyrus Lanagon; H. Harkin, tyler; J. Garnet, S. 
C; J. Campell; J. Adams, J. C; D. Grammon, J. D.; R. Adams; W. M. 
Barker, secretary. 

Carthage Light Guard. — Carthage can boast of the best military com- 
pany in the Southwest, composed of young men of the best social and busi- 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 313 

ness standing in the city, and a more manly and soldierly bearing is seldom 
met with in any class. To cherish, encourage and aid in the maintenance 
of such an organization, becomes the duty and privilege of every worthy 
citizen. The Carthage Light Guard was organized January 3, 1876, with 
thirty-two members. The meeting for this purpose was held at Regan's 
Hall with Thos. B. Tuttle as permanent president, Jessie Rhoads as perma- 
nent secretary and Lewis Miller, treasurer. ' 

The names of those who enrolled at that meeting are: Miles Mix, T. B. 
Haugiiawout, C. P. Ball, Eber Budlong, Joseph W. Hall, John A. Hardin, 
E. P. Cassil, L. M. Miller, J. B. LaForce, W. K. Caftee, Charles Brown, C. 
E. Matthews, Albert Cahn, Julius Maas, James Deagan, Wm. P. Brobeck, 
W. B. Farwell, R. P. Cassil, M. P. Keim, B. F. Gunnison, John M. Law- 
rence, Chas. H. Murray, T. Wakefield, Warren Woodward, Frank Chaffee, 
W. M. Myers, John F. Grubbs, John N. Wilson, Robert Mitchell, Thomas 
B. Tuttle, Jesse Rhoads, W. B. Myers. At the same meeting the several 
company officers were elected as follows: captain, Benjamin F. Garrison; 
first lieutenant, Albert Cahn; second lieutenant, John A. Hardin; first ser- 
geant, James Deagan. On January 7th, 1876, a voluminous constitution and 
bj'-laws was adopted, and fourteen more men were enrolled as members of 
the company as follows: Robert C. Friend, Chas. O. Harrington, Frank 
Beebe, M. Wilson, C. C. Crippen, W. H. Smith, A. W. Onstott, R. T. Sit- 
terley, C. B. Stickney, F. S. Yager, Edward Hilliard, Chas. Hubb, A. M. 
Hurtj^ and James A. Bolen. At this meeting the following appointments 
were made which completed the official roll of the company: second ser- 
geant, W. K. Caffee; third sergeant, J. M. Lawrence; fourth sergeant, T. B. 
Tuttle, fifth sergeant, Eber Budlong. -Corporals: L. M. Miller, C. H. Mur- 
ray, W. B. Myers, Jesse Rhoads, W. P. Brobeck, Chas. Brown, T. B, 
Haughawout, and E. P. Cassil. 

On January 22d, 1876, the company was mustered into the Missouri state 
militia service, since which time the organization has been a fixture, at the 
present, however, attaining to its greatest influence and importance. Neat 
gray uniforms and the best Springfield breech-loading rifles, witli all other 
necessary equipments, render them fully prepared for duty at short notice. 
During the captaincy of B. F. Garrison the citizens presented the Guard 
with a neat flag, and two years ago they were given a beautiful blue silk 
banner by the ladies of Carthage. 

After the resignation of Garrison, Thos. B. Tuttle was commissioned cap- 
tain of the company. The Guard has given annual balls on the 22d of Feb- 
ruary, some of which have been brilliant aflfairs, rivaling all similar enter- 
tainments in the Southwest. They have attended quite a number of parades 
and celebrations in other towns. The first at^ Kansas City, July 4, 1880, 



314 - HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

the occasion of the visit of Gen. Grant. The second trip was to the Joplio 
Fair the same fall. On Decoration Day, 1881, they attended the celebration 
at Fort Scott. For four days, including July 4, 1881, a camp was pitched 
at Cassil's Garden just west of Carthage, consisting of the Mayor's Guard 
and Branch Guard of St. Louis, Parsons' Light Guard, and Company F, of 
Fort Scott. The next trip was to Cherryvale, Kansas, in September, 1881. 
They made another visit to Fort Scott, Decoration Day, May, 1882, and the 
same year attended the fourth of July celebration at Joplin. A few weeks 
after the visit of the St. Louis companies, Captain Wm. Bull and Sergeant 
F. L. Garesche came to this city and presented the Carthage Guard with a 
seventy-live dollar gold medal. 

The following names constitute the complete roster of officers and soldiers 
who at present belong to the company: W. K. CafFee, captain; C. O. Har- 
rington, first lieutenant; A. M. Hurty, first sergeant; J. W, Halliburton, 
second sergeant; E. P- Cassil, third sergeant; Frank S. Myers, first corporal; 
W. A. Williams, second corporal; E. C. Crow, third corporal; G. H* 
Thomas, fourth corporal; D. B. Hart, fifth corporal; Charles Hout, sixth 
corporal and color-bearer. Privates: B. B. Allen, O. Beeson, D. W. Brown, 
George Cleveland, Dave Damon, Paul Davy, James Deagan, A. B. Deutsch, 
H. M. Gray, Chas. Hubb, Ernest Jacobs, Frank Lamb, John Long, M. J. 
McClurg, Robert Mitchell, H. Montague, W. H. Myers, Geo. Nefl", R. H. 
Parr, Pual Parker, Will Powell, R. G. Smith, and H. A. Wolcott. 

The members of the Light Guard Band are J. Henry Doyle, teacher and 
leader; W. H. Akens, solo B flat cornet; P. P. Buell, first B flat cornet; 
Otto Peterson, E flat cornet; T. J. Rountree, solo alto; John Glass, first 
alto; Charles Stemmets, second alto; A. G. Griffith, second B flat tenor; 
Chas. Randall, baritone; Thos. Kendrick, bass; Rit Myers, tenor drum; 
Chas. Sandige, bass drum. 

Carthage Literary Soeieties. — Within the last few years the ladies of 
Carthage have organized several literary societies, among which are the Al- 
pha Society, Mrs. A. Williams, president; The Shakesperian Society, Mrs. 
A. M. Drake, president; the "N. N. C," Mrs. M. E. Dickey, president, and 
the Chatauqua. These societies have stated times of meeting, rules to govern 
them in their deliberations, and a specific object to attain social culture and 
literary attainment. They have recently organized a general society for 
mutual benefit called the Carthage Literary Association. This association 
is composed wholly of ladies, no gentlemen being allowed to participate in 
its deliberations. An election of officers was held May 30, 1883, and resulted 
as follows: Mrs. S, M. Dickey, president; Mrs. A. M. Drake, first vice-presi- 
dent; Mrs. T. IST. Davy, second vice-president; Mrs. E. PL Williams, secre- 
tary; Mrs. J. D. Clarkson, treasurer. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 



315 



CHAPTER XVIIL— CARTHAGE BUSINESS DIRECTORY. 



Abbott, Joe., foreman Transcript. 
Albangh, Moses, painter. 
Allen, C. C, boots and shoes. 
Applegate, Miss L., dress-maker. 
Armstrong, C. B., book-keeper. 

Barnes, E. W., Sec'j foundry. 
Barratt, Joseph, news agent. 
Barron, W. M., groceries. 
Bartlett, C. L., grocer. 
Bartlett, T. W., dry goods. 
Becktel, Wm., shoemaker. 
Beem, H. L., eclectic pliysician. 
Betts, Jas. P., attorney at law. 
Bistline, S., contractor and builder. 
Blair, R. C, attornej' at law, 
Blakeney, Geo., dep. county col. 
Blewett, J. F., druggist and chemist. 
Bliss, D. J., pumps, wind-mills, etc. 
Block, Jacob, groceries, hides, etc. 
Block, Moses, groceries, hides, etc. 
Bodenhammer, J. A., editor Press. 
Bottenfield, J. L., freight transfer. 
Bower, Wm. S., judge county court. 
Brader, H. E., gas and steam fitter. 
Brewer, B. J., blacksmith. 
Brinkerhoff, W. E., pres. Trad's B'k. 
Brooks, R. F., physician and surgeon. 
Brown. Chas., carriage factory. 
Brown, Dan. W., attorney at law. 
Brown, E. O., attorney at law. 
Brown, L. F., groceries and books. 
Bnckbee, Thos., deputy sheriff. 
Buller, R. F., attorney at law. 

Caffee, Dr. Amos II., druggist. 

Caffee, W. K., druggist. 

Cahn, Albert, clothier, merch. tailor. 



Calhoon, W. W., book keeper. 
Carlson, John, carpenter. 
Cams, J. J., proprietor of medicine. 
Carpenter, S. D., editor Patriot. 
Carson, "W. S., county treasurer. 
Carter, J. A., phys. and surgeon. 
Carter, J. E., groceries. 
Carver, W. L.. Carthage Gas Co. 
Carver, A. G., stoker, gas company. 
Casey, J., bakery and ice cream. 
Cassil, Ed., bank of Carthage. 
Castor, R. J., photographer. 
Castor, W, H., photographer. 
Chase, D. S., Ins. and real estate. 
Church, Joseph, saloon. 
Clarkson, J. D., farm machinery. 
Clark, Mrs. M. M., millinery bazaar. 
Collins, C, clerk Harrington house. 
Cormack, W. A., phys. and surgeon. 
Costello, J. K., art gallery. 
Cowgill, H. C, Carthage City Mills. 
Cox, Geo. W., merchant tailor. 
Crandall, H. C, livery and feed stable 
Cravens, Joseph, attorney at law. 
Criley, A. H., cl'k Harrington house. 
Criley, E. K.,pro. Harrington house. 
Crocker, Fred, cashier Jas. Co. B'k. 
Crothers, Dr. W. H., druggist. 
Crippen, C. C, boots and shoes. 
Cunningham, G. P., loan agent, etc. 

Daugherty, J. F., county collector. 
Davis, A., grocer. 
Davis, I. S. telegraph operator. 
Deal, T. "W., drugs and books. 
Dickenson, G., millinerj^ and ex. agt. 
Deutsch, A. B., clothier, mer. tailor. 



316 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 



Devore, E. C, attorney at law. 
Dingle, Thomas, furniture. 
Drake, A. M., hardware. 

Edwards, J. D., boots and shoes. 
Ellison, A. B., telegraph office. 
Emry, A. C. agricultural implem'ts. 

Farmer, E., gunsmith. 
Faust, J. S., Singer M'f'g Co. 
Ferguson, G., wagon and blacksmith. 
Fields, J. G., refreshment stand. 
Flannagan, John H., atty. at law. 
Floyd, ]Sr. A., jewelry and music. 
Foland, Wm., refreshment stand. 
Forbes, D. C, book-k'r R. H. Rose. 
Foster, B. F., groceries. 
Frankenberger, J., fruit stand. 
Franks, J. H., school commissioner. 
French, Mrs., prop. French House. 
Frick, J., confections and ice cream. 

Galbroath, R. L., phys. and surg. 
Garland, T. M., city clerk. 
Gardner, Chas., restaurant. 
Gerkey, Lewis, boots and shoes. 
Gessell, E. E., baker with Casey. 
Gibson, A. J., clerk Karr House. 
Goldstein, A. H., clothier. 
Goldstein, S., clothier. 
Good, J. B., book-keeper. 
Gore, Philip, grocer and baker. 
Goucher, D. R , president bank. 
Gould, Rev. J. E., pas. Cong, church. 
Gray, T. E. real estate agent. 
Green, J. L., real estate agent. 
Green, W. T., atty. at law 
Gregory, A. E., book store. 
Griswold, S. B., grocer. 

Hackney, Ben., dep. county clerk. 
Hall, J. W., groceries and books. 
Halliburton, J. W., atty. at law. 



Haradon, F. F., boots and shoes. 
Harding, H. H., atty. at law. 
Hard wick. Rev. J, B., pas. Bap. ch. 
Harker, Jas., auction house. 
Harrington, C. O., capitalist. 




HARRINGTON HOUSE. 

Haughawout, T. B., pros. att3\ 
Havens, E., refreshment stand. 
Havens, J. W., groceries and feed. 
Heck, J., agt. for harvesters. 
Hedge, F. E., jeweler. 
Hedrick, C. F., deputy sheriff. 
Helt, D. S., carpenter. 
Henley, T.. merchant tailor. 
Henson, J., prop. Karr House. 
Hiatt, L.' D., grocer. 
Hiatt, W. E., grocer. 
Higgins, J. J,, justice of peace. 
Hicks, L. D., dry goods. 
Hill, C. S., foreman Globe Mills. 
Hill, F., pres. woolen mills. 
Hill, G, R., phys. and surg. 
Hill, P., saddles and harness. 
Hill, T., grain and stock dealer. 
Hill, W. B., grain and stock dealer, 
Hoag, M. L., druo; clerk. 
Hobbs, T. B., grocer. 
Hodnett, J. H., telegraph operator. 
Hodshire, J. T., feed store. 
Hodson, I. C, circuit clerk. 
HoUingsworth, H. C, grocer. 



CITY OF CARTUAGE. 



317 



Holt, Thos., grocer. 
Holt, Norman S., grocer. 
Hout, 0. E., meat and produce. 
Hout, H., meat and produce. 
Hubbard, W. B,, agricul implem'ts. 
Huggins, F., lumber yard. 
Humphreys, G. W., cheap cash store. 
Hurley, J. M., furniture. 
Hurty, A. M., druggist. 

Inglis, J. A., jewelry and music. 
Innes, J. M., bakery and restaurant. 
Irwin, J. G., depty sheriff. 
James, M. M., sewing machine agt. 
Jenkins, M. J., agricul implemts. 
Johnson, J. F., boots and shoes. 
Jordan, B. W., confections and fruits. 

Karns. Lewis, gunsmith. 
Kellogg, G. C, marble dealer. 
Kellogg, H. B., marble dealer. 
Kepler, Mrs. E. A., dressmaker. 
Kesweter, C, tobacco and cigars. 
Kilgore, W. H., probate judge. 
Kilmer, Mrs. E. E., milliner. 
Kirke, A. J., jewellei*. 

Knell, E., furniture and undertaker. 
Knepper, J. W., music dealer. 
Knepper, S. W., music dealer. 
Knowland, J., merchant tailor. 
Knight, Rev. W. S., pastor Presbych. 
Koontz, G. W., grocer. 

Lanpher, C, carriage factory. 
Leidy, J., buggies and spring wagons. 
Lewis, A. F., p. m. and ed. Banner. 
Lewis, J. E., blacksmith. 
Lewis, J. W., barber. 
Lindsey, J. T., dentist. 
Lindsey, S. J., dentist. 
Long, Samuel, marble works. 
Low, Samuel A., hardware. 



Luscombe, T. T., mayor. 

Lyon, Mrs. Mary, Spring Riv. House. 

Lyon, M., groceries, hides and wool. 

McBean, A. D., confectioner. 
McBride, A., physician and surgeon. 
McClurg, M. J., dentist. 
McCord, Alonzo, limekiln. 
McCord, Jesse, limekiln. 
McCrillis, Frank, hardware. 
McCrillis, James D., hardware. 
McDaniel, C. W., Telephone Co. 
McDaniel, F. M., Pearl Mills. 
McDaniel, J., clerk at City Hotel. 
McElroy, C. F., dry goods. 
Mclntire, D. "W., livery & feed stable. 
McMillan, Wm., Carthage Foundry. 
McReynolds, S., attorney at law. 
McReady, J. E., woolen mills. 
Marker, Mrs. Lou, human hair goods. 
Mariner, M., agricultural house. 
Martin, B. S., traveling salesman. 
Matthews, L. L, physician. 
Matthews, D., supt. schools. 
Mayerhoff, Julius, book bindery. 
Mayfield, M., saloon. 
Merwin, R. S., carriage factory. 
Metcalf, H. C, miller at Eagle Mills. 
Miller, A., wagon shop. 
Miller, J. E., carpenter. 
Miller, J. W., horseshoeing. 
Miller, W. H., grocer. 
Miller, W. P., market and grocery, 
Mitchell, J. A., cashier Carthage B'k. 
Mitchell, Simeon, stoker gas works. 
Moehla, H. C, fresh meat market. 
Moore, J. L., cashier F. & D. B'k. 
Moore, Mrs. M. J., jnillinery. 
Moore, Robert, Home Lumber Co. 
Morse, W. H., assistant book-keeper. 
Morgan, P. C, barber shop. 



318 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 



Morgan, P. M., barber. 
Morgan, Mrs. M., boarding-house. 
Motherspaw, Wtn., livery stable. 
Montague, E, J., attorney at law. 
Myers, Frank S., gen. ins. agent. 
Myers, Wm., Cartilage Spring Mills. 
Myers, Wra. B., woolen mills. 
Myers, W. H., harness maker. 

Nanson, J. M., grocer. 
Nevins, B, F., telegraph operator. 
Newell, J. P., recorder of deeds. 
Neylon, James, agent Mo. P. R, E.. 

Osborn, George W., architect. 
Otis, B. H., cabinet workman. 

Parr, R,. H., jeweler. 

Parker, Pearl, livery and sale stable. 

Parry, George T., attorney at law. 

Payne, G. W., groceries, etc. 

Perry, Wm., cigars and tobacco. 

Peters, M. W., barber. 

Pettyjohn, A., cheap cash store. 

Phelps, W. H., attorney at law. 

Piatt, C. D., Carthage Plow Factory. 

Plumb, A. R., grocer. 

Pool, Charles, grocer. 

Porter, F. D., grocer. 

Puckett, B., grocer. 

Pii reel 1, Edward, manf. bed springs. 

Purcell, J., manf. steel bed springs. 

Pratt, E., variety store. 

Pratt, P. F., variety store. 

Prosser, Rev. E. H., pastor M. E. ch. 

Quinn, E., grocer. 

Ragland,Eld. N. M., pastor Chris, ch. 

Ragsdale, Mrs. C, dress -making. 

Rainwater, J. D., saloon. 

Rawson, C. B., bookkeeper gas office. 

Read, R. H., dollar store. 

Reid, M. L., Jasper County Bank. 



Richstine, John, plaster ornaments. 
Ridenour, A.M., b'k-kpr woolen mills, 
Roberts, A., agt harvesting machines. 
Roberts, R. M., county sheriff. 
Robertson, E. C, dry goods. 
Roessler, E. E., photographer. 
Roessler, Julius, boots and shoes. 
Rogers, A. W., gen. ag't Ger. Ins. Co. 
Rogers, T. A., general insurance ag't. 
Rose, Grove, meat market. 
Rose, D., groceries, boots and shoes. 
Rose, R. H., dry goods. 
Roschel, W. E., drnggist. 
Ross A., contractor and builder. 
Ross, J. S., contractor and builder. 
Ross, M. C, feed, flour, and produce. 
Ross, S. B., contractor and builder. 
Rountree, T. J., tobacco and cigars. 
Ruffin, J. T., Pearl Flouring Mills. 

St. John, A. W., editor Press. 
Sanders, W. L., grocery and feed store. 
Sanders, J. L., carpenter. 
Sanderson, S., saloon. 
Schifferdecker, Chas., agt for beer. 
Schlect, Jacob, meat market. 
Scott, Fred, jeweler. 
Searle, E. ]*., real estate ag't. 
Seaver, D. W., steam laundry. 
Sennet, J. W., attorney at law. 
Sharp, R. N"., saloon. 
Sheffield, Jennie, millinery. 
Shields, J. R., attorney at law. 
Skelton, Wm., pawnbroker. 
Skews, E., binder, blank book-maker, 
Sloane, H. P., solicitor Banner. 
Sloane, Wm. A., ed. Daily Banner. 
Smith, F. H., painter. 
Smith, W. H., druggist. 
Sonibart, Dr. J. E., druggist. 
Spear, Anderson, confectioner. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 



319 



Spear, Mrs. M. J., milliner, dress-mkr. 
Spence, James, grocer. 
Squire, J. J. Carthage Foundry. 
Stebbins, G. W., coal, sand, and lime. 
Stephens, Wm., printer. Patriot. 
Stephenson, E. C, restaurant. 
Stewart, Rev. O. M., pastor M. E. Ch. 
Stickney, C. B., atty. at law. 
Stiekney, Robert T., atty. at law. 
Stoner, Frank, Frisco baggage. 
Swander, W. H , phys. and surgeon. 
Symons, D. M., Star bakery. 

Taffe, Richard, telegraph operator. 
Tappan, H. A., book-keeper. 
Tatlock, C. E., local ed. Transcript. 
Taylor, L., photographer. 
Thacker, Jesse, hardware. 
Thomas, A. L , atty at. law. 
Thomas, E. A., book-kpr water- works. 
Thomas, B. F., lumber yard. 
Thomas, D. S., pres. water-vvorks. 
Thomas, G. H., book-keeper. 
Thompson, Wm., atty. at law. 
Tower, W. S., real estate agt. 
Turley, Miss L. A., milliner dress-mkr. 

Yallen, Charles, shoemaker. 

Vannatter, B, F., miller. 

Yogel, A. B., bus mangr Transcript. 

Wade, C. G , feed stable. 
"Wagoner, Daniel, phys. and surgeon. 
Wallace, G. W., ag't for havesters. 
Walker, James, groceries and drugs. 
Wallace, Y. A., cash'r Traders Bank. 



Warden, H. B., book-keeper. 
Ward, J. M., Queen City com school. 
Warner, H. C, City Hotel. 
Waters, W. H., farm implements. 
Wells, J. J., grocer. 
Wells, S. S., china and queensware. 
Wheatley, W. A., Huggins' lumber. 
Wheeler, E. R., atty. at law. 
Wheelock, C. A., undertkr, furniture. 
Wheete, A. M., marble works. 
White, D. G., ticket agt Frisco depot. 
White, James M., dentist. 
Whitney, L. E., homeopathic phys. 
Whitsett, J. M., dry goods. 
Wilbur, J. G., baggage Mo. Pacific. 
Willis, H., sewer pipe and drain tile. 
W^illiams, E. H., lumber yard. 
Williams, Justin, book-keeper. 
Williams, S. G., city recorder. 
Wilson, J. N., county clerk. 
Wilson, J. S., deputy county clerk. 
Wittich, L. L., atty. at law. 
Wolcott, H. A., book-keeper. 
Wong, E., Chinese laundry. 
Wood, T. K., livery and sale stable. 

Yager, F. S., atty. at law. 

Yeager, M. S., painter. 

Yoder, Chris. C, blackmith. 

Yost, John, Carthage Wagon-works. 

Young, J., blacksmith. 

Young, J . W., Carthage Woolen Mill. 

Young, L. P., blacksmith. 

Zook, T. L., book-keeper Banner. 



320 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

BIOGKAPHICAL. 



All men cannot be great; each has his sphere, and the success of his life 
is to be measured by the manner in which he fills it. But men may be 
both true and good, may be morally great, for in true living there are no 
degrees of greatness -there is no respect to persons. It is not intended in 
the following pages to include all the several and separate acts of a man's 
life, important or otherwise. The design is to give the merest outline, for 
a complete review of the life and character of the person named would be 
both unwarranted and without general value. The names which follow, 
for the most part, are those of men who have been or are now closel}' iden- 
tified with the interests of the county and their respective townships. The 
sketches of many of the early settlers are found elsewhere in this volume; 
but to have given a sketch of every man in Jasper county would have been 
utterly impossible. If any have been omitted who should have been rep- 
resented, it was more the fault of themselves or their friends than the pub- 
lishers of this work. For the most part those whose sketches follow have 
contributed to the enterprise which the publishers have been able to furnish 
the people. Great care has been taken to give the facts in these sketches as 
they were given to the historian, and if an occasional error is found, it is 
largely due to the incorrect statement of the one who dictated the sketch. 

CHARLES C. ALLEN, ex United States marshal, was appointed to the 
honor and responsibility of this position by President R. B. Hayes, in No- 
vember, 1877, and again re-appointed in March, 1882, by President Chester 
A. Arthur. Owing to ill-health Mr. Allen was led to resign, recommend- 
ing his deputy, J. H. McGee as his successor, who received the appoint- 
ment. For a number of years Mr. Allen has been constantly and labori- 
ously engaged in public life. In the campaign of 1876 he was the nomi- 
nee on the Republican ticket for Lieutenant Governor. In 1870 he was elec- 
ted to the state senate from the sixteenth senatorial district, and was 
chairman of the penitentiary committee. Mr. Charles Allen was born in 
August, 1832, in the State of New York, Orleans county, where his father, 
a lawyer by profession, lived, and died in 1835. His mother removed 
to Stephenson county, Illinois, after his father's death. Our subject 
learned the printer's trade when yet a minor, and started the Savannah 
Register^ and later edited the Dixon Transcript. In 1857 he removed to 
Waverly, Iowa, and engaged in hardware. In 1861 he enlisted in the 
Third Missouri Infantry, and subsequently was commissioned captain in the 
Thirty-fourth Missouri, major, and staff" officer to the state bureau duty, and 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 321 

also acted as provost marshal in St. Lonis. In 1866 he came to Booneville, 
Missouri, and en2:aged in farming, and in 1869 became a citizen of Car- 
thage. Here he has always been largely in public enterprises. He estab- 
lished the first lumber yard, planing mill, and foundry of Carthage. He is 
at present the proprietor of the large boot and shoe house located at the 
southeast corner of the square. Mr. Allen was married in 1854 to Miss 
Harriet E. Bales, of Asbury, Illinois, Mr. Allen is somewhat broken in 
health by close application to business and the untiring application to pub- 
lic life. He is a gentleman highly respected for sterling worth and integ- 
rity among a wide circle of friends in both public and private life. 

CHAKLES L. BARTLETT, merchant. Mr. Bartlett was born in 1832, 
in Green county, New York. His father, Charles, and his mother, who 
was a Lamb, were natives of IS^ew York. Mr. Bartlett first embarked in 
business at Waupaca, Wisconsin, where he remained until 1860, when he 
removed to Denver Cit}^, Colorado, where he engaged in saw-milling and 
monej'-loaning; was also in the banking business. At the first election 
held in that city he was elected county treasurer. In 1866 he came to 
Pleasant Hill, Missouri, where he was in business until 1873, when he went 
to St. Louis and engaged in commission business two years. In 1875 he 
came to Carthage, Missouri, and opened the large grocery and provision 
house, where he has since remained. This is one of the leading houses of 
the city and does a large and prosperous business. Mr. Bartlett was one of 
the original builders and stockholders of the Carthage water-works, and 
now owns one-fourth of the stock. He has been treasurer of this company 
from its formation. He is also a stockholder and director in the Traders' 
Bank, of Carthage. He owns one of the most elegant residences in the city! 
He was married in 1869 to Miss Ellen T. Humphreys, of St. Louis. They 
have four children living. Mr. Bartlett has always voted the Kepublican 
ticket, and is now chairman of the city Republican committee. He is also 
a Mason. 

SHERMAN F. BEEBE was born in Litchfield county, Connecticut, in 
the town of Colebrook, April 19, 1807. At the age of five his father re- 
moved to Chenango county. New York, where he engaged in farming. The 
subject of this sketch was married July 8, 1830, to Phoebe A. Reynolds, 
who was born in Rensselaer county. New York, May 25, 1812. Their chil- 
dren are: Hiukley and Orrin A. Mr. Beebe is a member of the Episcopal 
Church and a member of the Masons. In 1855 he emigrated to Wisconsin 
and Bremer county, Iowa. He came to Missouri in 1866, settling in Cooper 
county, and to Jasper county, in 1871. Mr. Beebe owns a farm of sixty 

21 



322 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

acres, raising 900 bushels of corn; also 100 apple and 300 peach trees. 
There have been good showings of zinc blend and lead in paying quantities, 
the mine lying in the same belt of the Carthage mines, one mile north and 
one and a lialf miles west of Carthage. He enlisted from Iowa, in the 
Thirty-eighth; also two sons in the Ninth Iowa, who were promoted to 
captain and first lieutenant. Mr. Beebe is a grand old gentleman and 
has seen a good deal of the world. 

ELLIOTT A. BISSELL, contractor, builder, and architect, Carthage Mis- 
souri, was born in St. Lawrence county. New York, July 6, 1843, and there 
raised and eductated. He was married September 1, 1872, in Michigan, to 
Nettie Chase, who was born in Michigan in 1853. Their children are: 
Willie, Frank, Pearle, Lula, and Sheraaan. Mr. and Mrs. Bissell are mem- 
bers of the Congregational Church of Carthage. Mr. Bissell enlisted in 
the Sixtieth New York Infantry under Joe Hooker, serving about five years, 
and was at one time a prisoner of war. He is by profession a contractor 
and drafter of specifications for buildings, among which are the Presbyte- 
rian Church, Carthage Mills, the Mitchell Bank Block, and many other 
store buildings and private residences. His place of business is on North 
Main and residence on South Grant Street. Mr. Bissell is a good work- 
man, correct draftsman, and withal a genial and obliging gentleman. Mr. 
Bissell emigrated to Iowa some years ago; and became a citizen of Carth- 
age in 1867, commanding the respect of all, 

SIMON BISTLINE, contractor and builder, was born in Perry county, 
Pennsylvania, January 1, 1842, and there reared and educated. His father 
Benjamin was a farmer, and is still living in the county of Simon's nativity. 
In 1868, December 31, he was married to Nancy Glass, who was born in 
Jasper county, Missouri, December 11, 1846. Their children are: Alice, 
Mary, Benjamin F., Yiola, and Clara. Both Mr. and Mrs. Bistiline are 
members of the Baptist Church, and he is a member of the Odd Fellows. 
He came to Jasper county, Missouri, in 1867, settling in Carthage. He is 
by profession a contractor and builder, and his place of business is located 
on Third Street, near the Harrington Hotel, and his residence on the corner 
of Oak and Orner streets. Mr. Bistline has built some of the best public 
buildings of Jasper county, and first private residences of Carthage, among 
which are the Second Ward school-house, Baptist and M. E. churches, 
Evangelical church of Union township, and Salem church of Jasper town- 
ship, Sarcoxie public school building, and many of the nice residences of the 
of the city. Mr. Bistiline served a regular apprenticeship and is in every 
way a first-class workman, as well as a genial and accomodating gentleman. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 323 

JOSHUA A. BODENHAMER, editor and publisher of the Carthage 
Press, was born in North Carolina, Forsythe county, November 14, 1840, 
and there reared. His father. Rev. David G. Bodenhamer, was a minister 
of the M. E. Church, and a native of the same county, where he was I)orn 
May 15, 1805. He died April 26, 1875. In 1860 the father of tiie 
subject of our sketch became a resident of Mills and Fremont counties, 
Iowa, until 1874, when he came to live with his son Joshua in Carthage. 
He was a man of plethoric mould and great activity, and died from over- 
work, lying in a comatose condition for twenty-four hours previous to his 
death by paralj'sis. Mr. Joshua Bodenhamer learned the printing business 
in Salem, North Carolina, at the Press office, a newspaper caption he per- 
petuates. Mr. Bodenhamer removed to Iowa in 1860, attending the school 
of John Madison, which proved the nucleus of Glenwood Academy. In 
1862 Mr. Bodenhamer crossed the plains, stopping at Denver and Central 
City for a time as foreman of a paper. In 1863 he returned to the states 
and engaged in newspaper work at Forest City, Rockport, Missouri, and 
Nebraska City, Nebraska. In 1865, in company with his father, he bought 
the American Union. In the fall of 1871 he came to Carthage, Missouri, 
and in April, 1872, issued the first number of the PeopWs Press, conduct- 
ing it alone until January, 1882, when he disposed of a half interest to A. 
W. St. John, who is one of the firm and editors. August 18, 1868, he was 
united in marriage to Miss Jennie N. Flanery, who was born in Fremont 
county, Iowa, March 9, 1851, and there raised. They have five children 
whose names are Hattie E., William J., Juuie C. (who died in 1875), 
Joshua E., Marsh A., and David G. Mrs. Bodenhamer is a member of the 
Christian Church. His mother, who is seventy-eight years old, is a help- 
less invalid from paralysis, and makes her home with her son. He was a 
delegate to the Greenback party convention which was held in Chicago in 
June, 1880, and which nominated General James B. Weaver for president. 
Mr. Bodenhamer was the onlv delegate from Missouri who voted for Ben- 
jamin F. Butler. This he did from a sense of duty, and the firm conviction 
that he was the strong man of that party. The Press, of which Mr. Bod- 
enhamer is the representative, is second to no weekly publication of Jasper 
county, either in point of able editorial management or public patronage. 
In politics it may be said to be independent, although supporting and ad- 
vocating the principles of the Greenback party as formulated by the late 
Peter Cooper, its founder. Mr. Bodenhamer is a man of varied experience, 
generous culture, and a pleasing address, rendering him a welcome com- 
panion and a genial, social citizen and gentlemen. 



324 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

JOHN L. BOTTENFIELD, furniture and upholstery dealer, of the 
firm of Leidy & Bottenfield, was born May 19, 1844, in Knox county, Ohio. 
His father, now a resident of Carthage, was a native of Pennsylvania, hav- 
ing settled in Ohio about the year 1818. His mother's maiden name was 
Ellen D. Simons, a native of Ohio, and died in 1880. J. L. Bottenfield 
was reared in the Buckeye State for the most part. In 1867 he immigrated 
to the Southwest and settled in Carthage, Missouri, and for two years he was 
in business with A. M. Drake. In 1861 he crossed the plains, and in 1869 
returned to Ohio, where he married Miss Kebecca E. Baker, of Licking 
county. In December, 1869, he returned to Carthage and again joined Mr. 
Drake in business, with whom he remained till 1871, when he bought the 
Davis & Murphy store of agricultural implements. In the spring of 1872 
he became associated with J. G. Leidy, who was in the furniture business 
on the east side of the square. They conducted both business interests 
until 1874, when they retired from the implement business anc" built the 
furniture factory in connection with two of Mr. Leidy's brothers. Mr. 
Bottenfield has been connected constantly with the business ever since, and 
now owns a two-thirds interest, doing a business of $50,000 per annum. 
Mr. Bottenfield came to Carthage a poor boy, but by industry and perse- 
verance has taken first rank among the solid business men of Carthage. 
He owns a large and elegant residence on the corner of Grant Street and 
Grove Avenue. He has served as city treasurer for two terms with general 
satisfaction. His family is composed of his wife and three children. Mr. 
Bottenfield is now engaged in the transfer and dray business, having sold 
out his interest in the furniture business. 

HENRY BOWMAN, contractor and builder, was born in Eichland 
county, Ohio, December 18, 1828, and was raised there. His father, whose 
name was Peter, was a farmer in Ohio. He was married in November, 
1853, to Adela Canfield, who was born in New York State. Their chil- 
dren's names are as follows: Charles W.,Mary B., Jennie, and two deceased. 
Mr. and Mrs. Bowman are members of the Christian Church, Miss Mary of 
the Congregational, and Charles of tlie Presbyterian Church. Mr. Bowman 
has been a Mason. He immigrated to Marion county, Iowa, in 1840, and 
to Carthage, Missouri, in 1870. He owns a fine farm of 240 acres in Jack- 
sou township. Mr. Bowman is a carpenter by trade, and has built some of 
the best store-rooms of the city. Mr. Bowman resides on Garrison Avenue, 
in Burch and Moore's addition. He enlisted in Company A, of the Four- 
teenth Iowa Infantry, serving his country well. 

WILLIAM E. BRINKERHOFF, president Traders' Bank, was born 
near the city of New York in 1832. His father, John L., and his mother. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 325 

Sophia, nee Piatt, were natives of the same state. "William E. was reared and 
educated at his birth-place. After arriving at his raajorit}' he learned the 
furniture business in New York City. At the breaking out of the war in 
1861 he was one of the first to enlist in General Sickel's Excelsior Brigade, 
in which he served three years as a soldier. Afterwards he was commis- 
sioned quartermaster of the Fifty-sixkli New York Regiment, and served 
until the close of the war. In 1865 he came to Clinton, Missouri, where 
he dealt largely in real estate for many years. He served then as deputy 
circuit clerk and recorder from 1865 to 1867. He was also school com- 
missioner of that county during that time, and did much toward bringing 
out and developing their school system, which is now the pride of the 
county. From 1868 to 1872 he served as county surveyor, and as United 
States commissioner in 1872-73, and was director of public schools at Clin- 
ton from 1872 to 1882, but of late years has given all his time to his ex- 
tensive money-loaning and real estate business, which extends over a large 
portion of southwest Missouri, as well as Kansas. In the spring of 1882 
he, in connection with others, bought the Traders' Bank of Carthage, of 
which he was chosen president. Hereafter this bank office will be head- 
quarters for their real estate and loaning business, although he still con- 
tinues his office at Clinton. Mr. Brinkerhoff was married in September, 
1866, to Miss Eliza Wicks, of Long Island, N. Y. They have six children, 
all daughters, living. Their first child, a daughter, and one son, are dead. 

CHABLES BBOWN, manufacturer of carriages and buggies, began 
business in Carthage in 1878 in company with Jenkins, and later with Gil- 
bert. For the past year he has been alone, and has turned out over eighty 
carriages. His place of business and factory is located at the northeast 
corner of the public square on North Grand Street. Mr. Charles Brown, 
the proprietor and manufacturer, was born in Maine in 1833. His father, 
Calvin, also a native of Maine, is seventy-five years of age, hale and hearty, 
and makes his home with his son. The subject of this sketch was married 
to Kate Dagin in November, 1879. They have one child, Eddie H. Mr. 
Brown is a member of the Knights of Honor, and second lieutenant of 
militia. He came to Jasper county in 1869 from Adrain, Michigan, where 
he had operated in the same business. He worked eight years as journey- 
man after coming to Carthage. Mr. Brown does as fine work as anyone in 
the Southwest, and is building up a prosperous business. 

JUDGE EDMUND O. BROWN was born in the State of New York in 
1849. His father, Morris M. Brown, was a native of New York; also his 
mother, Amanda, nee Slater. Judge Brown was educated at Norwich Acad- 
emy, New York, studied law in Cuba, New York, in 1870 was admitted to- 



326 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

the bar at Buffalo, New York, then came to Lamar, Missouri, and prac- 
ticed law until 1872, when he came to Carthage. In January, 1874, 
he was appointed judge of the court of common pleas to fill the va- 
cancy occasioned by the resignation of Judge Picher. At the following 
election in 1874 he was elected to the same office and served four years, 
after which he formed a co-partnership with the Hon. Wm. H. Phelps, with 
whom he has since been associated in the practice of his profession. This 
firm stands among tlie foremost in their profession in southwestern Missouri, 
enjoy a large practice, and have secured a reputation such as few in their 
profession enjoy. Judge Brown was married in 1875 to Miss Angie Garner, 
of St. Louis, a daughter of I. F. Garner, now^ of this city. They have one 
child. 

WILLIAM H. H. BROWN, wholesale and retail grocer, of Carthage, 
Missouri, was born ten miles north of Warrensburg, Johnson county, Mis- 
souri, November 17, 1840. His father, John Simpson Brown, is a gentle- 
man now seventy-one years old, hale and hearty, and resides on the farm in 
Johnson county, Missouri. He is one of the pioneers of Johnson county, 
settling there in 1828, before the county was organized. He was born in 
North Carolina, but raised chiefly in Kentucky. The son and subject of 
this sketch was married August 20, 1861, to Emma R. Cleavland, who was 
born in Kentucky in 1836, but lived the greater portion of her younger days 
in Johnson county, Missouri. The children are Electra J., Melissa F., Ida 
M., Mary E., James W., Rufus L., Thomas S., Katie (died in 1878), Francis 
C, Jesse, Edna, who died in 1879, and Emma. Both Mr. and Mrs. Brown 
are members of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. He is also a mem- 
ber of the Masonic order — Blue Lodge, Chapter, and Commandery. Mr. 
Brown came to Carthage, Jasper county, Missouri, in October, 1882, 
and immediately engaged in the wholesale and retail grocery and jab- 
bing business in company wit»h B. Foster & Co. He was interested 
at the same time with his brother Baxter Brown in operating the City 
Hotel, which was conducted in a manner satisfactory to the traveling pub- 
lic and no doubt with profit to themselves. Although but about forty years 
of age he is both grandfather and parent of ten children, ten of whom are 
living. Mr. Brown is both a successful business man and enterprising and 
large hearted citizen, and, though of rather a retiring nature, those respect 
him most who know him best. 

JOHN W. BURCH was born January 30, 1841, in Hardy county, Yir- 
ginia. His father, Covington, and his mother, Elizabeth A., nee Tharp, were 
natives of Virginia. John W. was was born on a farm. In 1862 he enlisted 
in Company E, One Hundred and Seventh Illinois Regiment Volunteers, and 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 327 

served with distinction for three years, being most of the time on detached 
duty. In the fall of 1865 he came to Benton connty, Missouri, and in 1867 to 
Jasper county, locating at what is now known as the Burch Mines, which were 
named after his father. He was engaged in mining and teaching school until 
1874 when he was appointed deputy treasurer and collector of Jasper county. 
In 1877 he was appointed deputy county clerk, and served until 1878, when 
he was elected recorder of deeds for Jasper county, which position he held 
until January 1, 1883. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity. He and 
his wife are members of the Presbyterian Church. He was married in 1867 
to Nancy E. Barnett, a native of Benton county, Missouri. They have three 
children living and one deceased. 

MILTON BURKHOLDER, grocery and provisions, was born in 1857 
in Pennsylvania. His father, Abraham, was a native of Pennsylvania, and 
his mother was Matilda Beaver, a native of Pennsylvania. During his boy- 
hood days he had become familiar with many states. In 1867 he came to 
Henrj^ county, Missouri, where he engaged in farming until 1869, when he 
came to Carthage. In 1881 he bought the grocery store of Mr. Miller, on 
east Fourth Street, xjarrying a general stock of groceries, provisions, etc., 
doing a large and prosperous business. Mr. Burkholder was married March 
11,1874, to Miss Catharine McCormick, of Wisconsin. They have five 
children living. Mr. Burkholder and his wife are members of the M. E. 
Church. Mr. Burkholder is interested in the Pleasant Valley Mines, two 
and one half miles southwest of Carthage, which are being worked in pay- 
ing quantities. He is one of the most prosperous grocerymen in Carthage. 

DR. AMOS H. CAFFEE, physician and druggist. Dr. Caffee was born in 
1834, in Newark, Ohio. His father, M. M. Caffee, was a native of Pennsylva- 
nia. The mother of the subject of this sketch, Elizabeth, nee Worden, was a 
native of Virginia. Dr. Caffee was married and educated in his native state. 
He read medicine under Dr. J. M. Wilson, of Newark, Ohio. He attended 
lectures at Cincinnati, Ohio. He first visited Jasper county, Missouri, in 
1857, but located here permanently in the spring of 1859, and engaged in 
the practice of his profession until the breaking out of the war. After the 
battle of Pea Ridge, he went to Cassville, Missouri, where he served as as- 
sistant surgeon in the hospital at the organization of the First Arkansas 
Cavalry Regiment He was commissioned its assistant surgeon, where he 
remained until the spring of 1864, when he was transferred to the general 
hospital at Ft. Smith. In December, 1864, he was promoted to surgeon 
of the Thirteenth Kansas Infantry, where he remained until the close of the 
war, being mustered out in July, 1865, at Ft. Leavenworth. He returned 
to Jasper county the same fall, and in the spring of 1866, in company 



328 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

with Mr, J. W. Young, opened the first drug store in Jasper county. The 
doctor continued his practice until about 1875, since which he has given all 
his time to the drug business. In 1877 he bought the interest of Mr. 
Young and has since conducted the business himself. The doctor has twice 
been chosen mayor of the city of Carthage. In 1880 he was elected county 
treasurer. He is the owner of a large amount of valuable real estate in the 
city, and has always taken a great interest in the growth and prosperity of 
the city. He is a Mason, being a member of the Lodge, Chapter, and (^om- 
mandery. He was married May 21, 1867, to Lacie A. Burbam, of Wash- 
ington, Iowa. They have two daughters living, Edna E. and Jessie M. 

WILLIAM S. CARSON, treasurer of Jasper county, Missouri, was born 
in Washington county, Missouri, March 11, 1839, where he was raised until 
eighteen years of age, when he removed to Granby, Newton count}^ Mis- 
souri. His father, Thomas M., was a farmer by occu^^ation, and has been 
dead since 1869. His mother, Charlotte, nee Carson, was born in Tennes- 
see, in ] 810, and is now a resident of Newton county. Mr. Carson has been 
twice married; first in 1869, to Miss Roundtree, a native of Missouri, 
who died in 1874. In 1875 he married for his sec6nd wife Miss Mary 
S. Horn, who is a native of Missouri; both are members of the Baptist 
Church. Mr. Carson is a member of the Masonic order — Blue Lodge — 
and A. O. U. W. He enlisted at Ft. Smith in the Ninth Battalion of 
Sharp-shooters, serving three years. In 1872 he became a citizen of Joplin, 
and engaged in mercantile pursuits, also in mining at Granby. Mr. Car- 
son was elected county treasurer in 1882, and is an efficient and obliging 
public officer as well as respected for his social qualities. 

WILLIAM L. CARVER, superintendent of the Carthage Gas Company, 
was born in 1840, in East Aurora, New York. His father L. F. Carver was a 
native of the State of New York; Angel ine C. Johnson was his mother's 
maiden name. Mr. Carver was reared in New York until seventeen years 
of age, when he went to Kansas, where he completed his education at Bald- 
win City, at Baker University; afterwards engaging as a salesman in a mer- 
cantile house, and first embarked in business a Lawrence, Kansas. During 
the war he served in a Kansas regiment for one hundred days. In 1874 
he came to Joplin, Jasper count}', Missouri, where he engaged in mining 
for three years. In 1878 he came to Carthage, where he first engaged as 
book-keeper for the Gas Company, and their assistant secretary, and subse- 
quently superintendent of the Gas Company, retaining this position at the 
present time. This company was organized in the spring of 1878; they 
have extensive works, both in Carthage and Joplin. The second year they 
manufactured over two and one-half million feet of gas, and in 1881, more 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 329 

than doubled tliis amount. The city of Carthage was first lighted with gas 
in July, 1878. Since the organization of the company they have manufac- 
tured over a billion feet of gas. In December, 1867, he married Mis** 
Cleora A. Simpson of Lawrence, Kansas. They have one child living, Wal- 
ter F., born July 12, 1869. Both Mr. and Mrs. Carver are prominent mem- 
bers of the Congregational Church of Carthage, and are charter members 
of the Congregational Church of Joplin, Missouri. Mr. Carver was instru- 
mental in building the large tabernacle in Joplin, for the use of religious 
meetings; he is also a member of the I. O. O. F. Although of rather a 
quiet turn of mind, Mr. Carver is foremost in all enterprises of public wel- 
fare, and commands the respect of business men and the people of the 
church and community generally. 

JONAS CLARK. The subject of this sketch was born in Butler county, 
Ohio, in the year 1811. He comes of good Revolutionary stock, being a 
lineal descendant of Abram Clark, one of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence. He lived with his father, a farmer, until nineteen j^ears of 
age, and then engaged as a clerk in the mercantile house of Major Elston, 
in Crawfordsville, Indiana. He was a participant in the Black Hawk War. 
Subsequently he renewed mercantile pursuits at Michigan City, Indiana, 
with his brother M. S. Clark. He engaged extensively in real estate trans- 
actions. He spent the winter of 1836-37 in Washington City, D. C, in the 
interests of the people of Michigan City in securing an appropriation for 
the improvement of the harbor, and was rewarded with success. In 1840 
he removed to Iowa and engaged for many years in mercantile pursuits 
at Maquoketa. Married Eliza Wright in 1816, his wife being a native of 
New York. Their family of seven children, five sons and two daughters, are 
all living. Mr. Clark has, like his ancestors, been largely identified in the 
welfare of the country. He was chairman of the Whig central committee 
for six years; he was postmaster during Filmore's and a part of Pierce's 
adminstration; he was mayor of Maquoketa one term, and declined any 
further honors from the cit_y ; he was treasurer and one of the directors of 
the first railroad that secured a right of way through Iowa. From 1859 to 
1861 he resumed mercantile pursuits in Lexington, Missouri. He was en- 
gaged in the secret service of the country during the late Rebellion, and 
was with the army at Yicksbnrg at the running of the blockade, and also the 
seige of Vicksburg. In 1868 he removed to Chetopa, Kansas, Labette 
county, being soon appointed justice of the peace, and commissioner of the 
United States Court, a position he held till he removed to Jasper county, 
Missouri, in 1877, where he was formerly engaged in mining. He came to 
Carthage in 1877, for the advantages of its fine location, good society, relig- 



330 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

ioiis, and educational advantages. He is engaged in agencies and collections 
for eastern houses. Mr. Clark has lived a long, eventful, and useful life, 
and can feel that he has filled up the measure of a rounded and symmetrical 
existence. 

JAMES D. CLARKSON, agricultural implements. Mr. Clarkson was 
born in McDonough county, Illinois, in 1852. His father, James Clarkson, 
and his mother Elizabeth, were natives of England, who immigrated to 
America in 1850. James D. was reared and educated in Hlinois. After 
reaching manhood he farmed a few years, after which he engaged in the 
implement business with his brother. In 1875 he went on the road as 
general agent until 1878, when he settled in Carthage, where he opened a large 
farm implement house in which he has since done an extensive business. In 
1879 he bought the house of his brother, at Greenville, Illinois, and also run 
that house, in connection with his house here until 1882, when he sold it and 
opened a branch house at Lamar, Missouri, and one at Golden City, making 
general headquarters at Carthage. Mr. and Mrs. Clarkson are members of 
the Congregational Ohurch. He was married in December, 1877, to Miss 
Ida Cornell of Champaign, Illinois. They have two children: Pearl and 
Edna. 

COLONEL WILLIAM F. CLOUD, collector of internal revenue, and one 
of the most prominent men of southwest Missouri, was born in Champaign 
county, Ohio, March 23, 1825, and raised during his earlier life in Colum- 
bus, Ohio. His father, Hobert, was a tiller of the soil, and died in Ohio in 
the year 1857. Colonel Cloud married Elizabeth Howard, in January, 1848, 
who was born in Belmont county, Ohio, in October, 1829. The children 
are Robert W., Henry H., Clara H., and an adopted daughter, Eva H. Sher- 
man. Both Mr. and Mrs. Cloud were active members of the Methodist 
Church, he having acted as superintendent of Sunday-schools for a number 
of years. Colonel Cloud is also a member of the Odd Fellows' and Masonic 
orders. In the year 1858 he went west and engaged in the clothing busi- 
ness in the city of Emporia, Kansas. The secession of the Southern States 
having occurred meanwhile, and war being declared, he, fired with all the 
loyalty and patriotism of the typical Buckeye, forthwith defended the Union 
in the Federal army, offering his services in April, 1861, as the organizer of 
the first company from Kansas, which was soon reorganized into the Sec- 
ond Kansas, Mr. Cloud being commissioned as major. After serving out 
three months he was promoted to the command of colonel of the Second, 
Tenth, and Fifteenth Kansas regiments, severally, and served a period of 
four years and six months. Among some of the important engagements in 
which he participated were Druggs Springs, Wilson Creek, Old Fort 



4 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 331 

Wayne, Cane Hill, Prairie Grove, and Wine Creek, in Kansas. At one 
time he had charge of southwest Missouri and northern Kansas, succeeding 
to thecoramand of General Brown, who was wounded. Colonel Cloud was re- 
lieved soon after by General McNeil. Immediately Colonel Cloud proceeded 
to Arkansas, capturing Ft. Smith, Dardanell, and being again relieved by 
General McNeil. Colonel Cloud was with the army which operated at Camden, 
Jenkins' Ferry, in Arkansas. In 1865 he, after being discharged, was re- 
commissioned as colonel of the Fifteenth Kansas, at Ft. Larned, to proceed 
against the Indians, but peace was soon made with them and he returned to 
Leavenworth, Kansas, to resume the quiet of a private citizen. In the 
year 1867 he came to Carthage, Missouri, to make this a permanent home, 
engaging immediately in the practice of law and sale of real estate. During 
the centennial year he went into the service of the government as collector of 
internal revenue, with headquarters at Sedalia, Missouri. Colonel Cloud was 
the regular nominee of the Republican party for Congress in 1882. Not- 
withstanding his defeat, Jasper county gave him a good majority over both 
other parties, an index of his popularity at home. He was chairman of the 
Kepublican county committee for years, and worked unceasingly, stump- 
ing the county for Republican principles, and was tendered a fine hunt- 
ing case gold watch as a testimony of his valuable services and the 
high esteem in which he was held. He was called to mourn the un- 
timely death of his wife September 3, 1879, who had gone to Colorado 
Springs for her health, together with his daughter, who died May 6, 1880, 
a young lady of fine musical acquirements, too devoted to its attainment. 
TJaey are both buried in the Carthage cemetery. His home thus broken 
into by the stern hand of death leaves the father and husband with only 
their memory to console and cheer him. Few have attained greater suc- 
cess and distinction on their own merits in the Southwest, and fewer, at his 
age, possess such wonderful vigor, both of mind and body, as Colonel Cloud. 
He is still in the government internal revenue employ, and makes an effi- 
cient officer, a staunch, loyal citizen, and is withal a courteous, cultured gen- 
tleman. 

REV. JAS. S. COLTON, rector of the Protestant Episcopal Church of 
Carthage, Missouri, known as Grace Church, was born in Chester county, 
Pennsylvania, November 10, 1843. He was educated at Princton College, 
graduating in 1865. He attended the Protestant Episcopal Divinity School 
of West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1868. His father, Rev. Asa S. 
Colton, was also a clergyman of the Episcopal Church of Princeton, New 
Jersey. Mr. Colton was married September 10, 1873, to Sophia Neely, who 
was a resident of New York City. Their children are William, Flora E., 



332 HISTOKY OF JASPER COTTNTT. 

and Asa. Rev. Mr. Colton's first pastorate was at Harrisburt^. Pennsylvania, 
St. Paul's Church. He came west in 1873, and did parochial work in Ne- 
braska and Kansas, and took charge of the Carthage church in August, 

1880. 

WILLIAM H. COX, of the firm of Cox & Miller, house, sign, and orna- 
mental painter, paper-hanging and fine graining a specialty. The subject 
of this sketch was born in Galesburg, Illinois, March 28, 1842, and there 
reared until he was sixteen years old. His father, David, is a physician, and 
his mother, whose maiden name was Hannah Worley, is a native of Wales, 
and his father of Somersetshire, England. Mr. W. H. Cox was married 
May 8, 1847, to Mary E. Mills, who was born in Indiana, July 27, 1856. 
The children are Arthur and Lewella. Mrs. Cox is a member of the Bap- 
tist Church. He lived in Iowa for some years and later removed to St. 
Louis and Moberly. November 3, 1882, he became a citizen of Carthage, 
and is by trade a professional paper-hanger and frescoer. Mr. Cox has exe- 
cuted some of the finest work of Moberly and St. Louis, Missouri, and Des 
Moines and Marshalltown, Iowa. His partner, Mr. Miller, is the painter 
of the firm, and they enjoy and merit a liberal patronage. 

HAPVEY C. CR AND ALL, liveryman and proprietor of feed stable, 
was born in Jefferson county. New York, in 1812. His father, Poswell, was 
a native of Washinajton countv, New York. His mother's maiden name 
was Susana Cross, a native of Henry county, Massachusetts. Mr. Crandall 
was reared and educated in New York. In 1843 he removed to Watertown, 
Wisconsin, where he was eno-aged in farming and the hotel business for 
about twenty-five years. In December, 1868, removed to Lake countj', 
Illinois, where he again engaged in farming and the dairy business until 
1876, when he became a citizen of Jasper county, Missouri, and a resident 
of Carthage. Soon after arriving here he bought the interest of Dr. Britton 
in the livery stable of Mix & Britton, where he remained until February, 
1880, when he bought the interest of his partner, Mr. Mix. In the spring 
of 1882 he moved into his present quarters on the corner of Grant and 
Second streets, where he has a large and elegant stable. He has, on an 
average, from fifteen to twenty horses, with excellent buggies, carriages, and 
turnouts of the first order. Besides his business in livery accomodation, 
he does a large general feed and boarding business and sale stable. He was 
married in 1846 to Miss Esther A. Crocker of Jefferson count\', New York. 
There are six children in the family; three boys and three girk living. Mr. 
Crandall is a man who is held in high esteem by the citizens of Carthage 
for his general business courtesy and good nature. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 333 

EDWARD C. CEOW, attorney at law. Mr. Crow is a native of Holt 
conntj, Missouri. His parents moved to Carthage, Missouri, when he was 
but a child. His father, Judge George W. Crow, was one of the attorneys 
of Jasper county for several years. Mr. Edward C. Crow graduated from 
the Carthage high school in 1878 as first in a class of seven; in June, 1880, 
he graduated from "Washington University, St. Lonis, and was fourth in a 
class of twenty-five, and was admitted to the bar when but nineteen years 
of ao-e. He removed to Oregon, Holt county, in the spring of 1883, and is 
now engaged in the practice of law with his father and is rapidly building 
up a good business. 

GEORGE P. CUNNINGHAM, real estate dealer and loan agent. 
Major Cunningham was born in 1839, in AVheeling, West Virginia. His 
father, John, and his mother, -Elizabeth, nee McCune, were natives of 
Pennsylvania. Major Cunningham was reared and educated in Wheeling, 
In 1861 he enlisted in the First Illinois Artillery as a private soldier. He 
was promoted to second and first lieutenant and captain of his company 
and finally major of his regiment. In March, 1866, he came to Carthage, 
Missouri. At that time there were but two men in the place, both of whom 
are now dead, leaving him the oldest settler of the city now residing in it. 
He invested in real estate, both in the city and country, and has ever since 
been in the real estate business. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity. 
He was married in 1872 to Miss W. Kelly, wlio died in 1879, leaving two 
children; again married in 1881, at Chicago, Illinois, to Grace L. Hobbs of 
that city. 

FRED A. CUSHMAX, contractor and builder, was born in Waldo 
county, Maine, December 5, 1847, where he was raised and educated. His 
father, Joseph, was a farmer by occupation. The subject of this sketch w^as 
married Christmas, 1877, to Kate Lynn, who was born in Tennessee, in Feb- 
ruary, 1852. Their children are Mabel and Claude. Both Mr. and Mrs. 
Cushman are members of tlie Presbyterian Church in good and regular 
standing. Mr. Cushman came to Jasper county, Iowa, in 1870, also resid- 
ing for a time in Marshall town, and Omaha, Nebraska. Subsequently he 
went to Columbus, Kansas, and Galena, where he resided a number of 
years. In 1881 he came to Carthage, and is busily engaged in his chosen 
profession. He is building some of the finest residences in Carthage. 

H. G. DAMON was born in 1832, in Worcester county, Massachusetts. 
His father, Thomas, was a native of Massachusetts, and his mother, whose 
maiden name was Laura Green, a native of Vermont. His ancestors were 
originally from England, but settled in Massachusetts in an early day. H. 
G. Damon was reared and educated in Massachusetts, and emigrated to 



334 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, in 1857, where he engaged in gardening and 
nursery stock, having accumulated a large and handsome propL'rt3\ In 1881 
he built the two-story brick building on the north side of the square now 
occupied by Olcott & Co., and in 1882 the large two-story brick on the 
northwest corner of the square, which is one of tiie finest in the city, being 
200x45 feet, two stories high, containing five store rooms, and is known as 
the Damon Block. He owns a fine brick residence, and is interested with 
his son, Nilson L. Damon, in his business blocks. Mr. Damon was married 
in 1851 to Miss Emily A. ISTewton, of Worcester, Massachusetts. They 
have two sons living, Nilson and David, and three children deceased. 
While Mr. Damon is to be admired for his business thrift, especially for the 
enterprise and public spirit he has shown in investing private means in 
public ventures, he merits universal respect. 

JOHN Q. DAVISON, farmer and horticulturist, was born in Delaware 
county, Ohio, January 24, 1829, where he was raised, his father, Benjamin, 
being a farmer by profession. He was married in Cincinnati, Ohio, Sep- 
tember 26, 1856, to Harriet E. Jackson, who was born in that city in 
1827. The names of their children are Benjamin J., John L , Milton F., 
Willie, Edward, Cicero, Arville, and Mary J. Both have been members 
of the M. E. Church. Mr. Davison is also a member of the Masonic order. 
He removed to Dallas county, Missouri, in 1858, to Maries county in 1866, 
and to Jasper county in 1881. His home is located in the suburbs of the 
southeastern portion of the city, and comprises a tract of ten acres, mostly 
devoted to fruit and truck gardening. In 1882 he raised 1,500 bushels of 
apples, two acres of Irish, and two of sweet potatoes, besides small fruit. 
For a number of years he has been entirely engaged in the nursery business 
with good success. Mr. Davison has two large farms in other parts of the 
county. One hundred and twenty-five acres in wheat, averaged twenty-eight 
bushels per acre, and eighty acres of corn, averaging forty bushels per acre. 
There are fine orchards on these farms, and other improvements in keeping 
with them. Mr. Davison is a genial gentleman, fond of people and society, 
ever considerate of the feelings and wishes of others. His property is lo- 
cated in sections 10, 33, and 35, of township 28, ranges 31 and 32. 

JAMES DEAGAN, city marshal, was born in 1849 in Wood county, 
Ohio. His father, Matthew, was a native of Ireland, and came to this 
country many years ago. His mother, Catharine, nee Higgins, was also a na- 
tive of Ireland. James Deagan was reared and educated in Ohio. He 
learned the woolen business, and engaged in it at Terre Haute, Indiana, 
until 1872, when he took charge of the Carthage Woolen Mills, remaining 
in charge until it burned down, in January, 1882. At the spring election 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 335 

of the same year he was elected city marshal of Carthage, which position he 
now fills. Mr. Deagan enlisted in Company E, of the One Hundred 
and Thirty-third Indiana Regiment, in 1863, serving three months. He 
afterwards re-enlisted in 1864, in the One Hundred and Forty-ninth Indiana 
Regiment, under Colonel Fairbanks, now of Joplin, serving until the close 
of the war. Mr. Deagan is a member of the A. O. U. W. He was married 
in 1876 to Miss Agnes "Weir, of Illinois. Mr. Deagan is a member of the 
Carthage Light Guards. He is a charter member, and was chosen first ser- 
geant at the organization, and subsequently served both as second and first 
lieutenant. He has also been a member of the fire department since its or- 
ganization in 1872. He is president of both these organizations. He was 
elected city marshal by 145 Democratic majority, the city vote being repub- 
lican. Some men are born to control municipal affairs in their fitness by 
natural selection, or the survival of tlie fittest; at least in politics Mr. Dea- 
gan evidently is a man, not of a party, but of and for the people. 

ALBERT M. DRAKE, hardware merchant. Mr. Drake was born in 
Mt. Yernon, Ohio, in 1841. His father, Charles A. Drake, was a native of 
New Jersey, who settled in Ohio about 1820. His mother, Mary, nee Boyle, 
was a native of Ohio. Albert M. was reared in Ohio. In 1862 he came to 
Ft. Scott, but after one year returned to Ohio, where he was in the hotel 
business for a time. In 1866 he came to Carthage, Missouri, and opened 
the first hardware store in the city. For several weeks he conducted his 
business successfully without any roof over, or floor in his building, owing 
to the difficulty in getting lumber. Mr. Drake is among the very oldest, 
and has also been among the most successful business men of Carthage. 
He is a prominent member of the Masonic fraternity, being a Knight Tem- 
plar. He was married in 1868 to Sarah G. Gill, a native of New York. 
They have two sons, Charles F. and Sherwood A. 

RANDALL DRYDEN, attorney and counselor at law, was born in the 
year 1849, in Indiana. His father, Thomas Dryden, was a native of Ten- 
nessee, and his mother, whose maiden name was Elizabeth M. Daniels, was 
a native of North Carolina. Randall Dryden was reared for the most part 
in Iowa, and educated at the S*"ate University, located at Columbia, Mis- 
souri, receiving the degree of A. B., in 1873, as well as the degree of M. A. 
from this institution. He was admitted to the bar at Keokuk, Iowa, in 
June, 1874, and practiced with his brother, J. H. Dryden, until the spring 
of 1882, when he came to Carthage, Missouri, where he formed a partner- 
ship with Mr. William Thompson, with whom he is now engaged in prac- 
tice. He was married in October, 1880, to Miss Clara Lemons Kuapp, of 



336 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTT. 

Clarksville, Missouri. He is still engaged in the practice of law, and enjoys 
his share of the legal patronage. 

JOHN PI. FLANNIGAN, attorney and counselor at law, of the firm of 
Haughawout & Flannigan. Mr. Flannigan is a native of Branch county, 
Michigan. His father, James Flannigan, was a native of New York State, 
who immigrated to Jasper county in 1866, where he resides. His mother, 
Olive Hagei*, was also a native of New York. J. H. Flannigan was educated 
at Hillsdale, Michigan, and soon took up the study of law, in Carthage. In 
1881 he was admitted to the bar, after which he formed his present part- 
nership. This law firm stand at the head of their profession, and are fast 
becoming to be recognized as among the most eminent and best (j^ualified of 
the Jasper county bar. Mr. Flannigan is a young man of more than ordi- 
nary ability, and for whom we predict great success. He was elected city 
attorney in 1883, as the successor of J. W. Halliburton. Mr. Flannigan is 
not only a successful jurist, but popular generally among the people of city 
and country. 

NATHAJMIEL A. FLOYD, jeweler, capitalist, farmer, and raiser of 
fine horses, was born in Union county, Kentucky, April 3, 1839, where he 
was raised until sixteen years of age. Mr. Floyd was deprived of an exten- 
sive education, and is therefore a thoroughly self-made man, his education 
being chiefly obtained by observation and experience in battling with the 
world. In 1855 he took up his abode in Rolla, Missouri, removing to Wal- 
dron, Scott county, Arkansas, in 1860. During the late war he acted as 
scout in the employ of the Federal army, and in 1863 conducted two Fed- 
eral companies under General Theirs from Texas. After the war he re- 
turned to Waldron, Arkansas, where he was elected sherifl"', serving in this 
capacity from 1868 until 1874, when he resigned; also served as deputy 
United States marshal from 1866 to 1874. Mr. Floyd was also engaged in 
mercantile pursuits at Waldron, and Greenwood, Sebastian county, operat- 
ing in both a retail and large wholesale trade. Mr. Floyd came to Jasper 
county, Missouri, in 1875, and engaged in milling, in Carthage, at the 
Spring River Mills. Until recently, Mr. Floyd has been operating his farm, 
two and a half miles northwest of Carthage. His fine residence is a two- 
story brick, 16x88, upright, and a T of the same dimensions, located in sec- 
tion 29, township 29, range 31, in Marion township. There are good tene- 
ment houses, wells, large orchards of all kinds of fruit, and everything which 
can add to comfort and convenience, raising 1,000 bushels of apples, and 
500 of peaches, besides large quantities of small grain and corn. Mr. Floyd 
is a great lover of fine blooded horses, and has the fastest quarter horse in 










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CITY OF CAETHAGE. 337 

America, known as "Cold Deck", of the Steel-dust strain. He is now eleven 
years old, and has won many a race and large stakes. Mr. Floyd formerly 
owned "Kokomo," a 2:30 horse, and now owns some very fine blooded colts. 
He was married May 28, 1858, to Laura C. Maner, a native of North Caro- 
lina. Their children are Henry J., Penelope, Martha Uazeltine, Dora L., 
Charles F., Sarah A., James L., and Manda M. Mr. Floyd is interested in 
the largest jewelery establishment outside of St. Louis. He is a generous 
and genial gentleman, and endowed with great business capacity. 

JEKRY H. FRAJNKS, commissioner of public schools of Jasper county, 
Missouri, was born in Ogle county, Hlinois, March 30, 1845, and there 
raised. His father, Charles Franks, was a native of England, who was born 
in 1793 in INottinghamshire. His mother, Mary, nee Hart, was born near 
Hull, England, in 1801. His father came to America in 1822, settling in 
Canada, and engaged in gardeiring. Pie went to Ogle county, Illinois, in 1837 
and engaged in farming. He died May 7, 1882, at the advanced age of 
eighty-nine. The subject of this sketch was reared in Ogle countj', Illinois, 
and educated at Mt. Morris Seminary, Illinois, and Western College, Iowa. 
He was married in November, 1867, to Anna R. Ginter, a native of Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania, who* was born in 1852. Their children are Mamie, 
Thomas, Nettie, Charles, and Hume. Mrs. Franks is a member of the M. 
E. Church. Mr. Franks came to Iowa, Story county, in 1868, and engaged 
in teaching. He served two terms as county superintendent of public in- 
struction in Iowa. Mr. Franks became a citizen of Jasper county, Mis- 
souri, in 1880, setiling in the town of Cartilage. He has been engaged for 
the most part in teaching in schools of the county. Subsequently, in the 
spring of 1883, he was elected commissioner of public schools of Jasper 
county. School Commissioner Franks has had some considerable experi- 
ence in school work, and begins the responsible and arduous duties devolv- 
ing upon him not an amateur, and we bespeak for him success and faithful 
performance of public obligations. 

EDWARD T. GAITHER, grocer and provision dealer, located on North 
Main Street, Carthage, was born in 1831. His father's name was Silas, and 
his mother's maiden name Elizabeth Campbell. Edward T. Gaither was 
reared principally in Franklin county, Missouri, his father's family moving 
there in 1838. He was brought up on a farm, and has lived on one more 
or less ever since, although teaching school some fourteen years. He served 
four years in the Confederate army in the trans-Mississippi department, un- 
der General Marmaduke. In 1879 he came to Carthage, Missouri, where 
he has since been in the mercantile business. In March, 1882, he and his 
22 



338 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

partner, Mr. Quinn, opened the grocery, provision, and feed store where they 
are now in business. They have a large and complete stock in their line, and 
are surpassing their most sanguine expectations. Mr. Gaitherowns a finely 
improved farm, and it is regarded as one of the best in this region of the 
country. lie was married April 8, 1866, to Sarah J. Hickner, of Jasper 
count}^ Missouri, whose father was one of the first settlers of the county, 
who died in 1861. They have six children living and one deceased. Mr. 
and Mrs. Gaither are members of the Christian Church. Mr. Gaither is 
to be commended for his business success, and commands the respect of the 
community generally. 

PwOBERT L. GALBREATH, physician and surgeon, was born May 14, 
1837, in Butler county, Pennsylvania. His father, Joseph, and his mother, 
whose maiden name was Sarah Trimble, were both natives of Pennsylvania. 
Dr. Galbreath was reared and educated in" Pennsylvania at Washington 
College. In 1862 he enlisted in Company D of the One Hundred and 
Thirty-seventh Pennsylvania, serving nine months, when he re-enlisted in 
Company L, Fourteenth Pennsylvania Cavahy, serving until the close of 
the war; he was captured in the Shenandoah Valley, and served two 
months in Libby Prison. He also served as second sergeant. He then 
took up the study of medicine in 1865, studying until he entered the Ec- 
lectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati, Ohio. Soon after leaving the col- 
lege of medicine he began the regular practice at Glenwood, Schuyler county, 
Ohio. Ln the summer of 1881 he came to Carthage, Missouri, where he 
has since been in constant practice. In the spring of 1882 he formed a 
partnership with Dr. W. A. Cormack, with whom he is still engaged in 
practice. From 1870 to 1874 he served as superintendent of public instruc- 
tion in Moniteau county, Missouri, having been engaged in teaching for a 
number of 3'ears, and while superintendent of schools served also as deputy 
count}' clerk of Moniteau countx'. He married Miss Jemima Smith, of 
Butler county, Pennsylvania. They have one child. His wife died Au- 
gust 8, 1869, and he was married again in October, 1875, to Myra W. Camp- 
bell, of Ohio. Dr. Galbreath is a member of the I. O. O. F. He enjoys 
a good practice, and commands the respect of his patrons as a good physi- 
cian and citizen. 

WILLIAM T. GPEEN", attorney and counselor at law, was born July 
22, 1858, in Christian county, Illinois. His father, Leander Green, was a 
native of Kentucky, and is now a resident of Webb City, Missouri. His 
mother is still living, and is a native of Kentucky. William T. Green 
came to Jasper county with his father in 1866. He received his early edu- 
cation at Medoc, Carthage, and the State Universit3\ He studied law at 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 339 

Medoc, and was admitted to the bar in 1881, In the same year he came to 
Carthage, Missouri, where he has since practiced his profession. He formed 
a partnership Tvith A. L. Thomas, under the firm name of Thomas & Green. 
Mr. Green is a rising young lawyer, and is rapidly taking a prominent 
place in the first rank of the Jasper county bar. He was married to Miss 
Clara P. Seely, March 4, 1880, a native of New Boston, Illinois. They 
have one child, Leander Roscoe. Mr. Green operated in real estate before 
settling in Carthage, with profit to himself and the improvement of the 
country. 

FRANKLIN GRIFFITH, dealer in agricultural implements, Carthage, 
Missouri, was born September 1, 1828, in the city of Philadelphia, 
Peuns^dvania. His fiither, Benjamin, was a native of Philadelphia, and 
his mother, Ann Edwards, was also a native of Philadelphia. The an- 
cestors of this family located in this country with William Penn, and 
their posterity have ever since resided there. Captain Griffith is a lineal de- 
scendent of the noted Quaker minister, Rev. John Griffith. Captain Griffith 
was reared and educated in Philadelphia, and learned that branch of tech- 
nology known as drafting in architecture and building, following the busi- 
ness for some twenty years. In 1854 he came to Hancock county, Illinois. 
In 1865 lie enlisted in the Fifty-eighth Illinois as a private soldier, but in 
less than a year was mustered three times, being promoted to the captaincy 
of his company before being mustered out of the service in 1866. After 
the war he spent some time in Tennessee, Minnesota, and Illinois. In 1874 
he removed to Texas and engaged in conducting a lumber yard and saw 
mill, together with agricultural business. In 1881 he came to Carthage, 
where he opened an agricultural house, where he is now engaged, carrying 
on a large and growing business. He makes a specialty of the McCormick 
reaper, and keeps a full stock of farm machinery. Captain Griffith was mar- 
ried in 1851, in Philadelphia, to Miss A. Kctts, of the aforenamed city. 
Their family is composed of four children living, two sons and two daugh- 
ters. It requires but a short acquaintance with Captain Griffith to satisfy one 
that the gentleman possesses a good deal more than the average amount of 
business tact and ability. Wholly unsolicited on his part he received the 
Greenback nomination of State Treasurer of Texas, and although running 
far ahead of his ticket Texas Democracy in 1880 was too strong for a Union 
soldier to hope for success. He commands the patronage and respect of a 
good farming community, and easily elicits the good will of all men. 

SEDDEN B. GRISWOLD, wholesale grocer. Mr. Griswold was born 
in 1837, in Connecticut. His father, R. L. Griswold, and his mother, Ma- 
ria, nee Spencer, were natives of Connecticut. S. B. Griswold first embarked 



34:0 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

in business in Hartford, Connecticut, and was afterwards in business in New 
York. In 1861 he went to Chicago, Illinois, but rfoon after enlisted in the 
Fifty-third Illinois as a private soldier, serving three jears. He was pro- 
moted to first lieutenant of his company. At the close of the war he en- 
gaged in merchandising at JSTatchez, Mississippi; afterwards bought a plan- 
tation of 2,700 acres, which he operated some years. Came to Carthage, 
Missouri, in the spring of 1868, where he opened a small grocery store, 
which he has since increased to a large wholesale and retail establishment, 
where he has since been in business. This house does a business of two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars per annum. He has been twice married; 
both his wives are deceased, his second wife having one child. 

EEV. EDWIN S. GOULD, pastor of the Congregational Church, of 
Carthage, Missouri, was born February 20, 1844, in New Braintree, Massa- 
chusetts. His father, whose name was Eufus, was a wlieelwright by trade, 
and later a singing master by profession, who has been dead for some 
years. Mr. Edwin F. Gould was educated at Phillips Academy, Massachu- 
setts, and subsequently a student at the theological seminary located at 
Hartford, Connecticut. He was licensed to preach at Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, in the middle year of the seminary course, May 16, 1872, ordained at 
Providence, Khode Island, October 1, 1873, and installed as pastor of the 
Richmond Street Free Congregational Church, where he remained as pas- 
tor five years. He was married October 9.0, 1875, at Providence, Rhode 
Island, to Miss Phoebe Gladding, a resident and native of Providence. In 
the year 1877 Rev. Mr. Gould went to his old home. West Brookfield, four 
miles from Braintree, where he remained as pastor of the church for four 
and a half years. After repeated invitations from the church and trustees 
of the Congregational Church at Carthage, Missouri, he became their pas- 
tor March 25, 1882, with whom be still labors. Rev. Mr. Gould has had 
some very flattering calls to some of the best churches of the cities of Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island, New Haven, Connecticut, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 
Fargo, Dakota, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Since his pastorate in Car- 
thage, Missouri, the elegant new church has been dedicated, without a cent 
of debt on the building, and a goodly number have joined the church. The 
financial condition of the church, as well as the spiritual, is excellent, and 
the Sunday-school is prosperous and growing. Rev. Mr. Gould is an inter- 
esting, popular minister, of more than average ability, and commands the 
good will and respect of his congregaiion and other denominations. 

BENNETT HALL, the subject of this sketch, was born in 1834, in 
the State of Connecticut. His father, Zalmon Hall, was a native of the same 
place, where he still resides, now more than eighty-eight years of age, and 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 3il 

his mother, Malinda Bennett, was also a native of tlie same state. Bennett 
Hall was reared and educated at his old home. He learned the carriage- 
making trade in his early years, and in 1858 removed to Fairbury, Illinois, 
where he continued in carriage manufacturing until 1862. In this year he 
enlisted in Company E, of the One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Infantry, 
serving three years. They were through the siege of Atlanta and the bat- 
tles following it until Lee's surrender. After his return from the army to 
his old home, he remained till 1867, when he came to Carthage, Missouri, 
engaging as salesman for Thomas & Co., continuing for three years. Sub- 



'in 



sequently he engaged in the nursery business for some six years, and still 
operates more or less. Mr. Hall resides one mile from the square, on land 
which he owns, mostly devoted to a fine orchard. Mr. Hall engaged in the 
hardware store of Jesse Thacker in 1879, and in 1880 was employed as gen- 
eral manr.ger of the business, which has grown, under his management, to 
one of the most flourishing business houses of the city. He was married in 
1861 to Isabel Smith, a native of New York City. He is a member of the 
M. E. Church, and the Masonic fraternity, and is widely and favorably 
known in the county. 

K. M. HALL, dealer in dry goods, clothing, boots and shoes. This 
house was opened in October, 1881, by Mr. K. M. Hall, and is located on 
the north side of the square, representing one of the largest houses in the 
Southwest, Mr. Hall is a native of Tennessee. His father, A. R. Hall, a 
merchant of Clarksville, Tennessee, is a native of Alabama, and brought up 
his son, R. M. Hall, in the mercantile life. He was educated at Cumber- 
land University, located at Lebanon, Tennessee, graduating in 1874. He 
remained in business with his father until he came to Carthage, Missouri, in 
1881. 

JOHN W HALLIBURTON, attorney and counselor at law, was born 
in Linn county, in 1816. His father, Wesley Halliburton, was a native of 
Tennessee, who settled in ]!iIissouri in 1824:, and is still living in Sullivan 
county, Missouri. His mother, Armilda E., nee Collins, is a native of Mis- 
souri. Mr. J. W. Halliburton was reared and educated in north Missouri. 
In 1867 he began the study of law, taking a course in the St. Louis Law 
School. In 1869 he began the practice of law at Kirksville, Missouri, and 
later practiced two years and a half in Milan. In 1877 he came to Car- 
thage, where he has since been constantly in practice. In April, 1882, he 
was elected city attorney of Carthage, filling the position to the entire satis- 
faction of his constituency. Mr. Halliburton is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
of the city. He was married in October, 1878, to Julia B. Ivie, of Kirks- 



342 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

ville, Missouri. They have one boy. Mr. Halliburton is among tbe first 
of tbe Jasper county bar. 

JOHN BENJAMIN HARDWICKE, D. D., tbe son of Samuel P. 
and Lucy Hudson (Flood) Hardwicke born in Buckingbani county, Vir- 
ginia, August 9, 1830. His grandfather was a Baptist minister and preached 
for many years in Virginia and Tennessee. At tbe age of twelve, young 
John B. made a profession of religion and united with the Enon Baptist 
Church. In 1852 he was ordained at tbe Enon Church, in order tJiat he 
might accept calls to two churches in Campbell county, Virginia. Heat 
once became prominent among tbe young preachers of this part of Virginia. 
In 1853 be accepted a call to Greenfield, Pittsylvania county, Virginia, where 
he remained for seven years. Here his special mission seems to have been 
to aid in rescuing tbe churches from tbe blighting influence of anti-mission 
teachers. He was married to Mrs. M. J. Holland,. of Halifax count}', Vir- 
ginia, November 6, 1855, and tbe names of their cbildern are: A. Fuller, 
now a prominent man and city clerk in Atchison, Kansas; S. P., a lawyer 
at Aberline, Texas; Anna J., a teacher in Carthage; John B., Jr., Sallie 
H., and A. Sennette. Two children died in infancy. The family is excep- 
tionally well ordered, dutiful, talented, and harmonious. His next cull was 
from Danville, which he declined, and after tbe call was repeated he agreed 
to divide bis time with them until they could secure a pastor. In May, 
1860, he accepted a call to the Second Church of Petersburg, and remained 
there until April, 1861:. Here bis time was divided between his church and 
tbe hospitals that were established in Petersburg during tbe war. His next 
pastorate was Goldsboro, North Carolina, where he spent several years of 
successful labor. Afterwards he removed to Parkersburg, West Virginia. 
Here he commenced the publication of the Baptist Record, which be edited 
for five years making for himself a wide repuatation as writer and editor. 
His eflbrts as corresponding secretary of the general association here aided 
in uniting the Baptists of West Virginia in the support of one general 
organization, and in harmonizing churches that had been rent asunder by 
the civil war. In 1873 the college of West Virginia conferred upon him 
the degree of doctor of divinitj^. The year following be accepted a call to 
Atchison, Kansas. He served there for two years and nine months; was 
then called to Leavenworth, the largest city in the state. While in Kansas 
he was recording secretary, then president, and afterwards corresponding 
secretary of the State Convention; he was also a member of the board of 
directors, and trustee of Ottawa University; he rendered valuable aid in 
freeing this school from financial embarrassments and difficulties that had 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 343 

hindered its prosperity. In 1878 he accepted a call to the pastorate of the 
church at Bryan, one of the most influential churches in the State of Texas, 
where he remained two years and six months, during which time 175 were 
added to the membership, 100 by baptism. One year was tlien spent at 
Waxahachie, where he put the Baptists on a good foundation. He accepted 
a call to the First Baptist Church of Carthage, Missouri, and June 1, 1882, 
entered upon his labors where he is still most successfully engaged. In less 
than a year there have been about eighty accessions to the church. He has 
quietly put into operation the latent forces of the city, and to use the lan- 
guage of a pastor of another church, he has his forces well in hand, they 
follow wherever he leads. The church is united, harmonious, active, and 
hopeful; the members have confidence in his wisdom, and he has faith in 
his church, and their willingness to act when they find it their duty to do 
so. He is one of the pastors who accomplishes his ends through others, 
who rules without lording it over the church. He holds that, spiritually, 
intelligence, benevolence, and constant activity, are essential to the prosper- 
ity of a church, and he labors to secure these. Dr. Hardwicke prepares his 
sermons with great care, an-d delivers them in an easy natural manner. As 
a speaker on the platform he seems at ease and he uses the reserves of the 
debater with telling efi'ect, and he draws his illustrations from all sources, 
with now and then a little satire. But it is in the social circle or the 
inquiry room, where men are to be found who need instruction, that 
he appears to the best advantage; his wide experience and practical judg- 
ment enable him to adapt the truth to all; he knows well their capacity for 
work, as well as their moral impotence to a given work. An astute politician 
has said, if he would turn his attention to political affairs he could soon con- 
trol the destinies of the state. This temptation has never induced him to turn 
aside from the work of the ministry. The subject of this sketch is a regu- 
lar contiibutor to the press. His printed sermons would fill a good sized vol- 
ume. Their titles are: " Life and Death," " Turning aside from the truth," 
" Support of the Ministry," "The Providence of God Illustrated in the 
History of the Dark Races," "The Great Harvest," "The Son of Life," "A Ser- 
mon on Pastors," " A Farewell Sermon for J. A, Taylor, D. D.," "A Memorial 
•Discourse on Rev. John D, Creathe," " A Funeral Oration on President Gar- 
field," " What a Church has a right to expe3t of a Pastor," " The Power of 
Beauty, or Esther the Beautiful Queen," " A Plea from a Young Man before 
the Judge of the United States Court of Kansas, who had plead guilty to at- 
tempting to pass counterfeit money, etc.," " Sketches of the Members of the 
Constitutional Convention of West Virginia," etc. This gentleman is still in 
the prime of life; time has dealt kindly with him; he has inherited a vigorous 



344: HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

constitution, and a frame which cotnmands attention. Dr. Hardwieke comes 
from a race of pi'eachers. His great-grandfather, Noah Flood of Virginia, 
was a Baptist minister. By his mother he is related to the Floods of Ken- 
tucky, and the Fuquas and Brocks of Virginia, among whom are some of 
the most eminent ministers and lawyers of the country. Dr. Hardwieke 
has a brotlier, Rev. J. F. Hardwieke, who is an eminent minister and pastor of 
the Baptist Church at Bowling Green, Kentucky. He has been blessed in his 
own family. A. Fuller Hardwieke, Esq. of Atchison, Kansas, is one of the 
most successful 3'oung business men of the city; he is a member of the city 
government and has been for five years. S. Pondexter, his second son, is a 
rising young lawyer with a good practice; he resides at Aberline, Texas. Miss 
Anna, his oldest daughter, is reported to be one of the best scholars of her 
years in the West. She graduated from two schools, taking the highest 
honors of her class in both institutions; she reads Latin, Greek, French, and 
German, and is an accomplished and popnlar teacher. John B., Jr., is in 
school; Sallie Holmes and A. Sennetta, the youngest children, are at 
school also. All of the children except one are members of the Baptist 
Church. Mrs. Hardwieke is a lady of more than average ability; she is 
active, though quiet and unobtrusive in church work, a devoted mother who 
has given much of her time to laying the foundation of the education of 
her children. It must be a great gratification to these parents to observe the 
future that stretches away before their children, as well as to the children 
to look back upon those who have labored so assiduously to prepare them 
for the varied duties of life. 

JOHN HAELAN. Mr. Harlan was born in Indiana in 1845. His 
father, Joseph Harlan, was a native of South Carolina. His mother, Eliza- 
beth Leviston, was a native of Kentucky. In 1852 the family came to 
Lewis county, Missouri, where John was reared and educated. He learned 
the tinning business in his youth, and was in the stove and tin trade at 
Kirksville until about 1870, when he engaged in the grocery business, which 
he continued until 1881, when he came to Carthage and bought the stock of 
Isaac Perkins, on the north side of the square. This is one of the largest 
and most elegant store rooms in the city, and does a large and extensive 
business. Mr. Harlan is a member of the A. O. U. W. He was married 
in 1867 to Miss Lizzie Dodge, of Oxford, Ohio. She died in 1875. He 
was married the second time in 1878 to Miss Vesta Burk, of Qnincy, Illi- 
nois. He is at present agent of the Adams Express Company. 

BENJAMIN E. HAMMER was born in 1829 in Hagerstown, Mary- 
land. His father, Francis, was a native of Marjdand, as was his mother, 
whose maiden name was Margaret Griffith, a connection of the Pennsylva- 



CITY or CARTHAGE. 345 

nia family. In 1856 he went to Memphis, Tennessee, where he engaged in 
mercantile pursuits until the breaking out of the late war. He joined the 
First Tennessee Kegiment as a private, but was soon honored with the pro- 
motion of colonel of the regiment, and served two jears. In 1866 he re- 
moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he remained in business a year, coming 
to Jasper count}', Missouri, in 1867. He spent a year at this time in Mem- 
phis, and then returned to Jasper county, Missouri, devoting his time to 
mercantile pursuits in several points in the county. Subsequently he took 
charge of the Jasper county poor farm for three years, with profit to the 
county and credit to himself. In 1882 lie bought the City Hotel and livery ' 
stable, which he sold in 1882. Colonel Hammer owns a large and elegant 
residence on Maple Street. In 1868 he was married to Miss Tennie Poe, of 
Tennessee. They have three children living and three deceased. 

CHARLES O. HARRINGTON, proprietor of the Harrington House, 
Carthage, Missouri, was born December 14, 1844, in Seneca county, New 
York, and is a descendant of some of the oldest New England families, 
his ancestors on both sides having emigrated to this country over two hun- 
dred years ago. The old Harrington homestead at Brookfield, Massachu- 
setts, has descended according to the old English custom from father to the 
oldest son for many generations. Several of his ancestors fought in defense 
of American independance in'the Revolutionary War, one John Harrington 
being killed at the battle of Lexington. Ransley, the father of Charles, was 
married to Mary Hall, of Charlton, Massachusetts, a cousin of Wm. Marcy, 
Governor of New York from 1832 to 1838, and afterwards Secretary of War 
under President Yan Buren, and Secretary of State under President Pierce. 
His father is still living at Lyons, New York, and is a Methodist clergy- 
man by profession. In May, 1861, Charles was a member of the sopho- 
more class in Genesee College, located at Lima, New York, and enlisted, 
with several of his fellow students, in Company G, Twenty-seventh Regi- 
ment of New York Volunteers. He was a participant in all the important 
battles, from the battle of Bull Run to the second of Fredricksburg. He 
was also detailed as a scout, and experienced many "hair-breadth" escapes. 
He was captured several times, and escaped from Bell Island before being 
exchanged, swimming the James River in a dark and stormy night; once 
scaling the palisade at Salisbury, North Carolina, under fire. In Septem- 
ber, 1869, he was married to Ida A. Britton, at Des Moines, Iowa, and in 
the fall ot 1870 removed with his family to Carthage, Missouri, where he 
has since resided. He has always been an active, enterpnsitig man, for the 
building up of its public enterprises. He was burned out January 16, 1880, 
including four buildings, and in four months 03cupied one of the finest 



346 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

buildings in the city. He built the fine, large hotel at the southeast corner 
of the square, costing some $40,000, known as the Harrington House, and 
one of the finest west of the Mississippi. 

T. B. HA UGH AW OUT, attorney and counselor at law was born iu 
Lafayette county, Wisconsin, in 1846. His father, Joshua, was a native 
of Pennsylvania, as was his mother, whose maiden name was Amelia 
Steese. Having received his education in his native county, he enlisted in 
1863 in Company I of the Second Wisconsin Cavalry, serving until the 
close of the war, having engaged some time in farming, after the close 

• of the war. He was married in 1866 to Caroline A. Dnrand, of Wisconsin, 
who was a native of (>hio. They have four children, one son and three 
daughters. In the spring of 1868 he came to Jasper county, Missouri, and 
improved a farm, where he lived until 1873, when he moved to Carthage, en- 
gaging in the grocer}' trade, and at the same time reading law. In January, 
1875, he was admitted to the bar, and has ever since been eminently suc- 
cessful in the practice of law. Mr. Haughawout has taken active part in 
political affairs, and has supported the principles of the Republican party. 
He has served as city attorney, and in 1880 he was elected prosecuting attor- 
ney of the county, and in 1882 was re-elected to the same office. Mr. 
Haughawout stands among the first of the Jasper county bar, and is widely 
known throughout the county. 

FRANK E, HEDGE, watchmaker, jeweler, and goldsmith, whose busi- 
ness place is located on the south side of the square, was born in 1855 in 
Carroll county, Indiana. His father, George P. Hedge, was a native of 

, Ohio, and his mother, whose maiden name was Mary Dewey, a native of New 
York, and are both residents of Carthage, Missouri, coming with their fam- 
ily in 1868, where the subject of this sketch has since resided, excepting a 
short period in Joplin, Missouri, and in Kansas, In 1869 he began the watch 
trade and jeweler's business in Carthage as an apprentice, opening a shop 
iu 1878, on the south side of the square, his present place of business. Mr. 
Hedo'e carries a large stock of watches, clocks, plated ware, and jewelry in 
general, besides doing an extensive custom trade and repairing. He was 
married in 1876 to Miss Belle Ingle, a native of Tennessee. They have 
two children living and two deceased. Mrs. Hedge is a daughter of Hez- 
ekiah Ingle, one of the oldest settlers of the county. 

CHARLES F. HEDRICK, deputy sheriff of Jasper county, was born 
in Grant county, Indiana, September 13, 1842, where he was reared and ed- 
ucated. His father, Charles, was a cooper by trade, and died in 1849, and 
bis mother, Eliza, nee Scott, was born in Pennsylvania and died in Miciiigan, 
January 4, 1878. The subject of this sketch was married June 21, 1863, 



CITV OF CARTHAGE. 347 

to Anna Y. St. John, wlio was born near Metamora, Indiana, May 10, 1841. 
Their four children are Albert O., Gertrude, Maude, and Madge. He is 
a member of the G. A. R. Mr. Hedrick came from Indiana to Carthage in 
1870. He is by trade a harness maker, and has been in trade for himself 
at various times. He enlisted in the Thirty-fourth Indiana Infantry, Com- 
pany F, serving three years and six months, and was a participant in a 
number of engagements. Mr. Iledrick's residence is a story and a lialf 
house on Lincoln Street, north of Mound, and he is serving very acceptably 
as deputy sheriff of Jasper county. 

DAVID S. IIELT, contractor, carpenter, and builder, was born March 
31, 1855, in Franklin county, Illinois, and removed with his father's family, 
when a babe, to Washington county, Pennsylvania. His father, John, was 
a farmer, who died in Illinois in 1855. Married March 9, 1879, to Mary 
Speer, who was born in Indiana in 1857. The children are Eva O. and 
Herbert R., who died June 5, 1881. Both Mr. and Mrs. Helt are mem- 
bers of the Christian Church, and he is a member of the Knights of 
Pythias. In 1877 Mr. Holt came to Carthage, and now resides immediately 
south of the M. E. Church (South) in a neat two-story frame house on How- 
ard Avenue. His place of business is just north of the Harrington Hotel. 
He and his partner, under the firm name of Powell & Helt, have built some 
of the finest public buildings in Carthage, as well as many private resi- 
dences. He built the residence of Mr. Gregory, Congregational parsonage, 
Mr. Warden's new residence, Mr. John Wilson's farm-house, and C. M. 
Etters's fine country residence, besides some of the best country church 
buildings. Mr. Helt is a man of intelligence and commendable pride; he 
can say what all carpenters, so-called, are unable to, and that is that he 
served a four years apprenticeship with Powell, Gregg & Co. in Little Cali- 
fornia on the Monongahela River, Pennsylvania, thereby becoming thor- 
oughly acquainted with the elements and principles of first class car- 
pentering. 

THOMAS HENLEY, fashionable tailor and manufacturer of fashiona- 
ble dress goods, is located on Tliird Street between Howard and Grant. Mr. 
Henley was born in M^yo county, Ireland, November 1, 1852, and re- 
mained there until he was twenty-one years old. His father, Martin, was a 
■farmer in Ireland, and died in 1881. Thomas Henley came to America in 
1873, and settled in Carthage. He was married in January, 1880, to Mary 
Wade, who was born in Chicago, Illinois, April 19, 1858. They have one 
child, whose name is Maggie. Both are members of the Catholic Church, 
and he is a member of the Knights of Pythias. In 1876 he began business 
for himself, and is now the next oldest tailor in town, and one of the best in 



348 HISTORY or jasper county. 

the Southwest, enjoying a prosperous business. His residence is located on 
Central Avenue, where he owns a line two-story brick house. 

DR. GEORGE R. HILL, physician and surgeon, was born in 1841 in 
Madison county, Missouri. His father, John, was a native of Cumberland 
county, England, who came to America in 1829, and settled in Madison 
county, Missouri. His mother's maiden name was Jane Robinson, also a 
native of England. Dr. George R. Hill was reared and educated in Madison 
county, Missouri, and studied medicine under Dr. J. C. Griffith, of Fred- 
ericktown, Missouri. He attended lectures at the St. Louis Medical Col- 
lege. He was in the Confederate army from 1861 until 1864 as a si)ldier. 
At the battle of Potosi, Missouri, he was wounded and taken prisoner, and 
remained on parole until 1864, when he joined the army again as assistant 
surgeon, and remained until the surrender of Lee, He practiced medicine 
in Madison county until 1872. In 1873 he came to St. Clair county, Mis- 
souri, and in 1876 removed to Carthage, where he has remained in practice. 
Since coming to Jasper county be has served two years as county piiysician. 
He is a member of the medical society and also of the Masonic order. He 
was married in October, 1871, to Miss Maud Belle Sandidge, of Frederick- 
town, a native of Mississippi. They have three children living and two de- 
ceased. Like most of the Hills whom we have had the pleasure of meeting, 
the doctor is of English ancestry, and belongs. to a sturdy and long-lived 
race. 

PETER HILL, dealer in sadd'es, harness, and boot and shoe-findings, 
Carthage, Missouri, was born in 1832 in Franklin county, Virginia. His 
father's given name was Wilson, a native of Virginia, as well as his mother, 
whose maiden name was Nancy Winfrey. The Hill race probably sprang 
from a common stock in England prior to the Revolutionary War, and at 
this day and age scarce!}^ a township can be found in the United States but 
that possesses a Hill. Peter Hill's ancestors are no exception to this gen- 
eral rule. The Hill race, so far as observation and experience extends, rep- 
resents them as a strong, hearty people, full of enterprise and good morals. 
In stature they are stout and of good height. Peter Hill was reared in 
Virginia, and learned the saddlery business in Christiansburg, Virginia, 
where he^afterwards Engaged in general merchandise for some j^ears. In 
1861^he removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he remained about one year, 
after which he went to Peoria, Illinois, where he remained until 1866. He 
came to Jasper county in 1867 and settled in Carthage, and in that year 
purchased a house and lot, where he is now engaged in business. He owns 
the largest harness and saddle shop in Carthage, and has been eminently 
successful by industry, honesty, and fair-dealing, and now carries one of the 



CITV OF CARTHAGE. 349 

largest stocks of harness and leather goods in the country. He served on 
the board of trustees before the city charter, and was the first mayor of Car- 
thage in 1873. Mr. Hill was married in October, 1867, to Miss D C. Hess, 
of Michigan. They have two children, Rilla Y. and Cora C, and one child 
deceased. Mr. Peter Hill is widely known throughout the county, both in 
a business and social way, for geniality and general business conrtes}'. 

THOMAS HILL, dealer in grain, live stock, coal, and manufacturer uf 
lime, senior member of the firm of Hill & Sou, doing business at Sarcoxie, 
Carlton, Jasper, and Carthage, ship annually 200,000 bushels of grain, 40,- 
000 of corn, 100,000 bushels of lime, besides shipping hundreds of cattle 
and hogs, and handling tons of coal. This firm of Hill & Son are among 
the most successful and energetic business men of the Southwest, and has 
been built up by strict and untiring vigilance, guided by keen business fore- 
sight. The Hill stock is of English origin, and although as a family they 
have been careless in preserving geneological records, the scattering rem- 
nants of historical data and the testimony of the now numerous branches of 
the family conspire to show that they all sprang from a common English 
parentage. While their history on the other side of the water cannot be 
traced, there is historic evidence of their settlement in America in the land- 
ing of the Pilgrims as the name of Hill is known to exist among the "101," 
of the Majflower crew. From this time down to the last century the lineal 
lines are diflicult to trace, and given names can be followed only to an Eng- 
lish origin. The grandfather of the subject of this sketch was an English- 
man by birth, whose given name was Thomas, and is thought to have come 
to America during the revolutionary period. His son j^athan is known to 
have settled in Maryland, and is the father of Thomas Hill. He removed 
to Ohio. Thomas Hill was born in Miami count}', Ohio, June 20, 1821, 
where he was raised and educated. His mother was Frances Williams, a 
native of Virginia. Thomas Hill was married in 1842 to Mary A. Tetter, 
who was born in Pennsylvania in 1828 of German descent. Their children 
are Davis, Cyntha, William, and Orange Judd. In 1856 he removed to 
Livingstone county, Illinois, engaging in farming and stock-raising. In 
1876 he became a citizen of Jasper county, where he has been actively en- 
gaged ever since in the stock, grain, and coal business with his son Wil- 
liam, who conducts the lime business with Mr. Hubb. Nathan Hill, his 
father, lived on the same farm for sixty years in Ohio, and was the oldest 
settler of the county, and was actively engaged in the French and Indian 
wars. Mr. Thomas Hill is a deacon of the Congregational Church of 
Carthage, Missouri, and Lis wife is also a member and untiring worker, and 



350 . HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

both command the highest esteem and respect as citizens and earnest Chris- 
tian, pliilanthropic people. 

THOMAS B. HOBBS was born in 1849, in Washington conntv, Indi- 
ana. His father, Matthew Hobbs, was a native of Indiana, and also his 
mother, whose maiden name was Mary Green. Thomas B. Hobbs was 
reared and educated in Indiana, and after arriving at the age of manhood 
he engaged in the nursery business, at Canton, Indiana, for some seventeen 
years. He did business under the firm name of O. Albertson & Co., being 
a member of the company. They were known as the Canton Nursery, and 
their place of business comprised a tract of some ninety acres. In 1881 he 
sold out his interest in the nursery business, and in August of the same 
year he cau.e to Cartilage, Missouri, where he is engaged in the grocery 
business, in company with Mr. Pool, two doors south of the soutliwest 
corner of the square. Mr. Hobbs was married January 3, 1878, to Emma 
Albertson, of Canton, Indiana. They have one child, Ethel. Mr. Hobbs is 
a member of the Blue Lodge and Chapter, and a man generally respected. 

H. C. HOLLINGSWORTH, groceries, provisions, and dealer in general 
merchandise, was born in 1839, in Tippecanoe county, Indiana. His father, 
William Hollingsworth, was a native of Ohio, and his mother, whose maiden 
name was T. M. Holeman, was also a native of Ohio. In 1856 the family 
moved to La Salle county, Illinois, where Mr. Hollingsworth engaged in 
clerking, after which he studied medicine and practiced his profession un- 
til he came to Carthage, in 1870, when he engaged in the drug business for 
nine years. In the sprmg of 1882 he sold his drug business, and has since 
been engaged in the grocery and provision trade. Dr. Hollingsworth grad- 
uated from Rush Medical College in 1864. He has served on the school 
board of this city. He M^as married in 1867 to Miss Louisa Manwell, of 
Chittendon county, Vermont. They have four children living. His wife 
is a member of the Presbyterian Church, and he of the A. O. U. W. and 
I. O. O. F. Dr. Hollingsworth is a highly respected citizen. 

HARRISON HUBBART was born January 14, 1841, in Piatt county, 
Illinois. His father, Richard Hubbart, was a native of Maryland, as also 
was his mother, nee Nancy Downs. Harrison Hubbart was raised and edu- 
cated in Illinois. In the summer of 1861 he enlisted in the Federal army, 
in the Second Illinois Cavalry, and served four years and seven nionths. 
He enlisted as a private soldier, but was promoted from time to time until 
he was commissioned first lieutentant of his company. In May, 1866, he 
came to Jasper county, Missouri, where he has since resided. He dealt in 
farming lands for a number of years. Has also been in the mercantile busi- 
ness. In the fall of 1880 he was elected collector of Jasper county, making 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 351 

the largest bond ever given in the county; viz., two hundred and twenty-five 
thousand dollars. Mr. Hubbart has served the citizens of Jasper county 
well, making an obliging and efficient officer. He was married in 1868 to 
Miss B. J. Boyd, who died in October, 1871. They had two children, both 
of whom are dead. He was married the second time in November, 1874, 
to Matilda Frankenberger, of Bloomington, Illinois. They have two chil- 
dren by^this union, Balph M. and Homer G. Mr. Hubbart is a member of 
the I. b. O. F. 

WOODSON B. HUBBARD, dealer in agricultural implements, was born 
in 1839, in Wayne county, Indiana. His father, Joseph, was a native of 
North Carolina, who died in 1881. His mother, who was a Johnson, is now 
a resident of Jasper county, Missouri. The subject of tliis sketch was 
reared and educated in Indiana, and arriving at his majority, engaged in 
school-teaching in Indiana for ten years, and acted for some time as prin- 
cipal of the New London schools. In 1865 Mr. Hubbard went to Kokomo, 
Indiana, and sold goods until 1877, when he came to Carthage, selling im- 
plements for diti'erent firms until 1879, when he opened the house where he 
is now engaged. He was married first in 1862 to Miss Eliza A. Reece, who 
left two sons, she having died in 1867. He was married the second time in 
1870 to Sarah J. Maris. They have two children living. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hubbard are prominent members of the Congregational Church, and he is 
also a member of the Knights of Honor. Mr, Hubbard's place of business 
is located on North Main Street, opposite the Karr House, where he and 
his partner, Mr. Jenkins, are doing a large and prosperous business. Mr. 
Hubbard was raised among that class of people commonly known as Qua- 
kers, who comprise much of the best society of the world. 

JAMES G. IRWIN, deputy sheriff of Jasper county, Missouri, was born 
in Sidney, Ohio, in 1843. His father, John, was a native of Ohio. His 
mother's maiden name was Jane Gamble, who was n native of Xenia, Ohio. 
Mr. Irwin was reared and educated in his native town of Sidne3^ In 1861 
he enlisted in the Union army for three months, and re-enlisted, serving 
three years; afterwards served as a veteran, being mustered out in October, 
1865. He carries in one of his limbs a buckshot which he received in the 
engagement of Chickamauga, though he never lost a single day's duty. 
At the battle of Nashville, in 1864, he won a commission; being a sergeant, 
he led the company through the fight, and the next day was recommended 
for a commission as lieutenant. After the close of the war he took a course 
in a commercial college. Subsequently he engaged in the grocery business 
and as contractor on public works. In 1872 he emigrated to Anderson county, 
Kansas, when he engaged in general merchandise until the fall of 1874, 



352 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

when he came to Carthage, Missouri, where he farmed in the summer sea- 
son and taught during the winter. In December, 1880, he was appointed 
deputy sheriff under R. M. Roberts, and is now serving in that capacity. 
He was tnarried in 1806 to Louie J. Bonner, of Xenia, Ohio, a daugliter of 
Rev. J. R. Bonner. They have one daughter, Hattie M. They are mem- 
bers of the Presbyterian Church. Mr. Irwin has served the public well in 
his official capacity and is generally well known and respected. 

MYR0:N J. JENKINS, of the agricultural firm of Jenkins & Hubbard 
was born in 1838, in Pennsylvania. His father, Joseph, was a native of 
Massachusetts, and also his mother, whose maiden name was Sophronia 
Wetherly. Myron Jenkins was reared and educated in Pennsylvania, where 
he was engaged in farming. In 1872 he came to Carthage, Missouri, and 
engaged in the grocery business on the north side of the square, where he 
continued until October, 1881, when he bought an interest in the agricul- 
tural implement business with W. B. Hubbard. The place of business is 
on north Main Street, where they handle all kinds of farm machinery, reap- 
ers, mowers, etc. They do a large business and have an extensive trade. 
Mr. Jenkins is a member of the order of the A. O. U. W. He was mar- 
ried in 1864 to Emma Wetherell, of Wisconsin. They have one child liv- 
ing, Clyde b}' name. They are highly respected members of society. 

REY. WILLIAM S. KNIGHT, pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Car- 
thage, Missouri, was born in Newcastle, Coshocton county, Ohio, August 17, 
1839, but reared at Millersburg, Ohio. His father, George Knight, who is 
now seventy-three years of age, has been engaged in mercantile pursuits and 
farming, and now resides near Newcastle. His mother's maiden name was 
Keziah J. Boggs, of Belmont county, Ohio, who was born in 1815. The 
subject of this sketch received his education at Millwood, Knox county, 
Ohio, and Martinsburg, where he attended four years; subsequently he en- 
tered the freshman class at Washington College, Pennsylvania, in 1858, 
graduating with the class of 1862, receiving the degrees of A. B. and A. M. 
In 1862 he entered the Western Theological Seminary, located at Alle- 
ghany, Pennsylvania, graduating in 1865. Rev. Mr. Knight was licensed 
to preach by the presbytery of Richland, Ohio, in 1864, and was ordained 
by the presbytery of Schuyler, April 8, 1866, beginning his pastoral work 
with the church at Carthage, Illinois. In 1870 he had charge of the church 
at Augusta, Illinois, until 1875, at which time he removed to Carthage and 
was installed pastor of the church of Carthage, Missouri, in May, 1878, al- 
though he begun his pastorate in 1875. Rev. W. S. Knight was married 
to Miss Anna Mack August 17, 1871. She was born in Carthage, Illinois, 
January 29, 1853, and is the daughter of a prominent lawyer of that city. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 353 

The names of their children are Augusta, George (who died in March, 1878), 
Ella, and David Mack, liev. W. S. Knight became the pastor of the 
Presbyterian Church of Carthage, Missouri, when the church was small and 
weak, and is now the oldest resident pastor in the city. The church is in a 
very prosperous condition, numbering over two hundred members, over 
sixty of them joining since the great revival in 1883. The church has re- 
cently put in a new pipe organ and added other conveniences. Rev. W. S. 
Knight is a good minister and efficient pastor, and he and his wife are 
powers in the community for good and the building up of the cause of 
Christ. 

GEORGE W. KOONTZ, of the grocery firm of Koontz & Porter, was 
born in Fairfield county, Ohio, February 22, 1852, where he was raised until 
he was fifteen ye^s of age. Plis father, Isaac E. Koontz, was a native of 
Ohio, and was at one time judge of the county court. He died in 1880. 
His mothei-'s name was Priscilla Pearse, also a native of Ohio, and now 
lives five miles northeast of Carthage on a farm. Geo. Koontz was married 
December 14, 1875, to Mattie McCoy, who was born in Coshocton county, 
Ohio, June 9, 1858. He came to Jasper county, Missouri, in 1867, and set- 
tled on a farm five miles northeast of Carthao-e. He assisted on the farm 
until 1881, and then came to Carthage and clerked for Spence Bros., and 
later for Bartlett & Co.; he was also engaged in the selling of agricultural 
implements. He and his partner, Mr. Porter, went into business where 
they are now established in 1881. They have a large and increasing busi- 
ness. 

SAMUEL B. LaFORCE, one of the oldest pioneers of Jasper county, 
Missouri, whose ancestry dates back to the colonial times of the country. 
His great-grandfather was from France, and his descendants were partici- 
pants in the Revolutionary War. His grandfather moved from Virginia to 
Tennessee, and died in 1834. His son, Rane, was the father of the subject 
of this sketch and was born in Virginia, in 1782, and was a farmer by occu- 
pation. His wife, Martha McGce, was a native of Kentucky, who was 
born in 1783, and died in Pike county, Missouri, in 1841. Mr. S. B. La- 
Force was reared and educated in Pike county, Missouri, and was married 
April 13, 1837, to Miss Lucy Brown, who was born in Green conntj', lUi- 
nois, in June, 1822, They have but one child, Martha V., now living, five 
having died. Mr. LaForce came to Jasper county, Missouri, in October, 
1843, settling thrte miles northeast of Carthage, and is therefore one of the 
oldest settlers. At that time Booneville was the nearest trading point and 
was reached by ox teams. He entered and bought about 680 acres of land, 
23 



354 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

and was very prosperous in all his ventures. He remembers well the first 
three houses built in Carthage; viz., the residences of Geo. Hornbach and Eli- 
jah Pennington Sr., and the county court-house. He was an active partici- 
pant in the Federal cause, and acted as guide for Colonel Sigel at tlie battle of 
Carthage, July 5, 1861, and later joined the Hundred and Fifty-Second Illi- 
nois Infantry; he also had two sons enlisted in the Federal service. In 1865 
he returned to Jasper county, Missouri, and engaged again in farming, and 
in 1867 he removed to the town of Carthage, where he has since resided. He 
has been an active public character, having little respect for any law not 
based on the national rights of man. In 1846 and 1848 he was elected 
sheriff of Jasper county for two terms, and in 1850 was sent to the Sixteenth 
General Assembly, and in 1866 elected to till the office of clerk of the cir- 
cuit and county courts. He has long since retired from active life, and can 
now look back in retrospect to the early struggles of frontier life, and the 
stirring scenes of war, and feel that he has lived a loyal, useful, and eventful 
life. 

MARTIN LEIDY was born in Columbia county, Pennsylvania, as also 
was his mother, whose maiden name was Lena Girton. The subject of this 
sketch, Martin Leidy, was reared and educated at his home. In 1861 he 
immigrated to Illinois, where he taught school. In 1864 he crossed the 
plains and engaged in the grocery business at Walla Walla, Washington 
Territory, until 1868, when he returned to Pennsylvania and there engaged 
in the grocery business. In 1868 he married Elizabeth Leggott of Colum- 
bia count3% Pennsylvania. They have three children living. He remained 
here in the grocery business until 1874 when he settled in Carthage, Mis- 
souri. Mr. Leidy began the furniture business in 1874 and continued until 
1882. He has been a successful business man and accumulated considerable 
property. He commands the esteem and respect of all with whom he deals 
or has an acquaintance. Mr. Leidy has retired from the furniture business. 
He has invested in real estate in the city and is erecting buildings thereon. 
He has an extensive Italian apiary, and is dealing in apiarian supplies. 

T. T. LUSCOMBE, Carthage, Missouri, settled in Carthage in 1877 and 
bought out and succeeded Mr. M. L. Reid in the dry goods business, at 
which he continued until 1882. Since then he has engaged in the milling 
business, owning and operating what is known as the Eagle Mills. Mr, 
Luscombe has taken an active part in the general public interests of the 
city, among others the magnificent school interest, being president of the 
school board for two years, and at the spring election of 1883 was elected 
without opposition to the honorable position of mayor of the city. He is a 
fair representative of the active and progressive element of the city. 



CITY OF CARTHAGE, 355 

M'CRILLIS BROS., wholesale and retail hardware dealers, southeast 
corner of the square. This house was established in 1869 by Howell & 
Santbrd, afterward Howell & Chaffee. In 1872 the firm name was changed 
to Chaffee & McCrillis, and in 1878 to McCrillis Bros. This is the largest 
hardware house in southwest Missouri, carrying as large a stock as many 
in St. Louis, occupying 20,000 square feet of flooring, and doing a businses 
of $75,000 a year. They handle all kinds of goods usually found in such a 
house, and are doing an immense business. The McCrillis Bros, are live, 
energetic men, meriting justly the liberal patronage they receive. This is 
the only strictly cash house in the city, buying and selling first, last, and 
always for cash. Frank McCrillis, of the firm of McCrillis Bros., was born 
in 1847, in Orleans county, New York, His father, John, was a native of 
New Hampshire. Frank was reared in his native town in the State of New 
York, where his parents still reside. After finishing his education he spent 
some time in teaching. Subsequently he clerked in a hardware store at 
Lockport, New York, with E. S. and J. E. Mack & Co, In 1872 he came 
to Carthage, Missouri, learning the tinner's trade with his brother, and in 
1878 took an interest in the business. His brother, John D. McCrillis, was 
born in October, 1843. As is very natural, being a brother of Frank, he 
was reared, educated, and tauglit as his brother. He came to Carthage in 
1869, clerking with the house until he was admitted as a partner. He was 
married in November, 1881, to Miss Carrie E. Gregory, of Carthage. The 
McCrillis Bros, deserve great commendation for their business success, en- 
ergy, and thrift, and may, with all honor, be ranked as among the first 
business men of the city and the Southwest. 

DANIEL W. M'lNTYRE, proprietor of livery, feed, and sale stable on 
Fifth Street, near Grant, was born in Bourbon county, Kentucky, at the county 
seat, Paris, April 27, 1850. His father, Robert, was a distiller, and now de- 
ceased. His mother, Rachel, nee Haley, who lives in Illinois, was a native of 
Kentucky. Mr. Mclntyre was married in October, 1877, to Nannie White- 
side, who was born in 1855, and is the granddaughter of General White- 
side, of Illinois. Mrs. Mclntire is a member of the Christian Church, and 
he is a member of the Odd Fellows. In 1875 he removed to Macon county, 
Illinois, and engaged in farming. He became a citizen of Carthage March 
25, 1883, and bought out the feed and livery stable formerly operated by 
Richards & Co. Mr, Mclntyre has some of the finest horses and rigs in 
Jasper county, and will always be found accommodating and ready to 
please. 

WILLIAM M'MILLAN, president of the Carthage Foundry, was born 
in 1832, in the month of December, in Washington county, Pennsylvania, 



356 



HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 



His father, John, was a native of Pennsylvania, and his mother, whose 
maiden name was Mary Johnson, was also a native of Pennsylvania, both 
of whom are now deceased. Mr. McMillan was reared and educated in 
Pennsylvania, and brought up on a farm, which was at tlie time of his boy- 
hood in the hands of the third generation. He continued farming on the 
old estate till 1872, when he sold out and came to Carthage, Missouri. He 
remained out of business until 1874, when he bought a third interest in the 
Carthage Foundry, which is one of the leading enterprises of Carthao-e. 
They employ as a rule about twenty-five men. They ship some very heavy 
work for mining purposes to Leadville, Colorado. Mr. McMillan and his 
wife are members of the Presbyterian Church, in good and regular standing, 
and is a prominent worker both in the church and society in general. He 
was married in 1864: to Miss Mary Moore, of Pennsylvania. They have 
four children living. Mr. McMillan is a highly respected Christian gen- 
tleman. 

PROF. D. MATTHEWS. Some one has said, "Give me the care of the 
first ten years of a child's life, and I care not who has the rest," in urging 
the proper early influences in the training and education of our youth. Of 
all men in the community, no one has in his keeping greater destinies, is 
clothed with greater power and responsibility, as well as deserves greater 
respect, than the teacher of the young. Prominent among this class in Jas- 
per county is the subject of this short sketch. Prof. D. Matthews, who was 
born in Morristown, South Wales, Great Britain, February 14, 1850, where 
he was raised until seven years of age, when his father, David, emigrated to 
America. His father was born in Wales in 1816, and also his mother, 
Catharine, nee Evans, who was born in 1817. The subject of this sketch mar- 
ried, June 12, 1869, May Swing, a niece of Rev. David Swing, who was 
born April 8, 1852. They have one child, whose name is Yernon. Prof. 
Matthews received his education at the University of Ohio, located at Ath- 
ens, graduating from the classical course, and receiving both degrees, A. B. 
and A. M., with the class of 1876. Atter graduation he taught one year at 
Ft. Scott, Kansas, and subsequently has been three years principal of the 
the Carthage high-schools, and is now serving his second year very accep- 
tably as superintendent of the city schools. Prof Matthews, although a 
young man, is fully abreast with the advanced methods of the times, and is 
making the teaching profession a life study and work. Both Mr. and Mrs. 
Matthews are efficient members of the Presbyterian Church, and are cul- 
tured people and highly esteemed members of the community. 

ROBERT S. MERWIN, carriage manufacturer, of the firm of Merwin 
& Lanphere, was born in Niagara county. New York, August 1, 1838, 



CITY OF CARTHAOE. 357 

where he wa8 reared and received his education. His father, Samuel R., 
was a tiller of the soil, and born on the Catskill Mountains, in the town 
of Durham, in the year 1802, and died in 1854:. Robert Merwin was mar- 
ried in February, 1869, to Elizabeth Hayne, who was born in December, 
1838, in the same connty in New York. They have two children, Everett 
H. and Lucy May. Both Mr. and Mrs. Merwin are members of the Con- 
gregational Church of Carthage, Missouri, and are among its most active 
and efficient workers. Mr. Merwin had been a member of the Close Com- 
munion Baptists, but upon deep and long reflection demurred at such ex- 
clusive fellowship. In 1866 he immigrated West, settling in Woodson 
county, Kansas, where he dealt in fine-wool sheep. In 1868 he became a 
citizen of Jasper county, Missouri, purchasing a farm in Preston township, 
and later in Sheridan township. Mr. Merwin has always been a great ad- 
mirer, and very successful raiser, of fine-wool sheep, in which he still takes 
great pride, and none the less in blooded stock and fine beef cattle. He 
sold his farm in the fall of 1882 and removed to Carthage, where he is now 
engaged in the manufacture of fine carriages and general jobbing work in 
this line, and is located on West Third Street. In the early history of the 
county Mr. Merwin was actively and laboriously engaged in the adminis- 
tration of public affairs. He was a judge of the county court for two years 
and a half, with judges Purcell and Koontz, and for a long time justice of 
the peace. It has seldom been our fortune to meet a man of such sterling 
worth and in\incible integrity, always for justice to all men, " tho' the heav- 
ens fall," and "with malice toward none." To Judge Merwin is due much 
of the thrift and enterprise, and many of the public institutions and improve- 
ments of Jasper county, and he is one " whose works will follow him." 

JONAS A. MITCHELL, cashier of the Bank of Carthage, was born in 
the State of Maine in 1836. His father, Jonas Mitchell, was a native of 
Massachusetts, who died in 1869. His mother, Myra, ?ig6 Campbell, was a 
native. of New Hampshire and is still living. Jonas A., the subject of this 
sketch, was educated in his native state, after which he farmed for a time, 
and afterwards was in various kinds of business until 1871, when he took 
an interest in a large grocery and liquor house in St. Louis, with which he 
had been connected as salesman since 1864. Here he remained until 1878, 
when he sold out and came to Carthage and bought an interest in the Bank 
of Carthage where he has since remained. This is the oldest bank in the 
city, having been organized in 1868. Since 1879 Mr. Mitchell and his 
partner, G. A. Cassil, have owned the entire bank. As a business man 
Mr. Mitchell is second to no man in Carthage. He enjoys the confidence 
and esteem of the citizens of Jasper county. He was married in 1870 to 



358 HISTOKY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

Miss Mary Rose, of St. Louis. They have two children living: Mamie A , 
George C, and one deceased. 

A. G. MILLESS, house and sign painter, Carthage, Missouri, was born 
in 1825 in the city of Baltimore, Maryland. His father was a native of 
New Jersey, and his mother, whose maiden name was Susan Mathiott, a 
native of Baltimore, Maryland. A. G. Millis was reared in Baltimore, 
where he served an apprenticeship to "ihe painter's trade in ornamental paint- 
ing, after which he came west and worked in several places, finally locating 
in Indianapolis, and engaged in chair-making for a time. Subsequently he 
settled in Des Moines, Iowa, giving his attention and services in a chair 
factory, and painting until 1868, when he came to Carthage, Missouri, 
where he has been constantly engaged in the painting business. He has 
painted most of the large churches and buildings in the city, working from 
six to eight men. Mr. Milless is a member of the I. O. O. F., and in 1847 
joined the Red Men, a lodge unknown in this country. He was married to 
Miss Hannah Lynde, of Dubuque, Iowa. They have seven children living. 
Mr. Milless is one of the best practical workmen of his art, and much of 
the taste and attractiveness of the Queen City is directly attributable to his 
judgment and ability to form contrasts and harmonize the primary colors. 

AARON MILLER, contractor and builder, was born in Northampton 
county, Pennsylvania, July 10, 1837, and there raised and educated. His 
father was a farmer, and died about 1863. His mother's maiden name was 
Lydia Onawalt, who died in 1865. Mr. Miller enlisted from Monroe, Green 
county, Wisconsin, in the Fifth Wisconsin Light Artillery, serving three 
years, and a participant at Murfreesboro, Perryville, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Jonesboro, Atlanta, and below Island No. 10. He was married October 19, 
1865, to Lena Diner, who was born in Germany. Their children are Min- 
nie and Frank H. Both Mr. and Mrs. Miller are members of the Presby- 
terian Church. At fifteen years of age he began for himself at Monroe, 
Wisconsin, serving a four years' apprenticeship with Washington Hill. He 
went to Chicago in 1872, and became a citizen of Carthage in 1875. His 
residence is on Macon Street and Garretson Avenue. He has built some of the 
best store-rooms in town, and gets some of the largest and finest buildings to 
construct. 

DAVID S. MILLER, painter, of the firm of Cox & Miller, was born in 
Frankfort, Kentucky, August 11, 1848. His father, J. D. Miller, was a car- 
penter by trade, and had also been merchandising, and was postmaster of 
Waverly, Lafayette county, Missouri, from 1871 to 1881. His father was 
a native of Kentucky, and his mother, Mildred, tiee Haggerty, was also a na- 
tive of Kentucky. His father removed to Lafayette county, Missouri, when 



CITY OF CARTHAGE. 359 

David was eleven years old. He was married March 5, 1877, to Anna Zook, 
of Frankfort, Kentucky, born in September, 1856. They have one child, 
Mary Miller. Mrs. Miller is a member of the M. E. Church (South), and 
Mr. Miller of the Christian Church. He came to Carthage August 15, 1882, 
where he enjoys a good business in his profession of painter. He learned 
his trade in St. Louis in 1864, Their place of business is on South Main 
Street. 

JOHN W. MILLER, horseshoer, and proprietor of boarding and feed 
stable, was born in the Canton of Berne, Switzerland, October 17, 1844. At 
the age of ten he came to America with his father, whose name was Jacob, 
who was a military instructor in the Swiss array and also had charge of a 
Swiss garrison. Since coming to America, in 1854, his father has farmed in 
New York State, Oneida county, where he is still living on a tine, well im- 
proved farm. John Miller's mother's maiden name was Magdalene Ecker, 
who was also born in Switzerland and is still living in New York. 
The subject of this sketch went to Chicago in 1866, where he worked at his 
trade. Previous to his coming to Carthage he has lived in Cincinnati, Au- 
rora, Ottawa, and Paola, Kansas, for ten years. He came to Carthage in the 
spring of 1877. He was married in the fall of 1869 to Miss Mattie D. Starr, 
who was born in Tioga county, Pennsylvania, November 28, 1857. Mrs. 
Miller is a member of the Presbyterian Church, and Mr. Miller is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic order, Odd Fellows, G. A. R, and Knights of Pythias. 
John Miller enlisted April 23, 1861, in the Fourteenth N. Y. Yolunteers, Com- 
pany F, serving two years and three months. He was captured at Malvern 
Hill and imprisoned at Castle Thunder, Richmond. He was a participant 
in fourteen important actions, among which were Hanover Court House, Me- 
chanicsville. Gain's Mills, Savage Station, White Oak Swamp, Charles City, 
Cross Roads, Malvern Hill, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Culpeper 
Court House, South Mountain, and Martinsburg. He devotes his attention 
exclusively to shoeing horses, using about 6,000 shoes last year, and doing a 
large and growing business. He also owns a line board and feed stable, 
boarding horses of the city and having room for sixty horses, besides com- 
modious yards and sheds for wagons. Mr. Miller is an industrious and en- 
ergetic man and a courteous, obliging gentleman. 

E. J. MONTAGUE, attorney and counselor at law, was born March 
9, 1834, in Scott county, Kentucky. His father, James M. Montague, 
and his mother, whose maiden name was Frances R. Threldkel, were both 
natives of the State of Virginia. Judge Montague was reared in southern 
Illinois and was educated in the Illinois College at Jacksonville. He after- 
wards studied law at Belleville, Illinois, under George Trumbell. In 



360 HISTORY OF JASPER COUNTY. 

March, 1862, Judge Montague was admitted to the bar, and in the year 
1878 was admitted to practice iu the Supreme Court of the United 
States. At the time he was admitted to the practice of law he was editor 
of the St. Louis Evening News, and continued his duties as editor until 
1865, when he removed to St. Joseph, Missouri, and began the practice of 
law, practicing until 1866, when he was elected judge of the court of common 
pleas, serving four years in this capacity. Because of failing health he was 
compelled to resign, and, desiring a change of climate, selected Carthage in 
the spring of 1871, where he has been constantly engaged in the practice of 
his profession. In politics Judge Montague has always been a staunch Re- 
publican, and in the last few years has not engaged so actively in politics or 
the practice of his profession. He is at present largely interested in build- 
ing up the water- works of the neighboring city of Nevada. He was mar- 
ried in Belleville, Illinois, on November 4th, 1860, to Miss Mary E. Ed- 
wards, a native of Marblehead, Massachusetts, who is a lineal descendant of 
the famous divine, Jonathan Edwards. 

JOSEPH L. MOORE, cashier Farmers' and Drovers' Bank. Major 
Moore was born in 1842 in Washington county, Pennsylvania. His parents 
were natives of the same state. His mother is now a resident of Carthage. 
He was reared and educated in his native state. In 1862 he enlisted in Com- 
pany G, One Hundred and Fortieth Pennsylvania Infantry, serving two and a 
half years. At the battle of Gettysburg he was taken prisoner and was confined 
at Belle Island three months. After his release he was commissioned captain, 
afterwards major, serving until the close of the war. In 1867 he came to 
Johnson county, Missouri, where he engaged in farming until 1870 when 
he came to Carthage and engaged in the lumber business until 1875, when 
he was chosen cashier of the Carthage Foundry and Machine Company, 
In 1877 he was chosen cashier of the Farmers and Drovers' Bank of Carth- 
thage, but only